Like the movie, you can cross the streams for few seconds. In single player mode, it's kind of had to do, but you get knocked down and take some damage. This can be bad if you are already hurt. In mltiplayer mode it will end the game.
The Wii Remote , also known colloquially as the Wiimote, is the primary controller for Nintendo's Wii console. A main feature of the Wii Remote is its motion sensing capability, which allows the user to interact with and manipulate items on screen via gesture recognition and pointing through the use of accelerometer and optical sensor technology. Another feature is its expandability through the use of attachments. The attachment bundled with the Wii console is the Nunchuk, which complements the Wii Remote by providing functions similar to those in gamepad controllers. Some other attachments include the Classic Controller, Wii Zapper, and the Wii Wheel, originally used for Mario Kart.
The controller was revealed at the Tokyo Game Show on September 14, 2005, with the name "Wii Remote" announced April 27, 2006. It has since received much attention due to its unique features and the contrast between it and typical gaming controllers.
The Wii's successor console, the Wii U, supports the Wii Remote and its peripherals in games where use of the features of the Wii U GamePad is not imperative.
Development of a motion enabled controller began in 2001, coinciding with development of the Wii console. In that year, Nintendo licensed a number of motion-sensing patents from Gyration Inc., a company that produces wireless motion-sensing computer mice. Nintendo then commissioned Gyration Inc. to create a one-handed controller for it, which eventually developed the "Gyropod", a more traditional gamepad which allowed its right half to break away for motion-control. At this point, Gyration Inc. brought in a separate design firm Bridge Design to help pitch its concept to Nintendo. Under requirement to "roughly preserve the existing Game Cube [sic] button layout", it experimented with different forms "through sketches, models and interviewing various hardcore gamers". By "late 2004, early 2005", however, Nintendo had come up with the Wii Remote's less traditional "wand shape", and the design of the Nunchuk attachment. Nintendo had also decided upon using a motion sensor, infrared pointer, and the layout of the buttons, and by the end of 2005 the controller was ready for mass production.
During development of the Wii Remote, video game designer Shigeru Miyamoto brought in mobile phones and controllers for automotive navigation systems for inspiration, eventually producing a prototype that resembled a cell phone. Another design featured both an analog stick and a touchscreen, but Nintendo rejected the idea of a touchscreen on the controller, "since the portable console and living-room console would have been exactly the same". Coincidentally this idea was later implemented on the Wii U's GamePad controller.
Sources also indicate that the Wii Remote was originally in development as a controller for the Nintendo GameCube, rather than the Wii. Video game developer Factor 5 stated that during development of launch title Star Wars Rogue Squadron II: Rogue Leader, it had an early prototype of a motion-sensing controller. Video game journalist Matt Casamassina, from gaming website IGN, stated that he believed that Nintendo had planned to release the Wii Remote for the GameCube, noting that "Nintendo said that it hoped that GCN could enjoy a longer life cycle with the addition of top-secret peripherals that would forever enhance the gameplay experience." He suggested that Nintendo may have wanted to release the Wii Remote with a new system, instead of onto the GameCube, as "[the] Revolution addresses one of the GameCube's biggest drawbacks, which is that it was/is perceived as a toy."
As the Wii gained in popularity, reports surfaced of counterfeit Wii Remotes entering circulation. Although these devices may provide the same functionality as official Wii Remotes, the build quality is typically inferior and components such as the rumble pack and speaker are noticeably different. It is also unclear if current and future accessories will operate correctly with counterfeit units due to the differences in internal components.
The Wii Remote assumes a one-handed remote control-based design instead of the traditional gamepad controllers of previous gaming consoles. This was done to make motion sensitivity more intuitive, as a remote design is fitted perfectly for pointing, and in part to help the console appeal to a broader audience that includes non-gamers. The body of the Wii Remote measures 148 mm (5.8 in) long, 36.2 mm (1.43 in) wide, and 30.8 mm (1.21 in) thick. The Wii Remote model number is RVL-003, a reference to the project codename "Revolution". The controller communicates wirelessly with the console via short-range Bluetooth radio, with which it is possible to operate up to four controllers as far as 10 meters (approx. 30 ft) away from the console. However, to utilize pointer functionality, the Wii Remote must be used within five meters (approx. 16 ft) of the Sensor Bar. The controller's symmetrical design allows it to be used in either hand. The Wii Remote can also be turned horizontally and used like a Famicom/NES controller, or in some cases (like , Sonic and the Secret Rings, Mario Kart Wii, and Sonic & Sega All-Stars Racing) a steering wheel. It is also possible to play a single-player game with a Wii Remote in each hand, as in the Shooting Range game contained in Wii Play.
At E3 2006, a few minor changes were made to the controller from the design presented at the Game Developer's Conference. The controller was made slightly longer, and a speaker was added to the face beneath the center row of buttons. The "B" button became more curved resembling a trigger. The "Start" and "Select" buttons were changed to plus "+" and minus "–", and the "b" and "a" buttons were changed to 1 and 2 to differentiate them from the "A" and "B" buttons. Also, the symbol on the "Home" button was changed from a blue dot to a shape resembling a home/house, the shape of the power button was made circular rather than rectangular, and the blue LEDs indicating player number are now labeled using small Braille-like raised dots instead of Arabic numerals, with "1" being "•", "2" being "••", "3" being "•••", and "4" being "••••". The Nintendo logo at the bottom of the controller face was replaced with the Wii logo. Also, the expansion port was redesigned, with expansion plugs featuring a smaller snap-on design.
The blue LEDs also show how much battery power remains on the Wii Remote. By pressing any button, besides the power button while the controller is not being used to play games, a certain number of the four blue LEDs will light up, showing the battery life: four of the LEDs flash when it is at, or near, full power. Three lights flash when it is at 75%, two lights when at 50%, and one light flashes when there is 25% or less power remaining.
Similarities have been noted between the Wii Remote and an early Dreamcast controller prototype.
In the Red Steel trailer shown at E3 2006, the Wii Remote featured a smaller circular shaped image sensor, as opposed to the larger opaque IR filters shown on other versions. In the initial teaser video that revealed the controller at Tokyo Game Show 2005, the 1 and 2 buttons were labeled X and Y, respectively.
The Wii Remote comes with a wrist strap attached to the bottom to ensure the safety of the device. Most Wii games displays a caution screen upon loading to warn the player to use the strap in order to avoid the remote slipping from the grip during erratic movements.
Video game web site IGN reported that the strap tends to break under heavy use, which would potentially send the Wii Remote flying in various directions. WarioWare: Smooth Moves also sometimes requires the Wii Remote to be dropped, which would cause problems in the event of a strap failure. In response, Nintendo has posted guidelines on proper use of the strap and the Wii Remote. On December 8, 2006, units with thicker straps began to appear in some areas of the world. On December 15, 2006, Nintendo denied reports of a Wii wrist strap recall. While Nintendo refuted claims that three million straps had been recalled, it provided replacement wrist straps free of charge for users who have broken theirs. However, the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission has become involved in the "replacement program". The old 0.6 mm (0.024 in) diameter strap is replaced by a larger, 1.0 mm (0.039 in) diameter version. Nintendo's online "Wrist Strap Replacement Request Form" allows owners to receive up to four free straps when a Wii serial number and shipping details are provided.
On August 3, 2007, a new wrist strap was discovered to be in circulation. The strap featured a lock clip instead of a slide to ensure that the clip would not slide away from a player's wrist during frequent play. The lock clip wrist strap is now included with all new Wii Remotes.
Nintendo announced a free accessory for the Wii Remote, the Wii Remote Jacket, on October 1, 2007. The removable silicone sleeve wraps around the Wii Remote to provide users a better grip and cushioning. The cushioning intends to keep the Wii Remote protected in case it is accidentally dropped or thrown. Nintendo started shipping consoles, separately-packaged controllers, and the controller included in the game Wii Play with the jacket on October 15, 2007. As with the wrist strap replacements, Nintendo has put up a Wii Remote Jacket request form on its Australian, British, Danish, Dutch, Spanish, Italian, North American and South African websites allowing current Wii owners to request up to four of the jackets free of charge, including shipping charges.
At the E3 2006 trade show, Nintendo displayed white, black, and blue controllers;][ press images released for the event featured white, red, silver, lime green, and black versions. The Wii console and controllers launched in only white versions, with Shigeru Miyamoto commenting that new hues will be provided after the relief of supply limitations.
