When using a hookah,hookah tobacco is heated to a high temperature in a hookah by using lit coals.This type of tobacco comes in many fruitlike flavors.The hookah's method of filtration filters out partial amounts of tar and nicotine from the tobacco.
The hookah lounge (also called a shisha bar or den, especially in Britain and parts of Canada, or a hookah bar) is an establishment where patrons share shisha (flavored tobacco) from a communal hookah or nargile which is placed at each table.
Hookah lounges are mostly found in college towns and urban areas and are regarded by some as a novel and chic way to socialize and embrace multiculturalism. Some people of Middle Eastern or South Asian extraction consider them a continuation of their own cultural traditions.
Often, hookah lounges are owned and operated by people from the Arab world, origin and or other regions where use of the hookah is a centuries-old tradition. Some offer Middle Eastern cuisine menu items. Almost all offer what most Westerners call Turkish coffee. Many hookah lounges incorporate such elements as Islamic decor and Arabic music or Indian music.
An elderly patron of an establishment in Turkey describes the advantages of the hookah lounge as follows:
"The important thing is not what you put in the pipe, but who is with you while you're smoking...it's a complete experience...in a cafe like this one, you find the good people, the old people, the interesting people. As long as there is a need for company and friendship, as long as people want to stop and think, there will be nargile cafes."
Typically a disposable mouthpiece is provided for each user for hygiene reasons. Hookah lounges do not typically have liquor licenses but instead derive the bulk of their revenue from sales of coffee, tea, soft drinks and snack foods, especially snack foods.
Some hookah lounges have well-equipped kitchens and are more akin to bistros. In the broadest sense, any restaurant or nightclub can be considered a hookah lounge if it offers patrons hookahs, shisha and a comfortable place to smoke.
Due to several state anti-tobacco laws, many Hookah Bars have made the transition from smoking traditional shisha to smoking herbal shisha because it contains no tobacco, or nicotine and is legal indoors in areas specific to the prohibition of tobacco smoking. Herbs do produce tar when they burn.
The Hookah in its first and simplest form originated in India. It soon traveled west to Iran, Turkey, and Egypt where it gained mass popularity and are now the sites of some of the best quality hookahs in the world. The hookah lounge has clear antecedents in the tradition of coffee houses in the Middle East and Turkey where people smoke tobacco from hookahs or other styles of water pipe provided by the establishment. In this traditional setting the hookah is typically of the single-hose variety. This is in contrast with the multi-hose variety favored in the hookah lounge and intended to emphasize the communal nature of the activity.
In the United States, establishments akin to hookah lounges first opened decades ago in the immigrant quarters of New York City and Los Angeles, California. Patrons were typically men of Middle Eastern descent.
Many hookah lounges in the United States have chic or modernistic elements such as glass tables, plasma televisions, and oxygen bars. Most bars in the U.S. require patrons to be at least 18 years of age to smoke shisha and 18 years of age to purchase (exceptions are Utah, Arizona, Alabama, and New Jersey), however the laws in some other states require the patron to only be 18 years of age to purchase or possess tobacco, which in a hookah bar, the patron is doing none of these, therefore one is likely to find under age teenagers in many hookah bars in the United States.
One purveyor of hookahs and shisha claims:
"It's at its largest demand ever in this country...I don't think it's going away anytime soon. There's so much more room for the product to expand. Only a small percentage of Americans know about it."
Over the recent years hookah in general has become increasingly popular for the young-adults; those who are just at the legal age to smoke in their state. It is not uncommon now to find hookah bars within short distance of college campuses and in the surrounding towns. This younger generation has revitalized the hookah market, hookah bars are successful and remaining open despite indoor smoking bans. For private hookah smokers, many Middle Eastern and Mediterranean markets now offer hookah products for sale.
Many municipalities, especially in North America, Europe, and Pakistan, have enacted smoking bans in public places. Sometimes, however, businesses can obtain special permits allowing smoking within; these permits are typically available only for hookah lounges, cigar bars, tobacconists, and similar establishments where smoking is the focus of activity. They are less frequently available for places in which alcohol or food is served.
In some cases, the ban is against tobacco smoking specifically. When this is the case, a hookah lounge may remain in business by replacing traditional, tobacco-based shisha with a tobacco-free Mu‘assel.
A hookah' (hukkā or huqqah),('هوكة) , also known as a waterpipe, narghile, arghila, or qalyān, or Shisha (which refers specifically to Egyptian hookahs) is a single- or multi-stemmed instrument for vaporizing and smoking flavored tobacco called shisha in which the vapor or smoke is passed through a water basin (often glass-based) before inhalation. Depending on the placement of the coal above the shisha, a hookah can be used to produce smoke by burning the shisha or used to create water vapor by melting it at a lower temperature. When a waterpipe is used to produce smoke (as is common in the Arab States of the Persian Gulf), it is usually referred to as a hookah, which means "jar" in Arabic. When the same device is used to vaporize shisha (as is common in India and the Levant), it is usually referred to as a nargile, which means "gourd" in Sanskrit. The vapor from a nargile looks similar enough to the smoke from a hookah as to cause both users and medical professionals to often confuse the two. The origin of the waterpipe is around the area which includes India, and Persia, or at a transition point between the two. The word hookah is a derivative of "huqqa", which is what the Arabs called it. According to author Cyril Elgood (pp. 41, 110), who does not mention his source, it was Abul-Fath Gilani (d. 1588), a Persian physician at the Indian court of the Mughal emperor Akbar, who "first passed the smoke of tobacco through a small bowl of water to purify and cool the smoke and thus invented the hubble-bubble or hookah." Nevertheless, a quatrain of Ahli Shirazi (d. 1535) refers to the use of the ḡalyān in Safavid Iran. (Falsafī, II, p. 277; Semsār, 1963, p. 15). Smoking the hookah has gained popularity outside of its native region, in India, Pakistan and the Middle East, and is gaining popularity in North America, South America, Europe, Australia, Southeast Asia, Tanzania and South Africa.
Narjilah or nargileh (Arabic: but sometimes pronounced Argileh or Argilee) is the name most commonly used in Syria, Armenia, Turkey, Italy, Greece, Cyprus, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Israel and Palestine. Nargile derives from the Persian word nārghile, meaning coconut, which in turn is from the Sanskrit word nārikela (), suggesting that early hookahs were hewn from coconut shells. In Albania, the hookah is called "lula" or "lulava".
In Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Republic of Macedonia and Bulgaria, na[r]gile (на[р]гиле; from Persian nargile) is used to refer to the pipe. Šiša (шиша) refers to the tobacco that is smoked in it.][ The pipes there often have one or two mouth pieces. The flavored tobacco, created by marinating cuts of [s placed above the water and covered by pierced foil with hot coals placed on top, and the smoke is drawn through cold water to cool and filter it.
"Narguile", is the common word in Spain used to refer to the pipe, although "cachimba" is also used, along with "shisha" by Moroccan immigrants in Spain.
