Question:

What is billiard chalk made of?

Answer:

Cue tip chalk, invented in its modern form by billiard pro William A. Spinks and chemist William Hoskins, is made by crushing silica and the abrasive substance corundum or aloxite into a powder.

More Info:

William Hoskins chemist
William A. Spinks

William Alexander Spinks, Jr. (1865–1933) was an American professional player of carom billiards in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. He was known professionally as William A. Spinks or (in the initialing practice common in his era) W. A. Spinks, and occasionally also referred to as Billy Spinks. In addition to being amateur Pacific Coast Billiards Champion several times, a world champion contender in more than one cue sports discipline, and an exhibition player in Europe, he became the co-inventor (with William Hoskins) in 1897 of modern billiard cue chalk. He was originally (and again in retirement from the billiards circuit) a Californian, but spent much of his professional career in Chicago, Illinois. At his peak, his was a household name in U.S. billiards; the New York Times labeled Spinks one of "the most brilliant players among the veterans of the game", and he still holds the world record for points scored in a row (1,010) using a particular shot type.:289 Aside from his billiards playing career, he founded a lucrative sporting goods manufacturing business, and was both an oil company investor and director, and a flower and fruit farm operator and horticulturist, originator of the eponymous Spinks cultivar of avocado.

Mineralogy
Aluminium oxide

[Al+3].[Al+3].[O-2].[O-2].[O-2]

[O-2].[O-2].[O-2].[Al+3].[Al+3]

Chalk
William A. Spinks

William Alexander Spinks, Jr. (1865–1933) was an American professional player of carom billiards in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. He was known professionally as William A. Spinks or (in the initialing practice common in his era) W. A. Spinks, and occasionally also referred to as Billy Spinks. In addition to being amateur Pacific Coast Billiards Champion several times, a world champion contender in more than one cue sports discipline, and an exhibition player in Europe, he became the co-inventor (with William Hoskins) in 1897 of modern billiard cue chalk. He was originally (and again in retirement from the billiards circuit) a Californian, but spent much of his professional career in Chicago, Illinois. At his peak, his was a household name in U.S. billiards; the New York Times labeled Spinks one of "the most brilliant players among the veterans of the game", and he still holds the world record for points scored in a row (1,010) using a particular shot type.:289 Aside from his billiards playing career, he founded a lucrative sporting goods manufacturing business, and was both an oil company investor and director, and a flower and fruit farm operator and horticulturist, originator of the eponymous Spinks cultivar of avocado.


Corundum

Corundum is a crystalline form of aluminium oxide (Al
2
O
3
) with traces of iron, titanium and chromium. It is a rock-forming mineral. It is one of the naturally clear transparent materials, but can have different colors when impurities are present. Transparent specimens are used as gems, called ruby if red and padparadscha if pink-orange. All other colors are called sapphire, e.g., "green sapphire" for a green specimen.

The name "corundum" is derived from the Tamil word kuruntam (குருந்தம்) meaning "ruby", and related to Sanskrit kuruvinda.


Cue sports

Cue sports (sometimes written cuesports), also known as billiard sports, are a wide variety of games of skill generally played with a cue stick which is used to strike billiard balls, moving them around a cloth-covered billiards table bounded by rubber cushions.

Historically, the umbrella term was billiards. While that familiar name is still employed by some as a generic label for all such games, the word's usage has splintered into more exclusive competing meanings in various parts of the world. For example, in British and Australian English, "billiards" usually refers exclusively to the game of English billiards, while in American and Canadian English it is sometimes used to refer to a particular game or class of games, or to all cue games in general, depending upon dialect and context.

William Spinks Chemistry Abrasives William Hoskins
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