On June 4, 2009, Nintendo revealed that it would release black versions of the Wii, Wii Remote, Nunchuk, and Classic Controller PRO in Japan on August 1, 2009. Each black Wii Remote includes a matching solid-black Wii Remote Jacket. In addition, Club Nintendo in Japan held a contest between June 25, 2009 and August 31, 2009 wherein members who purchased and registered a copy of Wii Sports Resort would be entered into a drawing to win one of 5000 blue controller sets. Each set included a Wii Remote, Wii MotionPlus, and Nunchuk, all in a sky blue color referred to as Mizuiro distinct from other blue Wii Remotes.
For North America, Nintendo announced on September 1, 2009 that black versions of the Wii Remote, Wii MotionPlus, and Nunchuk will be released during the holiday season. On November 16, 2009, the black Wii Remote and Wii MotionPlus was released as a bundle, and the black Nunchuk was released as a standalone purchase.
Blue and pink Wii Remotes were released in Japan on December 3, 2009. In North America, the blue and pink Wii Remotes were released February 14, 2010 in a bundle with a standard white Wii MotionPlus.
In Australia, the black, blue and pink versions of the Wii Remotes were released on February 25, 2010. In addition, the black Nunchuk and black Wii MotionPlus were also released on that day as well.
On September 29, 2010, Nintendo announced the Wii Remote Plus which was a standard-size Wii Remote with a built in Wii MotionPlus which would be available in white, black, blue, and pink. It was released in Australia on October 28, 2010, in Europe on November 5, 2010, in North America on November 7, 2010, and in Japan on November 11, 2010. From that point it was available with the games FlingSmash and Wii Play: Motion as well as selling as a standalone and with every new Wii console.
Nintendo released a limited edition red Wii for the 25th anniversary of Super Mario Bros. on November 17, 2010 in Japan, October 29, 2010 in Europe, and November 7, 2010 in North America. The bundle includes a Red Wii Remote Plus and Nunchuk.
At E3 2011, Nintendo announced that a gold Wii Remote Plus styled with a Triforce logo would release alongside The Legend of Zelda: Skyward Sword and would be available as a bundle with the game for a limited time.
Accessed with the Wii Remote's home button, the Home Menu displays information about the controller(s) currently being used, and allows the user to configure certain options. At the bottom of the menu screen, the battery life of all connected controllers is displayed. Below that is a bar labeled Wii Remote Settings. Selecting it brings users to an options screen where they can control the audio output volume, rumble settings, and reconnect the controllers, for example to connect Wii Remotes through one-time synchronization. Depending on when the HOME Menu is accessed, there will be a different amount of buttons displayed.
Wii Menu: No matter when the menu is accessed, the Wii Menu button will always be present. Selecting this will bring back the Wii Menu, where users can choose another channel. When playing certain Virtual Console titles, this will also create a suspend point.
Reset: In applications and games (both retail and downloadable), the Reset button is available. This performs a soft reset of that particular application, for example returning a game to its title screen or returning to the loading screen of a Wii Menu channel, what would happen if the player were to press the console's physical reset button.
Operations Guide: On Wii Menu channels, including the News Channel, Forecast Channel, Internet Channel, Everybody Votes Channel and Virtual Console titles, the Operations Guide button will appear on the Home Menu. The guide accessed acts as an instruction manual for the currently played game.
The HOME Menu can be compared to the Xbox 360's in-game menu (accessible by the "Xbox" button), or the PlayStation 3's XMB. It may be accessed under most circumstances during Wii operation, which pauses the on-screen action. Otherwise a "Home" symbol with a strikethrough appears onscreen. It is also inaccessible during Nintendo GameCube play.
The Wii Remote has the ability to sense acceleration along three axes through the use of an ADXL330 accelerometer. The Wii Remote also features a PixArt optical sensor, allowing it to determine where the Wii Remote is pointing.
Unlike a light gun that senses light from a television screen, the Wii Remote senses light from the console's Sensor Bar (model number RVL-014), which allows consistent usage regardless of a television's type or size. The Sensor Bar is about 20 cm (7.9 in) long and features ten infrared LEDs, five at each end of the bar The LEDs furthest from the center are pointed slightly outwards, the LEDs closest to the center are pointed slightly inwards, while the rest are pointed straight forward. The Sensor Bar's cable is 353 cm (11 ft 7 in) in length. The bar may be placed above or below the television, and should be centered. If placed above, the sensor should be in line with the front of the television, and if placed below, should be in line with the front of the surface the television is placed on. It is not necessary to point directly at the Sensor Bar, but pointing significantly away from the bar will disrupt position-sensing ability due to the limited viewing angle of the Wii Remote.
Use of the Sensor Bar allows the Wii Remote to be used as an accurate pointing device up to 5 meters (approx. 16 ft) away from the bar. The Wii Remote's image sensor is used to locate the Sensor Bar's points of light in the Wii Remote's field of view. The light emitted from each end of the Sensor Bar is focused onto the image sensor which sees the light as two bright dots separated by a distance "mi" on the image sensor. The second distance "m" between the two clusters of light emitters in the Sensor Bar is a fixed distance. From these two distances m and mi, the Wii CPU calculates the distance between the Wii Remote and the Sensor Bar using triangulation. In addition, rotation of the Wii Remote with respect to the ground can also be calculated from the relative angle of the two dots of light on the image sensor. Games can be programmed to sense whether the image sensor is covered, which is demonstrated in a Microgame of Smooth Moves, where if the player does not uncover the sensor, the champagne bottle that the remote represents will not open.
The Sensor Bar is required when the Wii Remote is controlling up-down, left-right motion of a cursor or reticle on the TV screen to point to menu options or objects such as enemies in first-person shooters. Because the Sensor Bar also allows the Wii Remote to calculate the distance between the Wii Remote and the Sensor Bar, the Wii Remote can also control slow forward-backward motion of an object in a 3-dimensional game. Rapid forward-backward motion, such as punching in a boxing game, is controlled by the acceleration sensors. Using these acceleration sensors (acting as tilt sensors), the Wii Remote can also control rotation of a cursor or other objects.
The use of an infrared sensor to detect position can cause some detection problems when other infrared sources are around, such as incandescent light bulbs or candles. This can be easily alleviated by using fluorescent lights around the Wii, which emit little to no infrared light. Innovative users have used other sources of IR light as Sensor Bar substitutes such as a pair of flashlights and a pair of candles. Such substitutes for the Sensor Bar illustrate the fact that a pair of non-moving lights provide continuous calibration of the direction that the Wii Remote is pointing and its physical location relative to the light sources. There is no way to calibrate the position of the cursor relative to where the user is pointing the controller without the two stable reference sources of light provided by the Sensor Bar or substitutes. Third-party wireless sensor bars have also been released, which have been popular with users of Wii emulators since the official Sensor Bar utilizes a proprietary connector to connect to the Wii console.
The position and motion tracking of the Wii Remote allows the player to mimic actual game actions, such as swinging a sword or aiming a gun, instead of simply pressing buttons. An early marketing video showed actors miming actions such as fishing, cooking, drumming, conducting a musical ensemble, shooting a gun, sword fighting, and performing dental surgery.
The LEDs can be seen through some cameras and other devices with a wider visible spectrum than the human eye, such as most digital cameras and camera phones.
The Wii Remote provides basic audio and rumble functionality. At the 2006 E3 press conference, it was revealed that the Wii Remote has its own independent speaker on the face of the unit. This was demonstrated by a developer as he strung and shot a bow in The Legend of Zelda: Twilight Princess. The sound from both the Wii Remote and television was altered as the bow shot to give the impression of the arrow traveling away from the player. Another example of its use is in Red Steels Killer match, where the players will receive their objective through the Wii Remote's speaker or No More Heroes' feature allowing players to listen to phonecalls through the Wii Remote, which was also used in Silent Hill: Shattered Memories and GoldenEye 007. The volume can be changed or muted with the "Home" button and selecting the corresponding controller icon at the bottom of the screen. The rumble feature can also be switched on or off using the Home Menu.
The Wii Remote contains a 16 KiB EEPROM chip from which a section of 6 kilobytes can be freely read and written by the host. Part of this memory is available to store up to ten Mii avatars, which can be transported to use with another Wii console. At least 4,000 bytes are available and unused before the Mii data. Pokémon Battle Revolution and Super Swing Golf also use this memory. This function is also used in Super Smash Bros. Brawl, allowing the user to save controller configuration data to the Wii Remote. Monster Hunter Tri also uses this function by allowing players to save their profiles to the Wii Remote.
