This article addresses the management of the psychiatric syndrome known as major depressive disorder or often called simply "depression". This syndrome is being diagnosed more frequently in developed countries, where up to 20% of the population is affected at some stage of their lives. Patients are usually assessed and managed as outpatients, and only admitted to an inpatient mental health unit if they are considered a risk to themselves or others.
Though psychiatric medication is the most frequently prescribed therapy for major depression, psychotherapy may be effective, either alone or in combination with medication. Psychotherapy is the treatment of choice in those under the age of 18, with medication offered only in conjunction with the former and generally not as a first line agent. The possibility of depression, substance misuse or other mental health problems in the parents should be considered and, if present and if it may help the child, the parent should be treated in parallel with the child.
Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), formerly reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) or "causalgia", reflex neurovascular dystrophy (RND), or amplified musculoskeletal pain syndrome (AMPS), is a chronic systemic disease characterized by severe pain, swelling, and changes in the skin. CRPS is expected to worsen over time. It often initially affects an arm or a leg and often spreads throughout the body; 92% of patients state that they have experienced a spread, and 35% of patients report symptoms in their whole body. Recent evidence has led to the conclusion that Complex Regional Pain Syndrome is a multifactorial disorder with clinical features of neurogenic inflammation, nociceptive sensitisation (which causes extreme sensitivity or allodynia), vasomotor dysfunction, and maladaptive neuroplasticity, generated by an aberrant response to tissue injury. Treatment is complicated, involving drugs, physical therapy, psychologic treatments, and neuromodulation and usually unsatisfactory, especially if begun late.
CRPS is associated with dysregulation of the central nervous system and autonomic nervous system resulting in multiple functional loss, impairment, and disability. The International Association for the Study of Pain has proposed dividing CRPS into two types based on the presence of nerve lesion following the injury.
Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms. Study of structure includes using spectroscopy and other physical and chemical methods to determine the chemical composition and constitution of organic compounds and materials. Study of properties includes both physical properties and chemical properties, and uses similar methods as well as methods to evaluate chemical reactivity, with the aim to understand the behavior of the organic matter in its pure form (when possible), but also in solutions, mixtures, and fabricated forms. The study of organic reactions includes both their preparation—by synthesis or by other means—as well as their subsequent reactivities, both in the laboratory and via theoretical (in silico) study.
The range of chemicals studied in organic chemistry include hydrocarbons, compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen, as well as compositions based on carbon but containing other elements. Organic chemistry overlaps with many areas including medicinal chemistry, biochemistry, organometallic chemistry, and polymer chemistry, as well as many aspects of materials science.