Sheesha (), from the Persian word shīshe (), meaning glass, is the common term for the hookah in Egypt, Sudan and countries of the Arab Peninsula (including Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, Oman, UAE, Yemen and Saudi Arabia), and in Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia and Somalia.][
In Iran, hookah is called "Qalyān" (Persian:Qalyān). Persian qalyan is included in the earliest European compendium on tobacco, the tobacolgia written by Johan Neander and published in Dutch in 1622. It seems that over time water pipes acquired an Iranian connotation as in eighteenth-century Egypt the most fashionable pipes were called Karim Khan after the Iranian ruler of the day. This is also the name used in Ukraine, Russia and Belarus.][
In Uzbekistan and Afghanistan, a hookah is called chillim.
In India and Pakistan the name most similar to the English hookah is used: huqqa (हुक़्क़ा /حقّہ).
In Maldives, hookah is called "Gudugudaa".
In Philippines, hookah is called "Hitboo" and normally used in smoking flavored marijuana. The hookah pipe is also known as the "Marra pipe" in the UK, especially in the North East, where it is used for recreational purposes.][
The widespread use of the Indian word "hookah" in the English language is a result of the British Raj, the British dominion of India (1858–1947), when large numbers of expatriate Britons first sampled the water pipe. William Hickey, shortly after arriving in Kolkata, India, in 1775, wrote in his Memoirs:
According to Cyril Elgood (PP.41, 110) in India the physician Irfan Shaikh, at the court of the Mughal emperor Akbar I (1542 - 1605 AD) invented the idea. However, a quatrain of Ahlī Shirazi (d. 1535), a Persian poet, refers to the use of the ḡalyān (Falsafī, II, p. 277; Semsār, 1963, p. 15), thus dating its use at least as early as the time of the Shah Ṭahmāsp I. It seems, therefore, that Abu’l-Fath Gilani should be credited with the introduction of the ḡalyān, already in use in Persia, into India.
Following the European introduction of tobacco to Persia and India, Hakim Abu’l-Fath Gilani, who came from Gilan, a province in the north of Iran, migrated to Hamarastan. He later became a physician in the Mughal court and raised health concerns after smoking tobacco became popular among Indian noblemen. He subsequently envisaged a system which allowed smoke to be passed through water in order to be 'purified'. Gilani introduced the ḡalyān after Asad Beg, the ambassador of Bijapur, encouraged Akbar I to take up smoking. Following popularity among noblemen, this new device for smoking soon became a status symbol for the Indian aristocracy and gentry.
In the Middle East and Arab world, people smoke waterpipe as part of their culture and traditions. Social smoking is done with a single or double hose hookah, and sometimes even triple or quadruple hose hookahs in the forms of parties or small get-togethers are used. When the smoker is finished, either the hose is placed back on the table signifying that it is available, or it is handed from one user to the next, folded back on itself so that the mouthpiece is not pointing at the recipient. Local names of waterpipe in the middle east are, ghalyan or ḡalyān, shisha, argila, nargile, nafas, ḥoqqa, čelam/čelīm)
Most cafés in the Middle East offer shishas. Cafés are widespread and are amongst the chief social gathering places in the Arab world (akin to public houses in Britain). Some expatriate residents arriving in the Middle East adopt shisha cafés to make up for the lack of pubs in the region, especially where prohibition is in place.][
The exact date of the first use of ḡalyān in Persia is not known. According to Cyril Elgood (pp. 41, 110), who does not mention his source, it was Abul-Fatḥ Gilani (d. 1588), a Persian physician at the court of the Mughal emperor Akbar I, who "first passed the smoke of tobacco through a small bowl of water to purify and cool the smoke and thus invented the hubble-bubble or hookah." However, a quatrain of Ahli Shirazi (d. 1535) refers to the use of the ḡalyān (Falsafī, II, p. 277; Semsār, 1963, p. 15), thus dating its use at least as early as the time of Tahmasp I (1524–76). It seems, therefore, that Abul-Fath Gilani should be credited with the introduction of the ḡalyān, already in use in Persia, to India.
Although the Safavid Shah ʿAbbās I strongly condemned tobacco use, towards the end of his reign smoking ḡalyān and čopoq (q.v.) had become common on every level of the society, women included. In schools, both teachers and students had ḡalyāns while lessons continued (Falsafī, II, pp. 278–80). Shah Safi of Persia (r. 1629-42) declared a complete ban on tobacco, but the income received from its use persuaded him to soon revoke the ban. The use of ḡalyāns became so widespread that a group of poor people became professional tinkers of crystal water pipes. During the time of Abbas II of Persia (r. 1642-1666), use of the water pipe had become a national addiction (Chardin, tr., II, p. 899). The shah (king) had his own private ḡalyān servants. Evidently the position of water pipe tender (ḡalyāndār) dates from this time. Also at this time, reservoirs were made of glass, pottery, or a type of gourd. Because of the unsatisfactory quality of indigenous glass, glass reservoirs were sometimes imported from Venice (Chardin, tr., II, p. 892). In the time of Suleiman I of Persia (r. 1694-1722), ḡalyāns became more elaborately embellished as their use increased. The wealthy owned gold and silver pipes. The masses spent more on ḡalyāns than they did on the necessities of life (Tavernier apud Semsār, 1963, p. 16).
An emissary of Sultan Husayn (r.1722-32) to the court of Louis XV of France, on his way to the royal audience at Versailles, had in his retinue an officer holding his ḡalyān, which he used while his carriage was in motion (Herbette, tr. p. 7; Kasrawī, pp. 211–12; Semsār, 1963, pp. 18–19). We have no record indicating the use of ḡalyān at the court of Nader Shah, although its use seems to have continued uninterrupted. There are portraits of Karim Khan of the Zand dynasty of Iran and Fat′h-Ali Shah Qajar which depict them smoking the ḡalyān. Iranians had a special tobacco called Khansar (خانسار, presumably name of the origin city, Khvansar). The charcoals would be put on the Khansar without foil. Khansar has less smoke than the normal tobacco.][
Saudi Arabia is in the process of implementing general smoking bans in public places and government offices. This includes shishas. Additionally, the city of Riyadh has banned shisha cafes within city limits.
In Syria, shisha is widely used, usually called "argila"; it is available on almost every corner. It has become part of Syria's everyday culture. It is normal to see a female smoking shisha in Syria. It is a very sociable activity, often involving games as well as smoking.][
Nargile became part of Turkish culture from the 17th century. Back then, it became prominent in society and was used as a status symbol. Nargile was such an important Turkish custom that it even sparked a diplomatic crisis between France and the Ottoman Empire. Western Turkey is noted for its traditional pottery production where potters make earthenware objects, including nargile bowls.
The nargile drastically declined in popularity in the 20th century with the advent of cigarettes. Turkey has now banned smoking nargile, or hookah, in public places such as cafes, restaurants and bars .
Although it has been traditionally prevalent in rural areas for generations, smoking hookahs has become very popular in the cosmopolitan cities of Pakistan. One can see many cafés in Pakistan offering hookah smoking to its guests. Even lots of households have hookahs for smoking or decoration purposes.
In Punjab, Pakhtunkhwa, and in northern Balochistan, the topmost part on which coals are placed is called chillum.
In big cities like Karachi and Lahore, cafes and restaurants offers Hookah and charged on per hours.