The Wii Remote uses two AA batteries as a power source, which can power a Wii Remote for 60 hours using only the accelerometer functionality and 25 hours using both accelerometer and pointer functionality.In May 2013, Nintendo announced a rechargeable battery and dock accessory, and various third-party manufacturers market charging solutions for the controller (see Wii Remote Chargers). According to an interview with Nintendo industrial designer Lance Barr, limitations of the Wii Remote's expansion port make it unlikely that it will be used for internal battery charging. Although Nintendo discourages other rechargeable battery types such as lithium ion (Li-ion) and nickel-cadmium (NiCd), the company's support website indicates that nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) rechargeable batteries may be used. A 3300µF capacitor provides a temporary source of power during quick movements of the Wii Remote when connection to the batteries may be temporarily interrupted.
If the Wii Remote is not used for more than 5 minutes, such as when the player is using a GameCube controller or watching Netflix, it will shut off, and can be re-activated by pressing any button.
In September 2010, rumors were circulating of a Wii Remote with Wii MotionPlus already built in after the box art for the upcoming FlingSmash revealed it to be bundled with "Wii Remote Plus". Nintendo initially declined to comment, but later announced the device on September 29, 2010, confirming it to be a Wii Remote with MotionPlus built in, allowing players to use peripherals like the Wii Zapper and Wii Wheel without having to remove Wii MotionPlus from the Wii Remote. It competes with the Kinect and the PlayStation Move with PlayStation Eye motion controllers for the Xbox 360 and the PlayStation 3 home consoles, respectively. Nintendo later announced that the remote would be available in white, black, blue and pink. It was released in Australia on October 28, 2010, in Europe on November 5, 2010, in North America on November 7, 2010 and in Japan on November 11, 2010. It was also released as part of a bundle containing Wii Sports, New Super Mario Bros. Wii, a red Wii, red Wii Remote Plus and red Nunchuck. Currently, the red Wii Remote Plus is only planned to be available for individual sale in Japan; in all other regions they must be purchased as part of a red Wii bundle.][ It has been announced that the European version of Wii Play: Motion will be bundled with the red Wii Remote Plus, while the Black Wii Remote Plus is also included with other versions of the game.
At E3 2011, it was revealed that a gold Wii Remote Plus stylized with a Triforce logo will be released alongside The Legend of Zelda: Skyward Sword. It was available as part of a bundle with Skyward Sword for a limited time.
The Wii Remote also features an expansion port at the bottom which allows various functional attachments to be added. The connector, and any accessories that attach to it, use a 400 kHz I²C protocol. This expandability is similar to that available with the port on the Nintendo 64 controller. A female connector is found on Wii remotes while expansions use a male connector.
The Nunchuk (model number RVL-004) is the first attachment Nintendo revealed for the Wii Remote at the 2005 Tokyo Game Show. It connects to the Wii Remote via a cord that is about 3.5 to 4 feet (1 ~ 1.2 m) long. Its appearance when attached resembles the nunchaku, hence the name. It features an analog stick similar to the one found on the GameCube controller and two trigger buttons (a last-minute modification changed the two triggers to one trigger and a "C" button, as described below). It works in tandem with the main controller in many games. Like the Wii Remote, the Nunchuk also provides a three-axis accelerometer for motion-sensing and tilting, but without a speaker, a rumble function, or a pointer function. The Nunchuk's accelerometer is an STMicroelectronics LIS3L02AL.
One Nunchuk comes bundled with the Wii console. Additional Wii Remote units are sold separately without the Nunchuk. The two shoulder buttons, formerly named Z1 and Z2 respectively, had been reshaped and renamed since the Game Developers Conference. The circular top shoulder button, now called C, is much smaller than the lower rectangular shoulder button, now called Z.
The body of the Nunchuk measures 113 mm (4.4 in) long, 38 mm (1.5 in) wide, and 37 mm (1.5 in) thick. The connection port was also larger.
The Nunchuk can be connected to any microcontroller capable of I²C (e.g. Arduino's Atmel AVR), where the accelerometer, joystick and buttons data may be accessed. Todbot has created the Wiichuck, an adapter to facilitate connecting the Nunchuk to an Arduino board.
In 2008, wireless Nunchuks became available from one or more][ third party providers, eliminating the cord that links the Wii Remote with the Nunchuk.
There are two versions of the Classic Controller, the original Classic Controller and the Classic Controller Pro.
At the 2006 Electronic Entertainment Expo, Nintendo introduced the Classic Controller, which plugs into the Wii Remote via a cord in a similar fashion to the Nunchuk. Unlike most accessories, the Classic Controller largely usurps the Remote's functionality, with the Remote's buttons duplicated on the Controller. The Remote is used primarily as a wireless transmitter for the Controller and where applicable retains its pointing-device functionality.
The Classic Controller is reminiscent of the controller for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System, being the same size and having the A, B, X, Y, L and R buttons and directional pad in the same location. It also contains two analog sticks and two extra shoulder buttons used to replicate additional components found on the Nintendo GameCube controller. The controller is primarily used for Virtual Console titles, with several titles requiring either the Classic or GameCube controller to play, being optimized for the Classic Controller. Several retail Wii titles are also compatible with the controller to allow for a more traditional control scheme.
The Wii MotionPlus is an expansion device that allows the Wii Remote to more accurately capture complex motion. Incorporated with a custom version of the Wii Remote Jacket, the Wii MotionPlus affixes directly to the Wii Remote expansion port, extending the length of the controller body by approximately inches (3.8 cm). The Wii MotionPlus uses a Tuning fork gyroscope, which supplements the accelerometer and Sensor Bar capabilities of the Wii Remote, enabling controller motions to be rendered identically on the screen in real time, according to Nintendo. It is sold individually, as well as released in bundles with some MotionPlus compatible games such as Nintendo's Wii Sports Resort and "Red Steel 2" from Ubisoft. Black Wii Remotes bundled with the MotionPlus add-on were released in Europe in November 2009.
The Wii Vitality Sensor is a fingertip pulse oximeter sensor that connects through the Wii Remote. According to Nintendo, the device "will initially sense the user's pulse and a number of other signals being transmitted by their bodies, and will then provide information to the users about the body’s inner world." The Wii Vitality Sensor was announced by President and CEO Satoru Iwata at Nintendo's E3 2009 media briefing on June 2, 2009. No specific applications were revealed for the device, but when presenting the device Iwata suggested that video games may soon be used for relaxation. According to Nintendo of America president Reggie Fils-Aime, more details concerning the Wii Vitality Sensor were to be showcased during E3 2010, although no mention of the device occurred. Reggie told GameTrailers, "(E3) was not the kind of environment for a game based on relaxation", mentioning they are saving news on the device for another time and place. At E3 2010, Ubisoft introduced their own pulse oximeter sensor, "Innergy". However, at E3 2011, Nintendo announced more about the Wii Vitality Sensor. Shigeru Miyamoto said that the Wii Vitality Sensor has a difficult time performing consistently across a variety of situations but still may be released.
On July 5, 2013, Satoru Iwata disclosed that the Wii Vitality Sensor project had been cancelled due to its lack of widespread compatibility, only working on 90 out of 100 people it was tested on. Iwata also mentioned the possibility of returning to the project in the future, when the technology allows for at least a 999 out of 1000 success rate.
The Wii Zapper is a gun shell accessory for the Wii Remote. As shown in the image, the shell receives both the Wii Remote and Nunchuk, and contains a trigger that actuates the Wii Remote's B button; all other buttons are still accessible while the remote and Nunchuk are in the shell. The name is a reference to the NES Zapper light gun for the Nintendo Entertainment System. According to an interview with Shigeru Miyamoto, the idea of a Zapper-type expansion formed when the Wii Remote was first created. He expressed that "What we found is that the reason we wanted to have a Zapper is when you hold a Wii Remote, it can be difficult for some people to keep a steady hand. And holding your arm out like that can get your arm somewhat tired." The Zapper is useful for most games primarily involving gun-style weapons, such as light gun shooters, first-person shooters, and third-person shooter.
