Prometa is a controversial treatment protocol used primarily for methamphetamine addiction, although it has also been claimed to be effective for dependence on alcohol or cocaine. The treatment, based on the research of Spanish psychologist Juan Jose Legarda, involves a combination of three medications as well as therapy. Prometa was developed by Hythiam, Inc., which has sought to patent the protocol and charges up to $15,000 per patient to license its use. Lower rates are offered to the criminal justice system, where it has been used in several drug court pilot programs.
A November, 2011, double-blind, placebo-controlled study published in the journal Addiction concluded that Prometa is ineffective. "The PROMETA protocol, consisting of flumazenil, gabapentin and hydroxyzine, appears to be no more effective than placebo in reducing methamphetamine use, retaining patients in treatment or reducing methamphetamine craving."
Brallobarbital is a barbiturate developed in the 1920s. It has sedative and hypnotic properties, and was used for the treatment of insomnia. Brallobarbital was primarily sold as part of a combination product called Vesparax, composed of 150 mg secobarbital, 50 mg brallobarbital and 50 mg hydroxyzine. The long half-life of this combination of drugs tended to cause a hangover effect the next day, and Vesparax fell into disuse once newer drugs with lesser side effects had been developed.
Baboon syndrome is a systemic contact dermatitis characterized by well-demarcated patches of erythema distributed symmetrically on the buttocks. The cause of the syndrome may be drug-related, i.e. induced by systemic administration of hydroxyzine penicillin, iodinated radio contrast media and others.
A histamine antagonist (commonly called an antihistamine) is a pharmaceutical drug that inhibits the action of histamine by either blocking its attachment to histamine receptors, or inhibiting the enzymatic activity of histidine decarboxylase; catalyzing the transformation of histidine into histamine (atypical antihistaminics). It is commonly used for the relief of allergies caused by intolerance of proteins.
An H1 antagonist is a histamine antagonist of the receptor1H that serves to reduce or eliminate effects mediated by histamine, an endogenous chemical mediator released during allergic reactions. Agents where the main therapeutic effect is mediated by negative modulation of histamine receptors are termed antihistamines; other agents may have antihistaminergic action but are not true antihistamines.
In common use, the term "antihistamine" refers only to H1 antagonists, also known as H1-receptor antagonists and H1-antihistamines. It has been discovered that these H1-antihistamines are actually inverse agonists at the histamine H1-receptor rather than antagonists per se.
The H2 receptor antagonists (H2RA) are a class of drugs used to block the action of histamine on parietal cells (specifically the histamine H2 receptors) in the stomach, decreasing the production of acid by these cells. H2 antagonists are used in the treatment of dyspepsia, although they have been surpassed in popularity by the more effective proton pump inhibitors.
The prototypical H2 antagonist was cimetidine, developed by Smith, Kline & French (now GlaxoSmithKline) in the mid-to-late 1960s and first marketed in 1976; sold under the trade name Tagamet, cimetidine would later become the first ever blockbuster drug. The use of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) led to the development of other agents—starting with Ranitidine, first sold as Zantac—which has fewer adverse effects and drug interactions and is more potent.]citation needed[
A food allergy is an adverse immune response to a food protein. They are distinct from other adverse responses to food, such as food intolerance, pharmacological reactions, and toxin-mediated reactions.
The protein in the food is the most common allergic component. These kinds of allergies occur when the body's immune system mistakenly identifies a protein as harmful. Some proteins or fragments of proteins are resistant to digestion and those that are not broken down in the digestive process are tagged by the Immunoglobulin E (IgE). These tags fool the immune system into thinking that the protein is an invader. The immune system, thinking the organism (the individual) is under attack, sends white blood cells to attack, and that triggers an allergic reaction. These reactions can range from mild to severe. Allergic responses include dermatitis, gastrointestinal and respiratory distress, including such life-threatening anaphylactic responses as biphasic anaphylaxis and vasodilation; these require immediate emergency intervention. Individuals with protein allergies commonly avoid contact with the problematic protein. Some medications may prevent, minimize or treat protein allergy reactions. There is no cure.
Cat allergy in humans is an allergic reaction to one or more allergens produced by cats. The most common of these allergens are the glycoprotein Fel d 1, secreted by the cat's sebaceous glands and Fel d 4, which is expressed in saliva. An allergic reaction is a histamine reaction that is usually characterized by coughing, wheezing, chest tightening, itching, nasal congestion, rash, watering eyes, sneezing, chapped lips, and similar symptoms.