The concept of hookah is thought to have originated In India, once the province of the wealthy, it was tremendously popular especially during Mughal rule. The hookah has since become less popular; however, it is once again garnering the attention of the masses, and cafés and restaurants that offer it as a consumable are popular. The use of hookahs from ancient times in India was not only a custom, but a matter of prestige. Rich and landed classes would smoke hookahs.
Tobacco is smoked in hookahs in many villages as per traditional customs. Smoking tobacco-molasses is now becoming popular amongst the youth in India. There are several chain clubs, bars and coffee shops in India offering a wider variety of mu‘assels, including non-tobacco versions. Hookah was recently banned in Bangalore. However, it can be bought or rented for personal usage or organized parties.
Koyilandy, a small fishing town on the west coast of India, once made and exported hookahs extensively. These are known as Malabar Hookhas or Koyilandy Hookahs. Today these intricate hookahs are difficult to find outside of Koyilandy and are becoming difficult even to find in Koyilandy itself.
As hookah makes resurgence in India, there have been numerous raids and bans recently on hookah smoking, especially in Gujarat.
Hookahs (हुक़्क़ा), especially wooden ones, are popular in Nepal. Use of hookahs is considered to symbolize elite family throughout history.][ These days hookahs are also getting popular among younger people and tourists. The main tourists places like Kathmandu, Pokhara and Dharan are famous for Hookah Bars. You can smoke hookahs at the rate of 175 Rs Minimum
The hookah has been a traditional smoking instrument in Bangladesh, as it has been in India.][ However, flavored shisha was introduced in the early 2000s.][ Hookah lounges spread quite quickly between 2008–2011 and became very popular among young people as well as middle-aged people as a relaxation method.][ There have been allegations of a government crack-down on hookah bars to prevent illicit drug usage.][
In Southeast Asia, the hookah, where it is predominantly called shisha, was particularly used within the Arab and Indian communities.][
Hookah was virtually unknown in Southeast Asia before the latter 20th century, yet the popularity among contemporary younger people is now vastly growing.][ Southeast Asia's most cosmopolitan cities, Makati, Bangkok, Phnom Penh, Siem Reap, Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, now have various bars and clubs that offer hookahs to patrons.][
Although hookah use has been common for hundreds of years and enjoyed by people of all ages, it has just begun to become a youth-oriented pastime in Asia in recent times.][ Hookahs are most popular with college students, and young adults, who may be underage and thus unable to purchase cigarettes.
In South Africa, hookah, colloquially known as a hubbly bubbly or an okka pipe, is popular amongst the Cape Malay and Indian populations, wherein it is smoked as a social pastime. However, hookah is seeing increasing popularity with white South Africans, especially the youth.][ Bars that additionally provide hookahs are becoming more prominent, although smoking is normally done at home or in public spaces such as beaches and picnic sites.][
In South Africa, the terminology of the various hookah components also differ from other countries. The clay "head/bowl" is known as a "clay pot". The hoses are called "pipes" and the air release valve is known as a "clutch".][
The windscreen (which is considered optional and not used by most people][) is known as an "As-jas", which directly translates from Afrikaans to English as an "ash-jacket". Also, making/preparing the "clay pot" is commonly referred to as "racking the hubbly".][
Some scientists point to the marijuana pipe as an African origin of hookah.
During the 1960s and 1970s, hookahs were a popular tool for the consumption of various derivations of tobacco, among other things. At parties or small gatherings the hookah hose was passed around with users partaking as they saw fit. Typically, though, open flames were used instead of burning coals.
Recently, certain cities, counties, and states have implemented indoor smoking bans. In some jurisdictions, hookah businesses can be exempted from the policies through special permits. Some permits, however, have requirements such as the business earning a certain minimum percentage of their revenue from alcohol or tobacco.
In cities with indoor smoking bans, hookah bars have been forced to close or switch to tobacco-free mixtures. In many cities though, hookah lounges have been growing in popularity. From the year 2000 to 2004, over 200 new hookah cafés opened for business, most of them targeted at young adults and located near college campuses or cities with large Middle-Eastern communities. This activity continues to gain popularity within the post-secondary student demographic. According to a 2011 study, 40.3 percent of college and university students surveyed had smoked tobacco from a hookah.
Excluding grommets, a hookah consists of a number of components, four of which are essential for its operation.
Also known as the head of the hookah, the bowl is a container, usually made out of clay or marble, that holds the coal and tobacco during the smoking session. The bowl is loaded with tobacco then covered in a small piece of perforated aluminum foil or screen typically glass or metal. Lit coals are then placed on top, which allows the tobacco to heat to the proper temperature.
There is also a variation of the head which employs a fruit rather than the traditional clay bowl. The fruit is hollowed out and perforated in order to achieve the same shape and system a clay bowl has, then it is loaded and used in the same manner.
Bowls have evolved in recent years to incorporate new designs that keep juices in the tobacco from running down the stem. The Tangiers Phunnel Bowl and Sahara Smoke Vortex Bowl are two examples of such bowls.
A Hookah Cover windscreen is a cover which sits over the bowl area, with some form of air holes. This prevents wind from increasing the burn rate and temperature of the coal, and prevents ash and burning embers from being blown onto the surrounding environment. This may also offer some limited protection from fire as it may prevent the coal from being ejected if the hookah is bumped.
Technically if the pipe has a hose it is not "hookah"—the term historically referred to a straight-neck tube][. Today the hose (one or more) is a slender flexible tube that allows the smoke to be drawn for a distance, cooling down before inhalation. The end is typically fitted with a metal, wooden, or plastic mouthpiece of different shapes, size, color or material type. According to J.S. Gamble in A Manual of Indian Timbers in 1902 (Page 668), the bark of the white Himalayan birch Betula utilis ssp. jacquemontii was used to make early hookah tubes.
Many hookah are equipped with a purge valve connected to the airspace in the water jar to purge stale smoke which has been sitting unused in the jar for too long. This one-way valve is typically a simple ball bearing sitting over a port which seals the port by gravity alone and will open if positive pressure is created by blowing into the hose. The bearing will be held captive with a screw-on cover. The cover should be opened and the bearing and seat cleaned of residue and corrosion regularly to ensure proper sealing.
The body of the hookah sits on top of the water jar, or sometimes referred to as vase, or base. The downstem hangs down below the level of the water in the jar. Smoke passes through the body and out the downstem where it bubbles through the water. This cools and humidifies the smoke. Liquids such as fruit juice may be added to the water or used in substitution. Pieces of fruit, mint leaves, and crushed ice may be added.
A plate or ashtray sits just below the bowl to catch ashes falling off the coals.
Grommets in a hookah are usually placed between the bowl and the body, the body's gasket and the water jar and between the body and the hose. The grommets, although not essential (the use of paper or tape has become common), will help to seal the joints between the parts, therefore decreasing the amount of air coming in and maximizing the smoke breathed in.
A piece attached to the bottom of the stem, usually made of plastic and in a grid pattern, to make a smoother smoke and a subdued noise. By breaking the naturally larger bubbles coming up the water from the pipe into smaller bubbles, it lowers the amount of suction or "pull" needed to continue bringing smoke to the chamber. This also cools the smoke down more efficiently. It is used as a luxury item for a premium smoking experience and is not a required component.
