Membrane biology is the study of the biological and physiochemical characteristics of membranes.
Membrane technology covers all engineering approaches for the transport of substances between two fractions with the help of permeable membranes. In general, mechanical separation processes for separating gaseous or liquid streams use membrane technology.
The 'cell membrane' (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment. The cell membrane is selectively permeable to ions and organic molecules and controls the movement of substances in and out of cells. The basic function of the cell membrane is to protect the cell from its surroundings. It consists of the phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins. Cell membranes are involved in a variety of cellular processes such as cell adhesion, ion conductivity and cell signaling and serve as the attachment surface for several extracellular structures, including the cell wall, glycocalyx, and intracellular cytoskeleton. Cell membranes can be artificially reassembled.
The Severinghaus electrode is an electrode that measures carbon dioxide (CO2). It was developed by Dr. John W. Severinghaus and his technician A. Freeman Bradley in 1958.
It utilizes a CO2-sensitive glass electrode in a surrounding film of bicarbonate solution covered by a thin plastic carbon dioxide permeable membrane, but impermeable to water and electrolytic solutes. The carbon dioxide pressure of a sample gas or liquid equilibrates through the membrane and the glass electrode measures the resulting pH of the bicarbonate solution.