Five cat allergens have been described in medical literature. The two major allergens are Fel d 1 (a secretoglobin) and Fel d 4 (a lipocalin). The minor allergens include Fel d 2 (an albumin), Fel d 3 (a cystatin), and cat IgA.
Allergy is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering the field of allergy and immunology, that is published by John Wiley & Sons on behalf of the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology. It is indexed in PubMed and publishes both original articles and reviews. The current editors-in-chief are Thomas Bieber and Hans-Uwe Simon.
The incidence of life-threatening hypersensitivity reactions occurring during surgery and anaesthesia is around one in 10,000 procedures. Serious allergic reactions to anesthetic medications are rare and a usually attributable to factors other than the anesthetic. Neuromuscular blocking agents, natural rubber latex, and antibiotics are the most common causes of serious allergic reactions during surgery. The mortality rate from these reactions is about 3–6%.
Successful immediate treatment requires prompt recognition by the attending anaesthetist, or in the US, the attending anesthesiologist or nurse anesthetist . Adrenaline (epinephrine) remains the mainstay of treatment, with corticosteroids and antihistamines providing limited benefit in the acute situation.
Peanut allergy is a type of food allergy distinct from nut allergies. It is a type 1 hypersensitivity reaction to dietary substances from peanuts that causes an overreaction of the immune system which in a small percentage of people may lead to severe physical symptoms. It is estimated to affect 0.4–0.6% of the population of the United States. In England, an estimated 4,000 people are newly diagnosed with peanut allergy per year (11 per day); 25,700 having been diagnosed with peanut allergy by a clinician at some point in their lives. An increasing body of medical opinion holds that recent increases in peanut allergies and the measures taken in response show elements of mass psychogenic illness, hysterical reactions grossly out of proportion to the level of danger.
The most severe allergies can generally result in anaphylaxis, an emergency situation requiring immediate attention and treatment with epinephrine.
A milk allergy is a food allergy, an adverse immune reaction to one or more of the constituents of milk from any animal (most commonly alpha S1-casein, a protein in cow's milk). This milk-induced allergic reaction can involve anaphylaxis, a potentially life-threatening condition.
Milk allergy is distinct from lactose intolerance.
Wheat allergy is a rare allergy which typically presents itself as a food allergy, but can also be a contact allergy resulting from occupational exposure to wheat. Like all allergies, wheat allergy involves immunoglobulin E and mast cell response. Typically the allergy is limited to the seed storage proteins of wheat, some reactions are restricted to wheat proteins, while others can react across many varieties of seeds and other plant tissues. Wheat allergy may be a misnomer since there are many allergenic components in wheat, for example serine protease inhibitors, glutelins and prolamins and different responses are often attributed to different proteins. Twenty-seven potential wheat allergens have been successfully identified. The most severe response is exercise/aspirin induced anaphylaxis attributed to one omega gliadin that is a relative of the protein that causes celiac disease. Other more common symptoms include nausea, urticaria, atopy.
Egg allergy is a type of food allergy. It is a hypersensitivity to dietary substances from the yolk or whites of eggs, causing an overreaction of the immune system which may lead to severe physical symptoms for millions of people around the world.
Egg allergy appears mainly, but not exclusively, in children. In fact, it is the second most common food allergy in children. (The most common is cows' milk allergy.) It is usually treated with an exclusion diet and vigilant avoidance of foods that may be contaminated with egg. The most severe food allergy reaction is called anaphylaxis and is an emergency situation requiring immediate attention and treatment with epinephrine. The Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America estimates that most children outgrow egg allergy by the age of five, but some people remain allergic for a lifetime.
Seafood allergy is a type of food allergy. It is a hypersensitivity to dietary substances from shellfish, scaly fish, or crustaceans, causing an overreaction of the immune system, which, for millions of people, may lead to severe physical symptoms, including anaphylaxis. The Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America estimates that the majority of pediatric and adult food allergy patients have a seafood allergy. It occurs mainly (but not exclusively) in adults.
Allergic reactions may result when the susceptible person is not consuming the allergenic substance, by exposure to vapours resulting from cooking of seafood or even preparation or handling.
Nausea (French: La Nausée) is an epistolary novel by the existentialist philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre, which was published in 1938 and written while he was teaching at the lycée of Le Havre. It is Sartre's first novel and, in his opinion, one of his best works.