Tobacco or Mu‘assel (Arabic: معسل which means "honeyed"), is a syrupy tobacco mix with molasses and vegetable glycerol as moisturizer and specific flavors added to it. Typical flavors of mu‘assel include apple, grape, guava, lemon, mint, as well as many other fruit based mixes. Non tobacco based mu'assel is also available in certain areas where tobacco smoking is not allowed.
Charcoal is the source of energy to produce heat that will be transferred to the tobacco inside the bowl. Since the glycerol is used to moisturize the tobacco, then to produce smoke, the charcoal should be able to generate heat above the boiling point of glycerol that is 290 °C. Therefore, charcoal for hookah smoking must be hard, high density, easy to ignite, and burn longer with persistent heat.
The jar at the bottom of the hookah is filled with water sufficient to submerge a few centimeters of the body tube, which is sealed tightly to it. Deeper water will only increase the inhalation force needed to use it. Tobacco is placed inside the bowl at the top of the hookah. Often the bowl is covered with perforated tin foil or a metal screen and coal placed on top. The foil or screen separates the coal and the tobacco, which minimizes inhalation of coal ash with the smoke and reduces the temperature the tobacco is exposed to, in order to prevent burning the tobacco directly.
When one inhales through the hose, air is pulled through the charcoal and into the bowl holding the tobacco. The hot air, heated by the charcoal vaporizes (not burns) the tobacco, thus producing smoke, which is passed down through the body tube that extends into the water in the jar. It bubbles up through the water, losing heat, and fills the top part of the jar, to which the hose is attached. When a smoker inhales from the hose, smoke passes into the lungs, and the change in pressure in the jar pulls more air through the charcoal, continuing the process.
If the hookah has been lit and smoked but has not been inhaled for an extended period, the smoke inside the water jar may be regarded as "stale" and undesirable. Stale smoke may be exhausted through the purge valve, if present. This one-way valve is opened by the positive pressure created from gently blowing into the hose. It will not function on a multiple-hose hookah unless all other hoses are plugged. Sometimes one-way valves are put in the hose sockets to avoid the need to manually plug hoses.
A 2005 WHO report states that smoking using a waterpipe poses a serious potential health hazard and is not a safe alternative to cigarette smoking. The average hookah session typically lasts more than 40 minutes, and consists of 50 to 200 inhalations that each range from 0.15 to 0.50 liters of smoke. In an hour-long smoking session of hookah, users consume about 100 to 200 times the volume of smoke of a cigarette. The chemical compositions of cigarette smoke and hookah smoke are different, however, as the workings of the charcoal in the modern hookah causes the tobacco mixture to be heated to a lower temperature, as opposed to the higher temperature in a cigarette where the tobacco is directly burnt. Consequently, the potential health effects of hookah smoke are expected to be very different.
Despite a different chemical composition of the smoke, it is expected that heavy and long term use still has the potential to lead to diseases generally induced by tobacco, notably chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Mixtures with lighter concentrations or tobacco-free alternatives (e.g. tobamel, tea-leaf, molasses and glycerin-soaked stones) are widely available and aim to reduce the negative effects of tobacco.
A 2008 aetiological study on hookah smoking and cancer led by a group of Pakistani researchers found that overall serum CEA levels (as a biological marker for cancer) in exclusive hookah smokers, who had been using weight equivalents of up to 60 cigarettes of tobacco in daily sessions for decades, were higher than in non-smokers but substantially lower than those recorded in cigarette smokers considering the same amount of tobacco. The study also concluded that heavy and non-moderate hookah smoking (2–4 daily preparations; 3–8 sessions a day; 2 to 6 hours net daily smoking time) substantially raises CEA levels.
Kretek are cigarettes made with a blend of tobacco, cloves and other flavors. The word "kretek" itself is an onomatopoetic term for the crackling sound of burning cloves. Haji Jamhari, a resident of Kudus, Java, created kreteks in the early 1880s as a means to deliver the eugenol of cloves to the lungs, as it was thought to help asthma. Jamhari believed the eugenol cured his chest pains and he started to market his invention to the village, but he died of lung cancer before he could mass market it. M. Nitisemito took his place and began to commercialize the new cigarettes. Today, kretek manufacturers directly employ over 180,000 people in Indonesia and an additional 10 million indirectly.
Partly due to favorable taxation compared to "white" cigarettes, kreteks are by far the most widely-smoked form of cigarettes in Indonesia, where about 90% of smokers usually smoke kreteks. In Indonesia, there are hundreds of kretek manufacturers, including small local makers and major brands. Most of the widely-known international brands, including Dji Sam Soe 234, Bentoel, Minak Djinggo, Djarum, Gudang Garam, and Wismilak originate from Indonesia. Nat Sherman of the United States produces cigarettes branded as "A Touch of Clove" but they are not true kreteks since there is clove flavoring infused into small crystals located inside the filter, rather than actual clove spice mixed with the tobacco.
The origin of kretek cigarettes can be traced to the late 19th century. The creator of kretek was Haji Jamhari, a native of the town of Kudus in Indonesia's Central Java region. Suffering from chest pains, Jamhari attempted to reduce the pain by rubbing clove oil on his chest. Jamhari sought a means of achieving a deeper relief and smoked his hand-rolled cigarettes after adding dried clove buds and rubber tree sap. According to the story, his asthma and chest pains vanished immediately. Word of Jamhari’s product spread rapidly among his neighbors, and the product soon became available in pharmacies as rokok cengkeh – clove cigarettes. First marketed as a medicinal product, kreteks became widely popular.
In those years, the locals used to hand-roll kreteks to sell on order without any specific brand, packing, or limits on ingredients used in production. A resident of Kudus named Nitisemito had the idea of starting serial production and selling kreteks under a proprietary brand name. Unlike other manufacturers, Nitisemito, who first created the Bal Tiga brand in 1906, enjoyed great success by implementing unprecedented marketing techniques, such as using embossed packs or offering free-of-charge promotional materials. Commercial manufacture did not start in earnest until the 1930s.
Furthermore, he also developed a means of production system called the abon system and which offered opportunities for other entrepreneurs without enough capital. In this system, a person called as "abon" assumes the job of delivering finished products to the company which pays the price of piecework done whereas the company is liable to supply the necessary production materials to the "abons". However, most manufacturers have since opted to have their workers working under the roof of their own factories, to maintain quality standards. Nowadays, only a few kretek manufacturers make use of the abon system.
During the period from 1960 until 1970, kreteks became a national symbol against "white cigarettes". In mid 1980’s, the number of machine-produced cigarettes exceeded that of hand-rolled ones. One of the largest income sources of Indonesia, the kretek industry comprises 500 large and small manufacturers employing a total of around 10 million people.
Since 2009, kreteks are not legal for sale in the United States. However a variation of the kretek is being sold: "cigars" that are similar in size and shape to the original kreteks, also with a filter and the original tobacco/clove blend, but in a tobacco-based paper.
The quality and variety of tobacco play an important role in kretek production. One kretek brand can contain more than 30 types of tobacco. Minced dried clove buds weighing about 1/3 of the tobacco blend are added. Sometimes, the last process which machine-made or hand-rolled kreteks go through is the spraying of sweetener at the butt end of the cigarette.