A Wii Wheel accessory comes packaged with Mario Kart Wii and later Sonic & Sega All-Stars Racing. A button which triggers the Wii Remote's "B" button protrudes from the back of the Wii Wheel; however, the wheel itself adds no functionality beyond ergonomics. The wheel has a large, encircled Wii logo at the back's middle, although this has no function. The Wii Wheel has a hole on the right side in the back to allow use of the wrist strap while the Wii Remote is attached to the accessory, and to make removing the remote from the wheel easier. The user is also able to use the pointing function of the Wii Remote while it is in the peripheral through a hole on the left. The Wii Wheel can be used for games that share a sideways steering control configuration. The Wii Wheel competes with Microsoft's Xbox 360 Wireless Racing Wheel and Logitech's Driving Force GT as part of the seventh generation of racing wheels.
A special gold version of the Wii Wheel was given as a Platinum Status Gift to Japanese Club Nintendo Members, and was also available to European Club Nintendo Members for 4000 stars.
One Wii Wheel is packaged with Mario Kart Wii, but more can be bought separately. is also optionally packaged with a Wii Wheel, and F1 2009 comes with a modified version of the Wii wheel, shaped like the wheel used in Formula One cars.
Since the release of the Wii console, many aesthetic, ergonomic, and functional accessories have been developed for the Wii Remote by third parties.
Since the release of the Wii console, people have been exploring different new ways in which to use the Wii Remote. Many third-party applications are currently in development through Wii homebrew. One popular Windows program called GlovePIE allows the Wii Remote to be used on a personal computer to emulate a keyboard, mouse or joystick. Connecting the Wii Remote to a personal computer is done via a Bluetooth connection. The Bluetooth program BlueSoleil has been proven to successfully connect a Wii Remote to a PC. Still another program (like GlovePIE) is needed to utilize the Wii Remote's protocol and to use the data it offers.
The Wii Remote Bluetooth protocol can be implemented on other devices including cell phones, which often have poor usability with games. Two students have demonstrated this concept by creating a driver software that has the capability to connect the Wii Remote to a Symbian smartphone. The idea behind this driver is that a mobile phone with a TV-out port can replace the game console.
Programmer Johnny Lee has posted video demos and sample code at his website related to the use of the Wii Remote for finger tracking, low-cost multipoint interactive whiteboards, and head tracking for desktop VR displays. This was the subject for his presentation at the prestigious TED conference, where he demonstrated several such applications. The WiimoteProject forum has become the discussion, support and sharing site for Lee's Wii Remote projects and other newer developments.
Studies have also been conducted to use the Wii Remote as a practice method to fine-tune surgeons' hand motions. Utilizing DarwiinRemote, researchers at the University of Memphis have adapted the Wii Remote for data collection in cognitive psychology experiments. Autodesk has released a plugin that allows the Wii Remote to control orientation of 3D models in Autodesk Design Review.
Overall reception to the Wii Remote has changed over time. The control styles provided by the controller were met with praise at its first public exhibition at E3. Since then, comments have been noted by the press on its functionality. Matt Wales of IGN UK highlighted the aiming and precision of Red Steel and stated "Taking down swathes of enemies with nothing more than a twitch of the wrist proves immensely satisfying and, more importantly, incredibly involving." Nintendo Power listed the Wii Remote as an innovative controller, citing it as innovative for several firsts, including the first use of motion control, the first built-in speaker, and the first Infrared Pointer. This is incorrect, however; the first video game controller to make use of motion sensitivity was Le Stick for the Atari 2600 and Commodore 64, manufactured by Datasoft Inc, and released in 1981.
Other publications have noted specific complaints regarding control. GameSpot expressed that some motions in Cooking Mama: Cook Off failed to transmit or meet expectation during gameplay. Similar observations were made on other titles made available during the Wii launch period. ComputerAndVideoGames.com reported that "Most prominent is the first batch of games, many of which do a better job at exposing the obstacles of full motion control, rather than the benefits... Need For Speed...is near unplayable, Far Cry got it all wrong, and the motion control in Marvel: Ultimate Alliance just feels tacked on."
The overall situation was described by Joystiq thus: "Over the months since launch, the unpredictable Wii Remote has led to a maddening dichotomy. Some games are too easy, while others are too hard – for all the wrong reasons...Gamers who crave a deeper challenge have to settle for battling incomprehensible controls." Critics felt that fault was largely attributed to the developers' lack of experience with the Wii Remote. Jeremy Parish of the magazine Electronic Gaming Monthly compared the initial phase of control implementation to that of the Nintendo DS. Matt Casamassina of IGN also presumed that the first generation of Wii games were of an experimental stage and that potential for refinement had yet to be exploited.
Later-released titles have seen mixed reactions in terms of control. Of Tiger Woods PGA Tour 07 from Electronic Arts, Matthew Kato of Game Informer stated that the controller "has a hard time detecting your backswing. Thus, it’s harder to control. There were even times the game putted for me by accident." A GamePro review for Medal of Honor: Vanguard offers that the title "is an encouraging sign that developers are finally starting to work out the kinks and quirks of the Wii Remote."
First- and second-party titles have produced more favorable utilization of the Wii Remote's unique capabilities. Metroid Prime 3: Corruption, in particular, was nearly universally praised for its unique control scheme, which is seen as being unrivaled by any other console game. Corruption utilizes the Nunchuk for strafing and the infrared pointing capability of the Wii Remote for turning and special "gestures", which are used to select visors. Other Nintendo titles take a more minimalist approach, using mostly the pointer and buttons only, as with Big Brain Academy: Wii Degree, or use the controller in a sideways configuration to resemble an Nintendo Entertainment System controller while de-emphasizing more advanced capabilities, as seen in Super Paper Mario.
The Wii Remote and Nunchuk combined to sell over 8.5 million units in the United States, and took the top two spots in video game accessories sales in 2006. In the U.S., the Nunchuk was the best-selling video game hardware for January 2008, with 375,000 units sold, in a month where the Wii was the best-selling console with 274,000 units sold.
Streaming media is multimedia that is constantly received by and presented to an end-user while being delivered by a provider. Its verb form, "to stream", refers to the process of delivering media in this manner; the term refers to the delivery method of the medium rather than the medium itself.
A client media player can begin playing the data (such as a movie) before the entire file has been transmitted. Distinguishing delivery method from the media distributed applies specifically to telecommunications networks, as most other delivery systems are either inherently streaming (e.g., radio, television) or inherently nonstreaming (e.g., books, video cassettes, audio CDs). For example, in the 1930s, elevator music was among the earliest popularly available streaming media; nowadays Internet television is a common form of streamed media. The term "streaming media" can apply to media other than video and audio such as live closed captioning, stock ticker, and real-time text, which are all considered "streaming text". The term "streaming" was first used in the early 1990s as a better description for video on demand on IP networks; at the time such video was usually referred to as "store and forward video", which was misleading nomenclature.
Live streaming, which refers to content delivered live over the Internet, requires a camera for the media, an encoder to digitize the content, a media publisher, and a content delivery network to distribute and deliver the content.
In the early 1920s, George O. Squier was granted patents for a system for the transmission and distribution of signals over electrical lines which was the technical basis for what later became Muzak, a technology streaming continuous music to commercial customers without the use of radio.
Attempts to display media on computers date back to the earliest days of computing in the mid-20th century. However, little progress was made for several decades, primarily due to the high cost and limited capabilities of computer hardware. From the late 1980s through the 1990s, consumer-grade personal computers became powerful enough to display various media. The primary technical issues related to streaming were:
However, computer networks were still limited, and media were usually delivered over non-streaming channels, such as by downloading a digital file from a remote server and then saving it to a local drive on the end user's computer or storing it as a digital file and playing it back from CD-ROMs.
During the late 1990s and early 2000s, Internet users saw:
"Severe Tire Damage" was the first band to perform live on the Internet. On June 24, 1993, the band was playing a gig at Xerox PARC while elsewhere in the building, scientists were discussing new technology (the Mbone) for broadcasting on the Internet using multicasting. As proof of their technology, the band was broadcast and could be seen live in Australia and elsewhere.
RealNetworks was also a pioneer in the streaming media markets, when it broadcasted a baseball game between the New York Yankees and the Seattle Mariners over the Internet in 1995.
The first symphonic concert on the internet took place at the Paramount Theater in Seattle, Washington on November 10, 1995.][ The concert was a collaboration between The Seattle Symphony and various guest musicians such as Slash (Guns 'n Roses, Velvet Revolver), Matt Cameron (Soundgarden, Pearl Jam), and Barrett Martin (Screaming Trees).