The novel takes place in 'Bouville,' a town similar to Le Havre, and it concerns a dejected historian, who becomes convinced that inanimate objects and situations encroach on his ability to define himself, on his intellectual and spiritual freedom, evoking in the protagonist a sense of nausea.
Nausea was an American crust punk band from New York City in the Lower East Side of Manhattan, active from 1985-1992. Nausea is usually cited as being integral in the rise of American crust punk, a fusion of anarcho-punk and thrash metal styles.
Like many anarcho-punk bands of the period, Nausea incorporated both male and female vocalists. They were involved in the New York City Lower East Side squatting community. Their earlier sound with singers Amy Miret and Neil Robinson was in the vein of traditional hardcore punk. After Robinson's departure in 1988, he was replaced by Al Long and the band began to experiment with a darker, heavier sound. Robinson went on to form the bands Jesus Crust and Final Warning, as well as start Tribal War Records.
"Nausea" was the first single from Beck's 2006 album The Information. It reached #13 on the Billboard Modern Rock Tracks chart.
The song appears in the 2010 film Repo Men.
Morning sickness, also called nausea gravidarum, nausea, vomiting of pregnancy (emesis gravidarum or NVP), or pregnancy sickness is a pregnancy discomfort that affects more than half of all pregnant women. Sometimes symptoms are present in the early hours of the morning and reduce as the day progresses. However, in spite of its common name, it can occur at any time of the day. For most women it may stop around the 12th week of pregnancy.
Related to increased estrogen levels, a similar form of nausea is also seen in some women who use hormonal contraception or hormone replacement therapy. The nausea can be mild or induce actual vomiting, however, not severe enough to cause metabolic derangement. In more severe cases, vomiting may cause dehydration, weight loss, alkalosis and hypokalemia. This condition is known as hyperemesis gravidarum and occurs in about 1% of all pregnancies. Nausea and vomiting can be one of the first signs of pregnancy and usually begins around the 6th week of pregnancy (counting gestational age from 14 days before conception).
Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is a common side-effect of many cancer treatments. Nausea and vomiting are two of the most feared cancer treatment-related side effects for cancer patients and their families. In 1983, Coates et al. found that patients receiving chemotherapy ranked nausea and vomiting as the first and second most severe side effects, respectively. Up to 20% of patients receiving highly emetogenic agents in this era postponed, or even refused, potentially curative treatments. Since the 1990s, several novel classes of antiemetics have been developed and commercialized, becoming a nearly universal standard in chemotherapy regimens, and helping to better manage these symptoms in a large portion of patients. Efficient mediation of these unpleasant and sometimes crippling symptoms results in increased quality of life for the patient, and better overall health of the patient, and, due to better patient tolerance, more effective treatment cycles.
Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is an unpleasant complication affecting about a third of the 10% of the population undergoing general anaesthesia each year. A 2008 study compared 121 Japanese patients who experienced PONV after being given the general anesthetic propofol to 790 people who were free of post-operative nausea after receiving it. Those with a G at both copies of rs1800497 were 1.6 times more likely to experience PONV within six hours of surgery compared to those with the AG or AA genotypes. But they were not significantly more likely to experience PONV more than six hours after surgery.
Nausea is the sensation of unease and discomfort in the stomach with an urge to vomit. It may also refer to:
Xerostomia (also termed dry mouth or dry mouth syndrome)]medical citation needed[ is the medical term for the subjective symptom of dryness in the mouth, which may be associated with a change in the composition of saliva or reduced salivary flow (hyposalivation) or have no identifiable cause.
This symptom is very common and is often seen as a side effect of many types of medication. It is more common in older people (mostly because this group tend to take several medications) and in persons who breathe through their mouths (mouthbreathing). Dehydration, radiotherapy involving the salivary glands, and several diseases can cause hyposalivation or a change in saliva consistency and hence a complaint of xerostomia. Sometimes there is no identifiable cause, and there may be a psychogenic reason for the complaint.
Sjögren's syndrome (pronounced // SHOH-grinz in English) is a systemic autoimmune disease in which immune cells attack and destroy the exocrine glands that produce tears and saliva. It is named after Swedish ophthalmologist Henrik Sjögren (1899–1986), who first described it.
Nine out of ten Sjögren's patients are women and the average age of onset is after menopause in women, although Sjögren's occurs in all age groups in both women and men.]citation needed[ It is estimated to affect as many as 4 million people in the United States alone, making it the second most common rheumatic disease.