Djarum Black cigarettes sold in Europe, South Africa and South American countries have 10–12 mg tar and 1 mg nicotine, as indicated on the pack. This level of tar and nicotine is comparable to the majority of other regular or "full-flavor" cigarettes available. However, Djarum Black cigarettes produced for consumption in Indonesia contain a significantly higher quantity of tar and nicotine, 25 mg and 1.6 mg respectively. In Canada, Djarum Black cigarettes are listed as containing 44.2–86 mg of tar and 1.73–3.24 mg of nicotine, a significant amount more than most other cigarettes.
The venous plasma nicotine and carbon monoxide levels from 10 smokers were tested after smoking kreteks and were found to be similar to non-clove brands of cigarettes, such as Marlboro.
Rats were given equal inhalation doses of conventional tobacco cigarettes and kreteks over a short period. Those that had inhaled kreteks did not appear to show worse health effects compared to those that had inhaled conventional cigarettes. The study was repeated with a 14-day exposure and kreteks again did not produce worse health effects than conventional cigarettes.
The eugenol in clove smoke causes a numbing of the throat which can diminish the gag reflex in users, leading researchers to recommend caution for individuals with respiratory infections. There have also been a few cases of aspiration pneumonia in individuals with normal respiratory tracts possibly because of the diminished gag reflex.
In the United States, cigarettes were the subject of legal restrictions and political debate, including a proposed 2009 US Senate bill that would have prohibited cigarettes from having a "characterizing flavor" of certain ingredients other than tobacco and menthol.
A study by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control found kreteks account for a relatively small percentage of underage smoking, and their use was declining among high school students. Critics of the bill argued that support of the bill by the large U.S. tobacco maker Philip Morris, which makes only conventional and menthol cigarettes, indicated that the bill was an attempt to protect the company from competition.
Some U.S. states, including Utah, New Mexico, and Maryland, passed laws that prohibit the sale of kreteks. On 14 March 2005, Philip Morris International announced the purchase of Indonesian tobacco company PT HM Sampoerna after acquiring a 40% stake in Sampoerna from a number of Sampoerna’s principal shareholders.
In 2009, the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act was introduced in the US Congress and signed into law by President Barack Obama, giving the FDA significantly more regulatory power over tobacco; one of the provisions in the law includes a ban on the use of flavors in tobacco, other than menthol. The ban includes kreteks. As of September 22, 2009 the clove cigarette was no longer legal to sell or distribute in the US, and cigarettes purchased overseas are subject to seizure by U.S. Customs. There is an exception to this rule when receiving cigarettes as gifts through the USPS and is only allowed if certain guidelines are followed. This rule does not allow for purchase of tobacco products overseas but allows the receipt of gifts from domestic individuals and international individuals. However, Kretek International Inc., importer of the Djarum brand continued to offer the clove / tobacco products as little cigars, which have lower taxes (in some U.S. states) and looser restrictions than cigarettes.
On April 12, 2010 Indonesia filed a formal complaint with the World Trade Organization stating the ban on kreteks in America amounts to discrimination because menthol cigarettes are exempt from the new regulation. Trade Ministry Director General of International Trade Gusmardi Bustami has stated that the Indonesian government has asked the WTO panel to review US violations on trade regulations, including the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) 1994, Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) and Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Agreement. The TBT Agreement is of special importance as it defines clove cigarettes and menthol cigarettes as "like products". Claims of discrimination are enhanced when noting that 99% of kreteks were imported from countries other than the United States (chiefly Indonesia), while menthol cigarettes are produced almost entirely by American tobacco manufacturers. Indonesia's case is further strengthened by comparing the number of young kretek smokers in America with the number of young menthol cigarette smokers. According to US health reports, 43% of young smokers smoke menthol cigarettes, which accounts for nearly 25% of the total cigarette consumption in the United States. Young smokers habituated to Kreteks, however, account for less than 1% of cigarette consumption in the US, and <1% of the total cigarettes sold in the US. On April 4, 2012 the WTO ruled in favor of Indonesia's claim, though it is unclear how this will affect U.S. law.
Next to the United States of America kretek cigarettes are among others sold in the Netherlands, Germany, France, Australia, Brazil, Vanuatu, etc. In Europe only smaller packs and thinner cigarettes are sold to adhere to the EU established maximum amount of nicotine and tar levels. In South Africa they are also sold in smaller packs of 10 (5 cigarettes wide, 2 cigarettes deep) with between 10–12 mg tar, and 1-1.2 mg nicotine.
Indonesia as the world's largest producer of clove cigarettes, exports up to $500 million of the product a year.
The use of tobacco products in Egypt is widespread. It is estimated that approximately twenty percent of the population uses tobacco products daily. Cigarettes are the most common form of tobacco consumption in Egypt, with an estimated twenty billion cigarettes smoked annually in the country. After cigarettes shisha water-pipes are the most common form of tobacco consumption. Many Egyptians though are not fully aware of the health risks of using a water-pipe and many believe it to be less harmful than cigarettes. Recently legislation has passed in Egypt that prohibits smoking in public places and requires special warnings to be placed on tobacco packaging. Smoking is far more common among men than it is among women however the number of women smokers is on the rise. The tobacco industry in Egypt is dominated by the Eastern Tobacco Company, however since the cultivation of tobacco is prohibited in Egypt the manufacturer must rely entirely on imported tobacco. The number of adults smoking tobacco products in Egypt continues to rise, some suggest by as much as four to five percent annually.
Smoking in Egypt is prevalent, as 19 billion cigarettes are smoked annually in the country, making it the largest market in the Arab world. Inside cafes, hookah (shisha) smoking is common. In the past few years, smoking in Egypt has reached an all-time high with an estimated twenty percent, ten million people, regularly using tobacco products. Egypt is ranked as one of the top ten per capita consumers of tobacco by the World Lung Foundation. Of this twenty percent of the population estimated to use tobacco products ninety-five percent were daily smokers. Sixteen percent smoke only cigarettes, 3.3% smoke shisha water-pipes, and 2.6% use smokeless tobacco products.
While consumption of tobacco in adults is in decline or stagnant in many countries, in Egypt the number of adult cigarette smokers is increasing at a rate of four to five percent per year
It is not entirely clear when the use of tobacco first began in Egypt. Tobacco use in the Middle East can be dated back to the sixteenth century, however there is some evidence and some scholars support the argument that tobacco products were used in Egypt as far back as the time of the Pharaohs.
Although Islam has no specific ban on smoking tobacco, several Islamic principles are cited in support of the religion-based banning of tobacco. Depending on the location and community, Islamic authorities have either deemed smoking as Makruh (to be avoided) or Haram (forbidden).
On September 5, 1999, Nasr Farid Wasel, the then Grand Mufti of Egypt, issued a Fatwa (a religious ruling) against tobacco smoking.
In Egypt, the tobacco control law prohibits smoking in the following specified public places: health and educational facilities, governmental venues, sporting and social clubs, and youth centers. Smoking is also prohibited on public transport. Under a separate environmental statute, smoking is restricted to specially designated areas in industrial establishments, tourism related establishments, and electricity production establishments.
While coffee houses and cafes remain one of the most popular ways to smoke in a social setting, attendance at these hookah coffee houses has decreased significantly due to a stricter smoking ban in Syria.