When Word Magazine launched in 1995, they featured the first-ever streaming soundtracks on the Internet. Using local downtown musicians the first music stream was "Big Wheel" by Karthik Swaminathan and the second being "When We Were Poor" by Karthik Swaminathan with Marc Ribot and Christine Bard.][
Microsoft developed a media player known as ActiveMovie in 1995 that allowed streaming media and included a proprietary streaming format, which was the precursor to the streaming feature later in Windows Media Player 6.4 in 1999. In June 1999 Apple also introduced a streaming media format in its QuickTime 4 application. It was later also widely adopted on websites along with RealPlayer and Windows Media streaming formats. The competing formats on websites required each user to download the respective applications for streaming and resulted in many users having to have all three applications on their computer for general compatibility.
Around 2002, the interest in a single, unified, streaming format and the widespread adoption of Adobe Flash prompted the development of a video streaming format through Flash, which is the format used in Flash-based players on many popular video hosting sites today such as YouTube. Increasing consumer demand for live streaming has prompted YouTube to implement a new live streaming service to users. Presently the company also offers a (secured) link returning the available connection speed of the user.
These advances in computer networking, combined with powerful home computers and modern operating systems, made streaming media practical and affordable for ordinary consumers. Stand-alone Internet radio devices emerged to offer listeners a no-computer option for listening to audio streams. In general, multimedia content has a large volume, so media storage and transmission costs are still significant. To offset this somewhat, media are generally compressed for both storage and streaming.
Increasing consumer demand for streaming of high definition (HD) content has led the industry to develop a number of technologies such as WirelessHD or ITU-T G.hn, which are optimized for streaming HD content without forcing the user to install new networking cables.
Today, a media stream can be streamed either live or on demand. Live streams are generally provided by a means called "true streaming". True streaming sends the information straight to the computer or device without saving the file to a hard disk. On-demand streaming is provided by a means called progressive streaming or progressive download. Progressive streaming saves the file to a hard disk and then is played from that location. On-demand streams are often saved to hard disks and servers for extended amounts of time; while the live streams are only available at one time only (e.g., during the football game).
Streaming media is increasingly being coupled with use of social media. For example, sites such as YouTube encourage social interaction in webcasts through features such as live chat, online surveys, etc. Furthermore, streaming media is increasingly being used for social business and e-learning.
A broadband speed of 2.5 Mbit/s or more is recommended for streaming movies, for example to an Roku, Apple TV, Google TV or a Sony TV Blu-ray Disc Player, 10 Mbit/s for High Definition content.
Streaming media storage size is calculated from the streaming bandwidth and length of the media using the following formula (for a single user and file):
Real world example:
One hour of video encoded at 300 kbit/s (this is a typical broadband video as of 2005[update] and it is usually encoded in a 320 × 240 pixels window size) will be:
If the file is stored on a server for on-demand streaming and this stream is viewed by 1,000 people at the same time using a Unicast protocol, the requirement is:
This is equivalent to around 135 GB per hour. Using a multicast protocol the server sends out only a single stream that is common to all users. Therefore such a stream would only use 300 kbit/s of serving bandwidth. See below for more information on these protocols.
The calculation for live streaming is similar.
Assumptions: speed at the encoder, is 500 kbit/s.
If the show lasts for 3 hours with 3,000 viewers, then the calculation is:
The audio stream is compressed using an audio codec such as MP3, Vorbis or AAC.
The video stream is compressed using a video codec such as H.264 or VP8.
Encoded audio and video streams are assembled in a container bitstream such as MP4, FLV, WebM, ASF or ISMA.
The bitstream is delivered from a streaming server to a streaming client using a transport protocol, such as MMS or RTP. Newer technologies such as HLS, Microsoft's Smooth Streaming, and Adobe's HDS have emerged to enable adaptive bitrate streaming over HTTP as an alternative to using proprietary transport protocols.
The streaming client may interact with the streaming server using a control protocol, such as MMS or RTSP.
Designing a network protocol to support streaming media raises many problems, such as:
Useful - and typical - applications of the "streaming" concept are, for example, long video lectures performed "online" on the Internet. An advantage of this presentation is that these lectures can be very long, indeed, although they can always be interrupted or repeated at arbitrary places.
There are also new marketing concepts. For example the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra sells Internet live streams of whole concerts, instead of several CDs or similar fixed media, by their so-called "Digital Concert Hall" using YouTube for "trailing" purposes only. These "online concerts" are also spread over a lot of different places - cinemas - at various places on the globe. A similar concept is used by the Metropolitan Opera in New York.
A transverse mode
of a beam of electromagnetic radiation is a particular electromagnetic field pattern of radiation measured in a plane perpendicular (i.e., transverse) to the propagation direction of the beam. Transverse modes occur in radio waves and microwaves confined to a waveguide, and also in light waves in an optical fiber and in a laser's optical resonator.
Transverse modes occur because of boundary conditions imposed on the wave by the waveguide. For example, a radio wave in a hollow metal waveguide must have zero tangential electric field amplitude at the walls of the waveguide, so the transverse pattern of the electric field of waves is restricted to those that fit between the walls. For this reason, the modes supported by a waveguide are quantized. The allowed modes can be found by solving Maxwell's equations for the boundary conditions of a given waveguide.
Transverse modes are classified into different types:
In rectangular waveguides, rectangular mode numbers are designated by two suffix numbers attached to the mode type, such as TEmn
, where m
is the number of half-wavelengths across the width of the waveguide and n
is the number of half-wavelengths across the height of the waveguide. In circular waveguides, circular modes exist and here m
is the number of half-wavelengths along a half-circumference and n
is the number of half-wavelengths along a radius.
Modes of hollow metallic waveguides filled with a homogeneous, isotropic material are TE or TM. Light travelling in an optical fiber or other dielectric waveguide forms hybrid-type modes. The fiber modes are usually referred to as LP
(linear polarization) modes, which refers to a scalar approximation for the field solution, treating it as if it contains only one transverse field component (this is accurate because of the low refractive index contrast in typical fibers, the transverse electromagnetic (TEM) type. Optical resonators exhibit linearly polarized TEM modes.
In a laser with cylindrical symmetry, the transverse mode patterns are described by a combination of a Gaussian beam profile with a Laguerre polynomial. The modes are denoted TEMpl
are integers labeling the radial and angular mode orders, respectively. The intensity at a point r
,φ (in polar coordinates) from the centre of the mode is given by:
where ρ = 2r
2, and Lpl
is the associated Laguerre polynomial of order p
and index l
is the spot size of the mode corresponding to the Gaussian beam radius.
=0, the TEM00
mode is the lowest order, or fundamental transverse mode of the laser resonator and has the same form as a Gaussian beam. The pattern has a single lobe, and has a constant phase across the mode. Modes with increasing p
show concentric rings of intensity, and modes with increasing l
show angularly distributed lobes. In general there are 2l
+1) spots in the mode pattern (except for l
=0). The TEM0i*
mode, the so-called doughnut mode
, is a special case consisting of a superposition of two TEM0i
modes (i=1,2,3), rotated 360°/4i with respect to one another.
The overall size of the mode is determined by the Gaussian beam radius w
, and this may increase or decrease with the propagation of the beam, however the modes preserve their general shape during propagation. Higher order modes are relatively larger compared to the TEM00
mode, and thus the fundamental Gaussian mode of a laser may be selected by placing an appropriately sized aperture in the laser cavity.
In many lasers, the symmetry of the optical resonator is restricted by polarizing elements such as Brewster's angle windows. In these lasers, transverse modes with rectangular symmetry are formed. These modes are designated TEMmn
being the horizontal and vertical orders of the pattern. The electric field pattern at a point (x
) for a beam propagating along the z
-axis is given by
are the waist, spot size, radius of curvature, and Gouy phase shift as given for a Gaussian beam;
is a normalization constant; and
is the k
th physicist's Hermite polynomial. The corresponding intensity pattern is
mode corresponds to exactly the same fundamental mode as in the cylindrical geometry. Modes with increasing m
show lobes appearing in the horizontal and vertical directions, with in general (m
+ 1) lobes present in the pattern. As before, higher-order modes have a larger spatial extent than the 00 mode.
The phase of each lobe of a TEMmn
is offset by π radians with respect to its horizontal or vertical neighbours. This is equivalent to the polarization of each lobe being flipped in direction.
The overall intensity profile of a laser's output may be made up from the superposition of any of the allowed transverse modes of the laser's cavity, though often it is desirable to operate only on the fundamental mode.
