The smooth softshell turtle (Apalone mutica) is a softshell turtle of the family Trionychidae.
It lives mainly in the Mississippi River drainage including the Ohio River and the lower Allegheny River.
The smooth softshell turtle is usually brown or olive colored, often with darker dots or dashes. It is the only softshell without ridges in nostrils. Females are 18-35.6 cm (7-14 inches); males, 12.5-17.8 cm (5-7 inches).
From May to July the females lay bunches of 3-28 eggs about 100 m from water in sandy areas.
Apalone mutica is sympatric with the spiny softshell turtle (Apalone spinifera) over much of its range.
Metabolic bone disease is an umbrella term referring to abnormalities of bones caused by a broad spectrum of disorders.
Most commonly these disorders are caused by abnormalities of minerals such as calcium, phosphorus, magnesium or vitamin D leading to dramatic clinical disorders that are commonly reversible once the underlying defect has been treated. These disorders are to be differentiated from a larger group of genetic bone disorders where there is a defect in a specific signaling system or cell type that causes the bone disorder. There may be overlap. For example, genetic or hereditary hypophosphatemia may cause the metabolic bone disorder osteomalacia. Although there is currently no treatment for the genetic condition, replacement of phosphate often corrects or improves the metabolic bone disorder.
Osteoporosis is due to causal factors like atrophy of disuse and gonadal deficiency. Hence osteoporosis is common in post menopausal women and in men above 50 yrs. Hypercorticism may also be causal factor- osteoporosis may be seen as a feature of Cushing's syndrome.