In a survey conducted of Egyptian smokers, overall 97.6% believed that smoking tobacco can cause serious illness. However belief that smoking causes specific illness varied. A significant number of smokers believe that shisha is less harmful than other forms of smoking. Approximately 97.4% believed that smoking shisha causes serious illness such as stroke, heart attack, and lung cancer.
A national survey conducted by the Egyptian Smoking Prevention Research Institute showed that waterpipe smoking was inversely related to educational level, and that most users believed that using a waterpipe is less harmful than cigarettes. The survey also showed that more than 70% of male waterpipe smokers smoked in their homes in the presence of their children and wives, calling attention to the unfortunate lack of knowledge regarding indoor environmental tobacco smoke exposure.
Tobacco cultivation is not legal in Egypt, therefore companies who produce tobacco products must rely on imported raw tobacco largely imported from India and China, as well as from Brazil, Italy, Syrian Arab Republic, and the United States of America. Egypt's tobacco industry is dominated by the Eastern Tobacco Company (ETC), the largest cigarette manufacturer in the Middle East. A small but ever increasing amount of Egyptian cigarettes are exported to neighboring countries, mostly to serve Egyptians working abroad.
In Egypt, most forms of tobacco advertising and promotion are banned. The law does not specifically ban tobacco sponsorship, nor does it use the term tobacco sponsorship. However, some forms of tobacco sponsorship may be prohibited under the ban on advertising and promotion. Because the terms “tobacco advertising and promotion” and “tobacco sponsorship” are not defined, it is difficult to determine the exact scope of the ban.
Starting August 1, 2008 cigarette labels in Egypt began requiring images of the effects of smoking: a dying man in an oxygen mask, a coughing child and a limp cigarette symbolizing impotence.The law requires two textual warnings that must be accompanied by a picture (of a heart, lung, or pregnancy) with additional relevant text. The picture and text should be rotated every six months. The warnings must occupy 50 percent of the front and back principal display areas. The law prohibits the use of the terms “light,” “low tar,” and “very low tar” on tobacco product packaging. However, the law does not prohibit the use of other misleading terms, descriptors, figures or other indicia that create an erroneous impression about the health effects of a tobacco product including a requirement that the quantity (figurative yield) of tar and nicotine be displayed on tobacco product packages.The law does not require a qualitative statement on constituents and emissions.
Law No. 52 of 1981 Concerning the Prevention of the Adverse Effects of Tobacco provides the foundation upon which subsequent tobacco legislation rests. This principal law addresses, although briefly, smoke free policies; advertising, promotion and sponsorship; packaging and labeling; and penalties. Law No. 85 of 2002, Law No. 154 of 2007, Decree No. 443 of 2008, and Executive Bylaw of Law No. 52 of 1981 all amend and/or build upon the comprehensive tobacco control legislation contained in Law No. 52 of 1981. Several other laws and decrees supplement Law No. 52 of 1981 and its amending and subsequent legislation. These laws include: Law No. 137 of 1981, a labor law which established the penalties for smoking while at work or at places of work; and Law No. 4 of 1994, an environmental law addressing smoke free policies. In addition, Decree No. 465 of 2007, issued by the Ministry of Health and Population, established the Tobacco Control Administration as an administrative body within the Ministry.
Nearly forty percent of all men in Egypt smoke while the percentage of reported women smokers stays low at less than two percent. Among men manufactured cigarettes were the most popular type of product, preferred by 31.7%, followed by shisha only preferred by 6.2%. On the other hand among women 0.2% preferred manufactured cigarettes while 03% preferred 0.3%. Among daily cigarette smokers, men on average smoke 19.4 cigarettes a day while the figure for women is lower.
An estimated two percent of Egyptian women smoke, however most researchers believe female smoking is greatly underreported due to social taboos that push female smoking into private areas.Such a rate is the lowest reported in countries in the Eastern Mediterranean region  and is lower than for women in other developing countries (range from 2% to 10%). The prevalence of smoking among women in Egypt, as elsewhere in the developing world, is expected to increase in view of the weakening of cultural norms, women’s increased spending power and the tactics of the tobacco company in targeting women as new consumers.
The percentage of the population using any tobacco product increases to around 23% and nearly 26% among the productive age groups 25–44 and 45–64 years, respectively. The prevalence of using any tobacco product among all university graduates is about 16%. The percentage of using any tobacco product among those with no formal education or those with some primary level education was higher at around 21% and nearly 26%, respectively. Among men, the proportion of ever-smokers peaked in the age group 45–54 years and the second highest figure was among the age group 35–44 years. This profile resembles another report from Egypt, where the peak was between 40 and 60 years of age. These two peaks may reflect the circumstances of earlier generations, who established their smoking habit 25 to 34 years ago during the beginning of the smoking epidemic in developing countries when scarce data were available to the public about the harmful consequences of tobacco.
In a survey conducted by the World Health Organization, they found that among every day smokers, 16.6% had quit smoking. Of the people who quit smoking over the past twelve months 41.1% had made an attempt to quit and 17.9% actually proved successful in quitting. Of the current population of smokers 42.8% expressed interest in quitting smoking. Of the 41.1% that tried to quit over the past twelve months, only 2.0% used pharmacotherapy and 4.0% used cessation counseling.
Mu‘assel (Arabic: which means "honeyed"), or shisha, is a syrupy tobacco mix with molasses and vegetable glycerol which is smoked in a hookah.
Shisha (شيشة), from the Persian word shīshe (شیشه), meaning glass, is the common term for the hookah itself in Egypt, Sudan and the Arab countries the Persian Gulf (including Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, Oman, UAE, and Saudi Arabia), and in Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Somalia and Yemen. Initial traces of hookah smoking have been found in the North Western provinces of India in the states of Rajasthan and Gujarat.
Typical flavors of mu‘assel include apple, grape, guava, lemon, mint, as well as many other fruit based mixes. Unusual flavors, including white gummy bear, blueberry muffin, and Powerbull flavor (similar to the flavor of a Red Bull energy drink), have been introduced in recent years.
In the Arab world, people smoke it as part of their culture and traditions. Social smoking is done with a single or double hose, and sometimes even more numerous such as a triple or quadruple hose in the forms of parties or small get-togethers. When the smoker is finished, either the hose is placed back on the table signifying that it is available, or it is handed from one user to the next, folded back on itself so that the mouthpiece is not pointing at the recipient.
Most cafés in the Middle East offer shishas.][ Cafés are widespread and are amongst the chief social gathering places in the Arab world (akin to public houses in Britain).][ Some expatriate residents arriving in the Middle East adopt shisha cafés to make up for the lack of pubs in the region, especially where prohibition is in place.][
In the Levant (Palestine, Syria, Jordan and Lebanon), shisha is widely used (referred to as 'argila'); it is available in almost every corner. It has become part of the culture. People are often seen smoking on the side of the streets, parks, bus stops etc. Cafes are sometimes observed to be fully occupied (mostly of people smoking shisha) even during late hours of the night.][ It is normal to see a female smoking sheesha in the Levant. It is a very sociable activity, often mixing well with a game of Tawla (Backgammon) or cards and tea.