The number of modes in an optical fiber distinguishes multi-mode optical fiber from single-mode optical fiber. To determine the number of modes in a step-index fiber, the V number needs to be determined:
is the wavenumber,
is the fiber's core radius, and
are the refractive indices of the core and cladding, respectively. Fiber with a V-parameter of less than 2.405 only supports the fundamental mode (a hybrid mode), and is therefore a single-mode fiber whereas fiber with a higher V-parameter has multiple modes.
Decomposition of field distributions into modes is useful because a large number of field amplitudes readings can be simplified into a much smaller number of mode amplitudes. Because these modes change over time according to a simple set of rules, it is also possible to anticipate future behavior of the field distribution. These simplifications of complex field distributions ease the signal processing requirements of fiber-optic communication systems.
Capture the flag
VideoLan VideoConference (VLVC) is a plugin for the VLC media player. It adds videoconferencing functions, it can connect from 2 to 10 people so that they can see and hear each other with the help of a computer and a webcam. This software is free and is supported on Windows, Linux and Mac OS. It can be downloaded on the Internet and it aims to be used by private individuals and professionals as well.
VLVC offers four kinds of videoconferencing modes, thus covering most of the users' needs.
The project was created in 2003 by a group of students of Epitech, it was then taken over in 2005. Considering the good results of VLVC as a school project, new students have joined the team to take over the work. Former members are still actively contributing.
Single-player video game
Capture the flag, commonly abbreviated as CTF, is a traditional outdoor game where two teams each have a flag (or other marker) and the object is to capture the other team's flag, located at the team's "base", and bring it safely back to their own base. Enemy players can be "tagged" by players in their home territory; these players are then, depending on the agreed rules, out of the game, members of the opposite team, sent back to their own territory, or "in jail". (One variation of the game includes a "jail" area in addition to the flag on each team's territory.)
Capture the Flag requires a playing field of some sort. Whether indoor or outdoor, the field is divided into two clearly designated halves, known as territories. Players form two teams, one for each territory. Each side has a "flag" which is most often a piece of fabric, but can be any object small enough to be easily carried by a person (night time games might use flashlights, glowsticks or lanterns as the "flags"). It is also suggested that teams wear dark colors at night time to increase the difficulty of the opponents to see them.
The object of the game is for players to make their way into the opposing team's territory, grab the flag and return with it to their own territory without being tagged. The flag is defended mainly by tagging opposing players who attempt to take it. Within their own territory players are "safe", meaning that they cannot be tagged by opposing players. Once they cross in to the opposing team's territory they are vulnerable.
The flags are generally placed in a visibly obvious location (but in some variations the flag is hidden) at the rear of a team's territory. In another, more difficult version, the flag is hidden in a place where it can only be seen from one angle. It also might have some challenge involved. For example, the flag could be hidden in the leaves up in a tall tree, and the players have to see the flag, then knock it out and bring it to their base.
Different versions of Capture the Flag have different rules both for handling the flag and for what happens to tagged players. A player who is tagged may be eliminated from the game entirely, be forced to join the opposing team, sent back to their own territory, or be placed in "jail". The jail is a predesignated area of the group's territory which exists for holding tagged players. It is usually located a good distance from the flag in order to minimize the possibility of simultaneous flag grabs and jail breaks.
While tagged players may be confined to jail for a limited, predetermined time, the most common form of the game involves the option for a "jailbreak". In this version, players who are tagged remain in jail indefinitely. However, players from their own team may free them from jail by means of a jailbreak. Jailbreaks are accomplished by a player running from their own territory into the enemy's jail. Such action may, depending on the rules, free all jailed players or simply those who are physically touched by the one performing the jailbreak. In general freed players are obligated to return directly to their own territory before attempting offensive action (i.e., attempting to grab the flag).
While returning to their own side, freed players usually, although not always, acquire "free walk-backs", in which they are safe from tagging until they reach their home territory. The player performing the jail break, on the other hand, is neither safe, nor restricted from performing other actions such as attempting to grab the flag or generally moving about enemy territory. Sometimes, players in jail form chains, so that if a teammate tags one person in the chain, everyone is free. Simply leaving jail without being freed is considered poor sportsmanship and is severely frowned upon, often leading to expulsion from the game. If all players on one team are jailed (meaning no teammate can free them from jail), then the other team will have all the time they want to find the other team's flag.
The rules for the handling of the flag also vary from game to game and deal mostly with the disposition of the flag after a failed attempt at capturing it. In one variant, after a player is tagged while carrying the flag, it is returned to its original place. In another variant, the flag is left in the location where the player was tagged. This latter variant obviously makes offensive play easier, as the flag will tend, over the course of the game, to be moved closer to the dividing line between territories. In some games, it is possible for the players to throw the flag to teammates. As long as the flag stays in play without hitting the ground, it is allowed for the players to pass.
When the flag is captured by one player, he is not safe from being tagged. Sometimes, the flag holder may not be safe at all, even in his home territory, until he obtains both flags, thus ending the game. But he has the option to return to his own side or hand it off to a teammate who will then carry it to the other side. In most versions, he may not throw the flag, but only hand it off while running. The game is won when a player returns to his own territory with the enemy flag. Also, as a general rule, the flag carrier may not attempt to free any of their teammates from jail.
Alterations may include "one flag" CTF in which there is a defensive team and an offensive team, or games with three or more flags. In the case of the latter, one can only win when all flags are captured, not only one.
Another variation is when the players put bandannas in their pockets with about six inches sticking out. Instead of a player tagging his opponents, he must pull his opponent's bandanna out of their pocket. No matter where a player is when his bandanna is pulled, he is captured and must, depending on the preferences of the players, go to jail, or return to his base before returning to play. In this version there is no team territory, only a small base where the team's flag is kept. In order to win, one team must have both of the flags in their base.
In some urban settings, the game is played indoors in an enclosed area with walls, similar to the walls in a hockey rink, only the wall is entirely rectangular. There is also a spot sticking out of the back of the opposing ends which is connected to the playing area for the flag to be placed in. In this urban variation, legal checking hockey style and legal checking against the boards is allowed. A player who commits a foul or illegal check is placed in a penalty box for a specified amount of time, depending on the severity of the foul. A player who deliberately injures an opponent is expelled from the rest of the game. Throwing the flag is allowed in this variation, as long as the flag is caught on the fly. If the flag is thrown to a teammate but hits the ground before it can be caught, the flag is placed from the spot of the throw. If a player throws the flag, but is blocked or intercepted by a player from the opposing team, the flag is placed back at the base.
In 1984, Scholastic published Bannercatch for the Apple II and Commodore computers. An "edutainment" game with recognizable capture-the-flag mechanics, Bannercatch allowed up to two humans (each alternating between two characters in the game world) to play capture the flag against an increasingly difficult team of four AI bots. Bannercatch's game world was divided into quadrants: home, enemy, and two "no-mans land" areas which held the jails. A successful capture required bringing the enemy flag into one team's "home" quadrant. Players could be captured when in an enemy territory, or in "no-mans land" while holding a flag. Captured players had to be "rescued" from their designated jail by one of the other members of the team. Fallen flags remained where they dropped until a time-out period elapsed, after which the flag would return to one of several starting locations in home territory. The 2D map also featured walls, trees and a moving river (enabling a wide variety of strategies). Special locations in the play area allowed humans to query the game state (such as flag status) status using binary messages.
In 1992, Richard Carr released an MS-DOS based game called Capture the Flag. It is a turn-based strategy game with real time network / modem play (or play-by-mail) based around the traditional outdoor game. The game required players to merely move one of their characters onto the same square as their opponent's flag, as opposed to bringing it back to friendly territory, because of difficulties implementing the artificial intelligence that the computer player would have needed to bring the enemy flag home and intercept opposing characters carrying the flag.][
A common multiplayer gameplay mode (usually with team-based gameplay, as with the real-life game) called "Capture the Flag" is found in many first- and third-person shooters such as Team Fortress 2, Marathon, Quake, Urban Terror, Unreal Tournament, Tribes, the Halo series, the Call of Duty series, the TimeSplitters series (renamed "Capture The Bag"), and Metroid Prime Hunters. It is possible that the sandbox game Minecraft will release a CTF expansion. CTF is even in some sports games such as the Tony Hawk Pro Skater series and the racing series Midnight Club. Another useful example for CTF in just two dimensions (2D) is a game called Teeworlds. Each team has a flag and the players attempt to take the enemy's flag from their base and bring it back to their own flag to score. CTF is most commonly played in multiplayer games.