Meth mouth is a dental condition characterized by severe decay and loss of teeth, as well as fracture, enamel erosion, and other oral problems symptomatic of extended use of the drug methamphetamine (meth). The specific cause of the condition is unknown, although drug-induced xerostomia (dry mouth) and bruxism (grinding of the teeth) are thought to be involved. Other frequently cited factors are poor nutrition and lack of dental hygiene, common among long-term users of the drug. The legitimacy of meth mouth as a unique condition has been questioned because of the similar effects of some other drugs on teeth. Advocates of its status as a unique condition cite the pattern and scope of the decay as distinguishing factors.
Treating meth mouth is difficult, and it can be medically dangerous for active methamphetamine users because of the cardiac problems that can result from the interaction of local anesthetic with the drug. To treat patients with the condition, dentists prescribe fluoride to fight tooth decay (dental caries) and drugs that increase saliva for dry mouth; they also educate patients about nutrition and dental hygiene. Meth mouth has become widespread in some areas, and it has strained public health budgets because of the high cost of its treatment. Images of diseased mouths are often used in anti-drug campaigns.
Burning mouth syndrome (BMS also termed glossodynia, orodynia, oral dysaesthesia, glossopyrosis, stomatodynia, burning tongue, stomatopyrosis, sore tongue, burning tongue syndrome, burning mouth, or sore mouth) is the complaint of a burning sensation in the mouth where no underlying dental or medical cause can be identified and no oral signs are found. Burning mouth syndrome may also comprise subjective xerostomia (a dry mouth sensation where no cause can be found such as hyposalivation), oral paraesthesia (e.g. tingling) and altered taste or smell (dysgeusia and dysosmia). A burning sensation in the mouth can be a symptom of another disease when local or systemic factors are found to be implicated, and this is not considered to be burning mouth syndrome, which is a syndrome of medically unexplained symptoms. The International Association for the Study of Pain definitions of burning mouth syndrome are "a distinctive nosological entity characterized by unremitting oral burning or similar pain in the absence of detectable mucosal changes", and "burning pain in the tongue or other oral mucous membranes", and the International Headache Society definition is "an intra-oral burning sensation for which no medical or dental cause can be found".
Black hairy tongue (BHT, also termed lingua villosa nigra) refers to a condition of the tongue where the filiform papillae elongate with black or brown discoloration, giving a black and hairy appearance. The appearance may be alarming, but it is a harmless condition. Predisposing factors include smoking, xerostomia (dry mouth), soft diet, poor oral hygiene and certain medications. Management is by improving oral hygiene, especially scraping or brushing the tongue.
Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms. Study of structure includes using spectroscopy and other physical and chemical methods to determine the chemical composition and constitution of organic compounds and materials. Study of properties includes both physical properties and chemical properties, and uses similar methods as well as methods to evaluate chemical reactivity, with the aim to understand the behavior of the organic matter in its pure form (when possible), but also in solutions, mixtures, and fabricated forms. The study of organic reactions includes both their preparation—by synthesis or by other means—as well as their subsequent reactivities, both in the laboratory and via theoretical (in silico) study.
The range of chemicals studied in organic chemistry include hydrocarbons, compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen, as well as compositions based on carbon but containing other elements. Organic chemistry overlaps with many areas including medicinal chemistry, biochemistry, organometallic chemistry, and polymer chemistry, as well as many aspects of materials science.
A muscarinic receptor antagonist (MRA) is an agent that blocks the activity of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. Acetylcholine (often abbreviated ACh) is a neurotransmitter, whose receptor is a protein found in synapses and other cell membranes. Besides responding to their primary neurochemical, neurotransmitter receptors can be sensitive to a variety of other molecules. Acetylcholine receptors are classified into two groups based on this:
Most muscarinic receptor antagonists are synthetic chemicals; however, the two most commonly used anticholinergics, scopolamine and atropine, are belladonna alkaloids, and are naturally extracted.
Science of drugs including their origin, composition, pharmacokinetics,
pharmacodynamics, therapeutic use, and toxicology.
Pharmacology (from Greek φάρμακον, pharmakon, "poison" in classic Greek; "drug" in modern Greek; and -λογία, -logia "study of", "knowledge of") is the branch of medicine and biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (within the body) molecule which exerts a biochemical and/or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism. More specifically, it is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function. If substances have medicinal properties, they are considered pharmaceuticals.
Hospitality is the relationship between the guest and the host, or the act or practice of being hospitable. This includes the reception and entertainment of guests, visitors, or strangers.