In Iran, the hookah is known as a ḡalyān (Persian: قليان, قالیون, غلیون, also spelled ghalyan, ghalyaan or ghelyoon). It is similar in many ways to the Arabic hookah but has its own unique attributes. An example is the top part of the ghalyoun called 'sar' (Persian: سر=head), where the tobacco is placed, is bigger than the ones seen in Turkey. Also the major part of the hose is flexible and covered with soft silk or cloth while the Turkish make the wooden part as big as the flexible part.][
Each person has his own personal mouthpiece (called an Amjid) (امجید), Amjid is usually made of wood or metal and decorated with valuable or other stones.][ Amjids are only used for their fancy look. However, all the Hookah Bars have plastic mouth-pieces.][
The exact date of the first use of ḡalyān in Persia is not known. According to Cyril Elgood (pp. 41, 110), who does not mention his source, it wasAbu’l-Fatḥ Gīlānī (d. 1588), a Persian physician at the court of the Mughal emperor Akbar I, who "first passed the smoke of tobacco through a small bowl of water to purify and cool the smoke and thus invented the hubble-bubble or hookah." However, a quatrain of Ahlī Šīrāzī (d. 1535) refers to the use of the ḡalyān (Falsafī, II, p. 277; Semsār, 1963, p. 15), thus dating its use at least as early as the time of Ṭahmāsp I (1524–76). It seems, therefore, that Abu’l-Fatḥ Gīlānī should be credited with the introduction of the ḡalyān, already in use in Persia, to India.
Although the Safavid Shah ʿAbbās I strongly condemned tobacco use, towards the end of his reign smoking ḡalyān and čopoq (q.v.) had become common on every level of the society, women included. In schools and learned circles, both teachers and students had ḡalyāns while lessons continued (Falsafī, II, pp. 278–80). Shah Ṣafī (r. 1629-42) declared a complete ban on tobacco, but the income received from its use persuaded him to revoke the ban. The use of ḡalyāns became so widespread that a group of poor people became professional tinkers of crystal water pipes. During the time of Shah ʿAbbās II (r. 1642-1666), use of the water pipe had become a national addiction (Chardin, tr., II, p. 899). The shah had his own private ḡalyān servant. Evidently the position of water pipe tender (ḡalyāndār) dates from this time. Also at this time, reservoirs were made of glass, pottery, or a type of gourd. Because of the unsatisfactory quality of indigenous glass, glass reservoirs were sometimes imported from Venice (Chardin, tr., II, p. 892). In the time of Shah Solaymān (r. 1694-1722), ḡalyāns became more elaborately embellished as their use increased. The wealthy owned gold and silver pipes. The masses spent more on ḡalyāns than they did on the necessities of life (Tavernier apud Semsār, 1963, p. 16). An emissary of Shah Sultan Husayn (r.1722-32) to the court of Louis XV, on his way to the royal audience at Versailles, had in his retinue an officer holding his ḡalyān, which he used while his carriage was in motion (Herbette, tr. p. 7; Kasrawī, pp. 211–12; Semsār, 1963, pp. 18–19). We have no record indicating the use of ḡalyān at the court of Nāder Shah Afšār, although its use seems to have continued uninterrupted. There are portraits of Karīm Khan Zand and Fatḥ-ʿAlī Shah Qājār which depict them smoking the ḡalyān. Iranians had a special tobacco called Khansar (خانسار, presumably name of the origin city). The charcoals would be put on the Khansar without foil. Khansar has less smoke than the normal tobacco.
It is one of the popular entertainment and hangout activities, mostly among youngsters and men in Azerbaijan, especially in Baku.
Although it is traditionally prevalent in rural areas for generations, hookahs have become very popular in the cosmopolitan cities.
The concept of hookah is thought to have originated in India][ once the province of the wealthy, it was tremendously popular especially during Mughal rule. The hookah has since become less popular; however, it is once again garnering the attention of the masses, and cafés and restaurants that offer it as a consumable are popular. The use of hookahs from ancient times in India was not only a custom, but a matter of prestige. Rich and landed classes would smoke hookahs.
Tobacco is smoked in hookahs in many villages as per traditional customs. Smoking a tobacco-molasses shisha is now becoming popular amongst the youth in India. There are several chain clubs, bars and coffee shops in India offering a wider variety of mu‘assels, including non-tobacco versions.Hookah was recently banned in Bangalore. However it can be bought or rented for personal usage or organised parties only.
Koyilandy, a small fishing town on the west coast of India, once made and exported hookahs extensively. These are known as Malabar Hookhas or Koyilandy Hookahs. Today these intricate hookahs are difficult to find outside of Koyilandy and not much easier to find in Koyilandy itself.
As hookah makes a resurgence in India, there have been numerous raids and bans recently on hookah smoking, especially in Gujarat
Hookahs (हुक़्क़ा), especially wooden ones, are popular in Nepal. Hookah usage is considered to symbolize family elitism historically. Today, however, hookahs have become popular among tourists and young people.
Hookah, as the traditional smoking contraption, has been commonly used in Bangladesh since the Mughal ages. But flavored Shisha was introduced to Bangladesh in the early 2000s. Shisha became very popular among the young crowds, and shisha bars and lounges opened up in large numbers to cater to those crowds. However, due to health concerns and unregulated consumption, the government banned shisha in late 2010. Shisha lounges were ordered to shut down. Very few shisha lounges were given permission to continue business, as they mostly served to foreigners.
In the Philippines, the Hookah or Shisha was particularly used within the minority Arab Filipino communities and Indian Filipino, although particularly among indigenous Muslim Filipinos, a historical following of social and cultural trends set in the Middle East led to the Hookah being a rare albeit prestige social-habit of noblemen in important trade cities such as Cotabato or Jolo.
Hookah was virtually unknown by Christian Filipinos before the latter 20th century, yet the popularity among contemporary younger Christians is now vastly growing. In the capital's most cosmopolitan city, Makati; various high-end bars and clubs offer hookahs to patrons.
Although hookah use has been common for hundreds of years and enjoyed by people of all ages, it has just begun to become a youth-oriented pastime in Asia in recent times. Hookahs are most popular with college students and young adults, who may be underage and thus unable to purchase cigarettes.
In South Africa, hookah, colloquially known as a hubbly bubbly, "hub", or an okka pipe, is popular amongst the Cape Malay and Indian populations, wherein it is smoked as a social pastime. However, hookah is seeing increasing popularity with white South Africans, especially the youth. Bars that additionally provide hookahs are becoming more prominent, although smoking is normally done at home or in public spaces such as beaches and picnic sites.
In South Africa, the terminology of the various hookah components also differ from other countries. The clay "head/bowl" is known as a "clay pot". The hoses are called "pipes" and the air release valve is known, strangely, as a "clutch".
Some scientists point to the dagga pipe as an African origin of hookah.
During the 1960s and 1970s, hookahs were a popular tool for the consumption of various derivations of tobacco, among other things. At parties or small gatherings the hookah hose was passed around with users partaking as they saw fit.
Recently, certain cities, counties, and states have implemented indoor smoking bans. In some jurisdictions, hookah businesses can be exempted from the policies through special permits. Some permits, however, have requirements such as the business earning a certain minimum percentage of their revenue from alcohol or tobacco.