Possibly the first first-person shooter to feature CTF was Rise of the Triad, released in 1994, while the first real-time strategy to feature CTF was Command & Conquer in 1995. One of the multiplayer modes was called Capture the Triad, and conforms to the objectives stated above for CTF games in first person shooters, with the exception that the items to be captured and defended were triad symbols. Note that in First-Person Shooters, unlike the children's game, players can be harmed irrespective of whether they are in their own base.
CTF was popularized when it was first introduced as a modification to Quake by the company Threewave. CTF is also a popular mode in the Team Fortress mod for Quake, its remake Team Fortress Classic for Half-Life, and the standalone Team Fortress 2. CTF mods are available for multiple first person shooters, including Wolfenstein: Enemy Territory, which is a free download using the game engine from the popular Return to Castle Wolfenstein.
Compared to a deathmatch game, CTF scenarios often feature some sort of transportation tool that can be used to travel faster and to reach areas which the player would not normally be able to reach without this extra aid. Such tools might be a grappling hook or a portable teleporter. In Battlefield 1942 CTF the many vehicles available in the game serve this role, though in ETF the vehicles move slower than the players, and are vulnerable objectives in most missions. The usual reason for including such equipment is because it allows players to outmaneuver the flag carrier on his way home, as the flag carrier is often not able to use transportation tools. In Unreal Tournament 2004, for example, only players in ground vehicles can hold and thus capture the flag, whereas using air vehicles or the Translocator (a personal teleporter) will cause the player to drop the flag. The Halo series takes this concept a step further, preventing the flag carrier from using weapons at all, unless the carrier willfully drops the flag, though the flag-carrier can still board vehicles as a passenger (Halo 2 and 3) or as the driver (1 only). This feature gives the defenders a slight edge, thus making the game sessions last a bit longer. Unreal Tournament 2004 introduces a Vehicle CTF mode, differentiated from normal CTF maps by the presence of vehicles and in Unreal Tournament III and the replacement of the Translocator with a Hoverboard.
In computer security, Capture the Flag (CTF) is a computer security competition. CTF contests are usually designed to serve as an educational exercise to give participants experience in securing a machine, as well as conducting and reacting to the sort of attacks found in the real world. Reverse-engineering, network sniffing, protocol analysis, system administration, programming, and cryptanalysis are all skills which have been required by prior CTF contests at DEF CON. There are two main styles of capture the flag competitions: attack/defense and jeopardy.
In an attack/defense style competition, each team is given a machine (or small network) to defend on an isolated network. Teams are scored on both their success in defending their assigned machine and on their success in attacking other team's machines. Depending on the nature of the particular CTF game, teams may either be attempting to take an opponent's flag from their machine or teams may be attempting to plant their own flag on their opponent's machine. One of the more prominent attack/defense CTFs is held every year at the hacker conference DEF CON.
Jeopardy style competitions usually involve multiple categories of problems, each of which contains a variety of questions of different point values. Teams race to be the first to solve the most number of points, but do not directly attack each other.
Capture the Flag is among the games that have made a recent comeback among adults as part of the urban gaming trend (which includes games like Pac-Manhattan, Fugitive and Manhunt). The game is played on city streets and players use cellphones to communicate. News about the games spreads virally through the use of blogs and mailing lists. Urban Capture the Flag has been played in cities throughout North America. One long running example occurs on the Northrop Mall at the University of Minnesota on Fridays with typical attendance ranging from 50 to several hundred
Multiplayer video game
A single-player video game is a video game where input from only one player is expected throughout the course of the gaming session. "Single-player game" usually refers to a game that can only be played by one person, while "single-player mode" usually refers to a particular game mode that is designed to be played by a single player, though the game also contains modes that can be played by several players simultaneously.
The vast majority of modern console games and arcade games are designed so that they can be played by a single player; although many of these games have modes that allow two or more players to play (not necessarily simultaneously), very few actually require more than one player for the game to be played. The Unreal Tournament series is one example of such.
The earliest video games, such as Tennis for Two (1958), Spacewar! (1962), and Pong (1972), were symmetrical games designed to be played by two players. Single-player games gained popularity only after this, with early titles such as Speed Race (1974) and Space Invaders (1978).
The reason for this, according to Raph Koster, is down to a combination of several factors: increasingly sophisticated computers and interfaces that enabled asymmetric gameplay, cooperative gameplay and story delivery within a gaming framework, coupled with the fact that the majority of early games players had introverted personality types (according to the Myers-Briggs personality type indicator).
Although the vast majority of modern games incorporate a single-player element either as the core or as one of several game modes, single-player gaming is currently viewed by the video game industry as peripheral to the future of gaming, with Electronic Arts president Frank Gibeau stating that he had not approved one game to be developed as a single-player experience, and Gogogic CEO Jonas Antonsson claiming that games are meant to be played with others, and that single-player modes are a gimmick.
As the narrative and conflict in single-player gameplay is created by a computer rather than a human opponent, single-player games are able to deliver certain gaming experiences that are typically absent - or de-emphasised - in multiplayer games.
Single-player games rely more heavily on compelling stories to draw the player into the experience and to create a sense of investment. Humans are unpredictable, so human players - allies or enemies - cannot be relied upon to carry a narrative in a particular direction, and so multiplayer games tend not to focus heavily on a linear narrative. By contrast, many single-player games are built around a compelling story.
Whilst a multiplayer game relies upon human-human interaction for its conflict, and often for its sense of camaraderie, a single-player game must build these things artificially. As such, single-player games require deeper characterisation of their non-player characters in order to create connections between the player and the sympathetic characters and to develop deeper antipathy towards the game's antagonist(s). This is typically true of role-playing games (RPGs), such as Dragon Quest and the Final Fantasy series, which are primarily character-driven.
It should be noted that these game elements are not firm, fixed rules; single-player puzzle games such as Tetris or racing games focus squarely on gameplay.
Notable examples of single-player games include action-adventure games such as The Legend of Zelda, platform games such as the Mario series and Sonic the Hedgehog, stealth games such as the Metal Gear series, survival horror such as Resident Evil and Silent Hill, and first-person shooters such as Doom, Half-Life and Deus Ex.
A multiplayer video game is a video game in which more than one person can play in the same game environment at the same time. Video games are often single-player activities that put the player against pre-programmed challenges and/or AI-controlled opponents, which often lack the flexibility and ingenuity of regular human thinking.
Multiplayers components allow players to enjoy interaction with other individuals, be it in the form of partnership, competition or rivalry. Furthermore, it provides them with a form of social communication that is almost always missing in single-player oriented games. In a variety of different multiplayer game types, players may individually compete against two or more human contestants, work cooperatively with a human partner(s) in order to achieve a common goal, supervise activities of other players, or engage in a game type that incorporates any possible combination of the above. Examples of better-known multiplayer game types include deathmatch and team death match, MMORPG-associated forms of PVP and Team PvE, capture the flag, domination (competition over control of resources), co-op, and various objective-based modes, often expressed in terms of "assault/defend a control point". Multiplayer games typically require the players to share resources of a single game system or use networking technologies that allow players to play together over greater distances.
Some of the earliest known video games were two-player games, including early sports games like Tennis For Two (1958) and Pong (1972), early shooter games like Spacewar! (1962), and early racing video games like Astro Race (1973). First known examples of massively multi-player real time games based around real time networking were developed on the PLATO system starting around 1973. Important multi-user games developed on this system included Empire from 1973 and Spasim from 1974. The latter was a pioneering first-person shooter. Other early video games sometimes included turn-based multiplayer modes, popular in tabletop arcade machines. In such games play is alternated at convenient points, often after the loss of a life. Scores of all players are often retained onscreen in order that players can gauge their relative standing.
The first large scale serial sessions based around a single computer were STAR (based on the series Star Trek), OCEAN (a battle of ships, submarines and helicopters with multiple players divided up between the two combating cities) and CAVE (based on Dungeons and Dragons), created by Christopher Caldwell (with art work and suggestions by Roger Long and some assembly coding by Robert Kenney) in 1975 on the University of New Hampshire's DECsystem-1090. The University's computer system had hundreds of terminals connected via serial lines through cluster PDP-11s for student, teacher and staff access. The games worked by having one instance of the program running on each terminal (for each player), sharing a segment of shared memory (known as the "High segment" in the OS TOPS-10). Due to their popularity, the games were frequently banned by the University's Computer Services since they could easily take up all available RAM and cycles. STAR was based on the original single-user turn oriented BASIC program STAR written by Michael O'Shaughnessy at UNH in 1974.
