Question:

What is a lung covering membrane?

Answer:

The serous membrane that covers the lungs is called the Pleural Membrane. It is also called the Visceral Pleura. AnswerParty!

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Human anatomy (gr. ἀνατομία, "dissection", from ἀνά, "up", and τέμνειν, "cut") is primarily the scientific study of the morphology of the human body. Anatomy is subdivided into gross anatomy and microscopic anatomy. Gross anatomy (also called topographical anatomy, regional anatomy, or anthropotomy) is the study of anatomical structures that can be seen by the naked eye. Microscopic anatomy is the study of minute anatomical structures assisted with microscopes, which includes histology (the study of the organization of tissues), and cytology (the study of cells). Anatomy, human physiology (the study of function), and biochemistry (the study of the chemistry of living structures) are complementary basic medical sciences that are generally together (or in tandem) to students studying medical sciences.

In some of its facets human anatomy is closely related to embryology, comparative anatomy and comparative embryology, through common roots in evolution; for example, much of the human body maintains the ancient segmental pattern that is present in all vertebrates with basic units being repeated, which is particularly obvious in the vertebral column and in the ribcage, and can be traced from very early embryos.

Each lung is invested by an exceedingly delicate serous membrane, the pleura, which is arranged in the form of a closed invaginated sac. A portion of the serous membrane covers the surface of the lung and dips into the fissures between its lobes; it is called the pulmonary pleura (or visceral pleura). The visceral pleura is derived from mesoderm.

The visceral pleura is attached directly to the lungs, as opposed to the parietal pleura, which is attached to the opposing thoracic cavity. The space between these two delicate membranes is known as the intrapleural space (pleural cavity). Contraction of the diaphragm causes a negative pressure within this space and forces the lungs to expand, resulting in passive exhalation and active inhalation. This process can be made forceful through the contraction of the external intercostal muscles, forcing the rib cage to expand and aiding to the negative pressure within the intrapleural space, which causes the lungs to fill with air.

In human anatomy, the pleural cavity is the potential space between the two pleurae (visceral and parietal) of the lungs. The pleura is a serous membrane which folds back onto itself to form a two-layered membrane structure. The thin space between the two pleural layers is known as the pleural cavity and normally contains a small amount of pleural fluid. The outer pleura (parietal pleura) is attached to the chest wall. The inner pleura (visceral pleura) covers the lungs and adjoining structures, via blood vessels, bronchi and nerves.

The parietal pleura is highly sensitive to pain, while the visceral pleura is not, due to its lack of sensory innervation.

In anatomy, serous membrane (or serosa) is a smooth membrane consisting of a thin layer of cells which secrete serous fluid, and a thin epithelial layer. The Latin anatomical name is tunica serosa. Serous membranes line and enclose several body cavities, known as serous cavities, where they secrete a lubricating fluid which reduces friction from muscle movement. Serosa is entirely different from the adventitia, a connective tissue layer which binds together structures rather than reducing friction between them. The serous membrane covering the heart and lining the mediastinum is referred to as the pericardium, the serous membrane lining the thoracic cavity and surrounding the lungs is referred to as the pleura, and that lining the abdominopelvic cavity and the viscera is referred to as the peritoneum.

Lung

Hemopneumothorax, or haemopneumothorax, is a medical term describing the combination of two conditions: pneumothorax, or air in the chest cavity, and hemothorax (also called hæmothorax), or blood in the chest cavity.

A haemothorax, pneumothorax or both can occur if the chest wall is punctured. To understand the ramifications of this it is important to have an understanding of the role of the pleural space. The pleural space is located anatomically between the visceral membrane, which is firmly attached to the lungs, and the parietal membrane which is firmly attached to the chest wall (aka ribcage and intercostal muscles, muscles between the ribs). The pleural space contains pleural fluid. This fluid holds the two membranes together by surface tension, much as a drop of water between two sheets of glass prevents them from separating. Because of this, when the intercostal muscles move the ribcage outward, the lungs are pulled out as well, dropping the pressure in the lungs and pulling air into the bronchi, when we 'breathe in'. The pleural space is maintained in a constant state of negative pressure (in comparison to atmospheric pressure).

Visceral fascia (also called subserous fascia) suspends the organs within their cavities and wraps them in layers of connective tissue membranes. Each of the organs is covered in a double layer of fascia; these layers are separated by a thin serous membrane.

Visceral fascia is less extensible than superficial fascia. Due to its suspensory role of the organs, it needs to maintain its tone rather consistently. If it is too lax, it contributes to organ prolapse, yet if it is hypertonic, it restricts proper organ motility.

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In anatomy, serous membrane (or serosa) is a smooth membrane consisting of a thin layer of cells which secrete serous fluid, and a thin epithelial layer. The Latin anatomical name is tunica serosa. Serous membranes line and enclose several body cavities, known as serous cavities, where they secrete a lubricating fluid which reduces friction from muscle movement. Serosa is entirely different from the adventitia, a connective tissue layer which binds together structures rather than reducing friction between them. The serous membrane covering the heart and lining the mediastinum is referred to as the pericardium, the serous membrane lining the thoracic cavity and surrounding the lungs is referred to as the pleura, and that lining the abdominopelvic cavity and the viscera is referred to as the peritoneum.

The lung is the essential respiration organ in many air-breathing animals, including most tetrapods, a few fish and a few snails. In mammals and the more complex life forms, the two lungs are located near the backbone on either side of the heart. Their principal function is to transport oxygen from the atmosphere into the bloodstream, and to release carbon dioxide from the bloodstream into the atmosphere. A large surface area is needed for this exchange of gases which is accomplished by the mosaic of specialized cells that form millions of tiny, exceptionally thin-walled air sacs called alveoli.

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