In cities with indoor smoking bans, hookah bars have been forced to close or switch to tobacco-free mu‘assel. In many cities though, hookah lounges have been growing in popularity. From the year 2000 to 2004, over 200 new hookah cafés opened for business, most of them targeted at young adults and located near college campuses or cities with large Middle-Eastern communities. This activity continues to gain popularity within the post-secondary student demographic. According to a 2011 study, 40.3 percent of college and university students surveyed had smoked tobacco from a hookah.
Fantasia Hookah Tobacco is a product made by Fantasia Distribution, Inc., which is located in Anaheim, California. Fantasia is one of the main market share leaders and ships out a variety of hookah tobacco throughout the world. The tobacco seeds are originally from Europe, but the plants are grown and cultivated in the United States. Once the tobacco is processed and washed, the flavors are born. They either mix honey or molasses, glycerin, and flavoring together to create the many flavors that they offer. Fantasia offers flavors that range from cocktail drink flavors to some exotic party life flavors such as rainbow burst, which tastes like skittles and bubble gum. Fantasia Hookah Tobacco is sold at local smoke shops, and can be smoked at hookah lounges. The Fantasia E-Hookah and Fantasia Air-Flow Charcoal are just 2 of Fantasia's other innovative products.
In a quiet town on the Egyptian countryside called Shebin El-Kom stands the factory that processes Tobacco for Shisha branded as Nakhla. What started out as a simple one-man hobby, has now evolved into a globally smoked product. With over 50 flavors falling in 7 different categories, Nakhla embraces both the old and the new generations of Shisha smokers. Nakhla has evolved with the times to ensure quality tobacco flavors popular amongst old and new generations are not ignored. Most recently that flavor is Zaghloul. Flavors such as this are found appealing to those who smoke the more traditional flavors like Double-Apple, as well as to those who are more into the newer ones such as Sweet Melon Guava. The times evolve and Nakhla continues to evolve with them.
Al-Fakher Corporation was created with the goal of providing quality hookah products all over the world. Al-Fakher manufactures premium molasses which is also known as flavored tobacco. The product line offers a variety of flavors which include traditional favorites such as rose and apple along with exotic flavors such as chocolate and guava. A large flavor menu attracts new hookah customers which allows the company to fulfill its’ mission of bringing the hookah to all parts of the world. Al-Fakher produces only high quality products which are created to be distinctive in flavor. The products are available in a range of sizes from 50 g up to 1 kg to satisfy the needs of different consumers. Al-Fakher is constantly working to improve their product offerings in order to appeal to a large consumer base. The company prides itself on modern manufacturing processes and fully automated production lines which allows for the highest level of quality.
Alrayan molasses is a brand of hookah tobacco that is made by Alandalus flavored molasses and tobacco. Alandalus is a recognized corporation in Al-Zarqa Free Zone, Jordan. Alrayan produces a variety of tobacco flavors, these flavors include Two Apples, Grape, Strawberry, Mint, Watermelon Mint, Gum with Mint, Honeydew Melon, Watermelon, Apple, Lemon, Orange Mint, Cherry, Grape Mint, Orange, Gum, and Lemon Mint. Alrayan Comes in 3 different packaging sizes, 50 grams, 250 grams and 1000 grams. There are three distribution locations for Alrayan located in Jordan, Syrian, and Canada. Alrayan is marketed as a premium hookah tobacco.
Starbuzz hookah tobacco was discovered in 2005 and is made in the United States of America. It is currently one of the most popular brands among modern hookah tobaccos. Starbuzz tobaccos are made from golden Virginian tobacco. They are known for creative hookah blends. Starbuzz shisha contains .05 percent nicotine. Starbuzz Pomberry is one of Starbuzz’s most recent tobacco flavors. Starbuzz Pomberry hookah tobacco is a blend of pomegranate and blueberry.
A 2008 study on hookah smoking and cancer in Pakistan found that serum CEA levels in ever/exclusive hookah smokers were higher than in non-smokers and lower than in cigarette smokers. The study also concluded that heavy hookah smoking (2–4 daily preparations; 3–8 sessions a day; 2 to 6 hours net daily smoking time) substantially raises CEA levels.
Ploom is a San Francisco-based vaporizer company. Its main products are the Model One (a butane-powered portable vaporizer that uses proprietary "pods" which contain herbal or tobacco blends) and Pax, a pocket-sized, rechargeable vaporizer.
In 2006, James Monsees and Adam Bowen founded Ploom in Palo Alto, California. Ploom was launched to maximize the social benefits of smoking while minimizing the detriments. The company is now located in San Francisco's Dogpatch district.
The idea came to them one night in 2004. With the deadline for their product design master's thesis proposals looming, Monsees, an art student, and Bowen, a mechanical engineering student, sensed their brainstorming session deteriorating. Stepping outside for a break, Bowen let Monsees bum a cigarette and they both lit up. The two contemplated the product at hand. The familiar white stick suddenly seemed arcane. The pair realized the technology was overdue for an upgrade. Cigarettes, they contend, are an extremely flawed delivery system for nicotine.
Research began with a series of conversations. Monsees and Bowen approached smokers on campus and asked them what they loved and hated about their habit. Among the positives, the taste of tobacco was mentioned, albeit rarely, as was the social aspect of smoking with friends. The latter, however, was largely overshadowed by the stigma. The complaints were consistent: fear of being seen with a cigarette, frequent trips outside in the cold, and paranoia about smelling of smoke on a first date. They discovered that many smokers love the ritual and the social elements of having a cigarette, but hate the fact that doing so often bothers people and is known to be unhealthy. Convinced they could not only eliminate these negatives, but also build a more enjoyable experience around tobacco, the designers drew inspiration from hookahs and coffee pods.
Pax: Pax is a pocket-sized, rechargeable vaporizer. It measures four inches long and an inch and a half wide, with a curved aluminum frame. On the bottom is a removable, magnetized lid that covers the stainless steel “oven” and keeps your tobacco in place. At the top is a mouthpiece that, when depressed, pops out and activates the heating element. It’s built of anodized aluminum and fits in your palm. It features no physical buttons.
Pax has a motion sensor which recognizes when it has been put down and automatically lowers the heat level. The motion sensor allows you to check the battery’s charge between smoking sessions by shaking it, with the light blinking green when topped up and red when it’s almost out.
Model One: The Model One is a five-and-a-half-inch device made of sleek black plastic with a thin, whistle-like mouthpiece. Inside, a butane-fueled igniter gently heats finely ground, flavored tobacco contained in tiny aluminum pods. The Ploom Model One is categorized as a pipe tobacco product.
Tobacco smoking in Pakistan is legal, but under certain circumstances is banned. The habit is mostly found in the youth of Pakistan and in farmers][, and is thought to be responsible for various health problems and deaths in the country. Smoking produces many health problems in smokers. According to some surveys, 40% of males and 8% of females are regular smokers. Pakistan has the highest counsumption of tobacco in South Asia.
Lung cancer in Pakistan is caused directly by tobacco in 90% of cases. It claims lives of 100,000 people every year.
28% of youths in Islamabad are addicted to tobacco smoking.][ It has become fashionable for students to smoke Hookah in Hookah lounges.