Digital Equipment Corporation soon distributed another multi-user version of Star Trek called Decwars though not featuring real-time screen updating. Decwars was widely distributed to universities with DECsystem-10s. In 1981, Cliff Zimmerman wrote a more detailed homage to Star Trek in Macro-10 for DECsystem-10s and -20s using VT100 series graphics. "VTtrek" pitted 4 Federation players against 4 Klingons in a three dimensional universe.
MIDI Maze was an early first-person shooter released in 1987 for the Atari ST. It was unique in featuring network multiplayer through the MIDI interface long before mainstream Ethernet and Internet play became commonplace. It is considered the first multiplayer 3D shooter on a mainstream system and the first major network multiplayer action game, with support for as many as 16 players. It was followed up by ports to various platforms in 1991 under the title Faceball 2000, including the Game Boy and Super NES, making it possibly the first handheld and multiplatform first-person shooter and an early console example of the genre.
Networked multiplayer gaming modes are colloquially called "netplay" to refine the meaning. The first popular video gaming title to release a LAN version was Spectre in 1991 for the Apple Macintosh, featuring AppleTalk support for up to eight game players. Spectre's multiplayer popularity was attributed in part by the display of a player's name above their cyber tank vehicle. This was followed by Doom in 1993, when the first network version of the game allowed a total of four simultaneous gamers.
Playing networked multiplayer games via LAN often eliminates problems common in Internet play, such as lag and anonymity of players. As a result, multiplayer games usually are the focus of LAN parties. Play-by-email games are multiplayer games that use email as the method of communication between computers. Other turn-based variations which do not require players to be online at the same time are Play-by-post gaming and Play-by-Internet. Some online games are "massively multiplayer" games, which means that a large number of players participate simultaneously. The two major genres are MMORPG (massively multiplayer online role-playing game) such as World of Warcraft or EverQuest and MMORTS (massively multiplayer online real-time strategy).
Some networked multiplayer games do not even feature a single-player mode. For example, MUDs and massively multiplayer online games, such as RuneScape are multiplayer games by definition. First-person shooters have become very popular multiplayer games and games like Battlefield 1942 and Counter-Strike gained their fame despite not featuring extensive (or any) single-player plot or gameplay. Casual gaming has also seen an emergence in networked multiplayer games as shown by developer and gaming site OMGPOP, whose library of offerings only include multiplayer flash games. The biggest MMOG in the world is Lineage out of South Korea with 19 million registered gamers which is played in several mostly Asian countries. The biggest Western MMOG in 2008 is World of Warcraft with over 10 million registered gamers worldwide. This category of games currently requires multiple machines to connect to each other over the Internet, but before the Internet became popular, MUDs were played on time-sharing computer systems, and games such as Doom were played on a LAN.
Gamers often refer to latency by the term ping, which measures round-trip network communication delays (by the use of ICMP packets). For example, a player on a DSL connection with a 50 ms "ping" will be able to react faster to game events than a modem user with 350 ms average latency. Another popular complaint is packet loss and choke, which can render a player unable to "register" their actions with the server. In first-person shooters, this problem usually manifests itself in the problem of bullets appearing to hit the enemy, but the enemy taking no damage. Note that the player's connection is not the only factor; the entire network path to the server is relevant, and some servers are slower than others. While latency is frequently complained about, many players believe a lack of finesse and decent tactics is more damaging than a slow connection in most games. Major and frequent variations in latency, however, can be another story; these can make it very difficult to properly play the game. When a player experience network issues such as high latency its most often referred to as lag, e.g. the game is lagging. This issue has even been exploited in various cheats where the cheater uses this to his advantage.
Starting with the Sega NetLink in 1996, Game.com in 1997 and Dreamcast in 2000, game consoles have also begun to support network gaming, over both the internet and LANs. Many mobile phones and handheld consoles also offer wireless gaming through Bluetooth or similar technologies.
In modern console games, arcade games, and personal computer games, multiplayer less commonly implies that the players play together by using several controllers plugged into the same game system. Home console games often use split-screen so that each player has an individual view of the action (important for genres such as first person shooter and racing video games), although most arcade games and some console games (ranging from Pong) do not. Almost all multiplayer modes on Beat 'em up games (due to their nature) offer a single system option. Racing games are increasingly dropping the split-screen mode in favor of multiple system multiplayer.
Online cheating in games is an activity that modifies the game experience to give one player an advantage over others.
The Grim Adventures of Billy & Mandy
An electronic game is a game that employs electronics to create an interactive system with which a player can play. The most common form of electronic game today is the video game, and for this reason the terms are often mistakenly used synonymously. Other common forms of electronic game include such non-exclusively-visual products as handheld electronic games, standalone systems (e.g. pinball, slot machines, or electro-mechanical arcade games), and specifically non-visual products (e.g. audio games). There are electronic game sets for chess, draughts and battleships
The earliest form of computer game to achieve any degree of mainstream use was the text-based Teletype game. Teletype games lack video display screens and instead present the game to the player by printing a series of characters on paper which the player reads as it emerges from the platen. Practically this means that each action taken will require a line of paper and thus a hard-copy record of the game remains after it has been played. This naturally tends to reduce the size of the gaming universe or alternatively to require a great amount of paper. As computer screens became standard during the rise of the third generation computer, text-based command line-driven language parsing Teletype games transitioned into visual interactive fiction allowing for greater depth of gameplay and reduced paper requirements. This transition was accompanied by a simultaneous shift from the mainframe environment to the personal computer.
The Grim Adventures of Billy & Mandy (often shortened to simply Billy & Mandy: The Series) is an American animated television series that aired on Cartoon Network. The show began in 2003 and is a spin-off of the 2001 film Billy & Mandy and the show Grim & Evil. The Grim Adventures of Billy & Mandy follows two children, Mandy and Billy, who after winning a game to save Billy's ten-year-old pet hamster, gain the Grim Reaper as their best friend and slave forever. The show ran from June 13, 2003, to November 9, 2007 (though due to a failed spin-off, it ended by default on October 12, 2008), in all seven seasons with seventy-one episodes were made in its original run. In addition to the episodes three movies, two special episodes, and nineteen shorts were made, with 3 award wins for the series as a whole. Billy and Mandy has also been made into a video game as well as various licensed merchandise.
Worms Blast is a puzzle/action game for Microsoft Windows, PlayStation 2, Nintendo GameCube, Game Boy Advance and Mac OS X released in 2002, developed by Team17, and published by Ubisoft (except for the Mac version, which was developed and published by Feral Interactive).
The gameplay is similar to that of Puzzle Bobble/Bust-a-Move, but with several key differences. There is a hexagonal grid of coloured blocks at the top of the screen, while the player's character sits on a boat floating in water. Unlike Puzzle Bobble, it is able to move side to side. There are multiple weapons that can be used, however the only weapon the player has to start with is a bazooka. As with Worms, holding down the fire button increases the power behind the weapon's launch, affecting how far it will travel. It is possible to fire the bazooka (and some other weapons, such as the grenade and dynamite) in an "arch", allowing players to reach difficult areas.
History of video games
Games for Windows was a brand owned by Microsoft and introduced in 2006 to coincide with the release of Windows Vista and Windows 7. The brand represents a standardized technical certification program and online service for Windows games, bringing a measure of regulation to the PC game market in much the same way that console manufacturers regulate their platforms. The branding program is open to both first-party and third-party publishers.
Games for Windows was promoted through convention kiosks and through other forums as early as 2005. The promotional push culminated in a deal with Ziff Davis Media to rename the Computer Gaming World magazine to Games for Windows: The Official Magazine. The first GFW issue was published for November 2006, and the magazine was defunct as of 2008.
The history of Video Games goes as far back as the 1940s, when in 1947 Thomas T. Goldsmith, Jr. and Estle Ray Mann filed a United States patent request for an invention they described as a "cathode ray tube amusement device." Video gaming would not reach mainstream popularity until the 1970s and 1980s, when arcade video games, gaming consoles and home computer games were introduced to the general public. Since then, video gaming has become a popular form of entertainment and a part of modern culture in most parts of the world. As of 2013, there are eight generations of video game consoles.