In the early modern period, the voyages of Columbus initiated European exploration and colonization of the American continents, and are thus of great significance in world history. Christopher Columbus was a navigator and an admiral for Spain. He made four voyages to the Americas, the first being in 1492, which resulted in the Discovery of America from a European point of view.
The discovery of America has variously been attributed to others, depending on context and definition. For example, Asians migrated across the Bering Strait to North America between 12,000 and 42,000 years ago and the Vikings (c. 1000) established a short-lived settlement at L'Anse aux Meadows, Newfoundland. While Columbus was not the first European to voyage to the New World and did not actually reach the mainland until his third voyage in 1498 (when he reached South America, and the fourth voyage, when he reached Central America), his discoveries led to the widespread knowledge of the existence of the new continent, and to major European sea powers sending expeditions to the New World to build trade networks and colonies and to convert the native people to Christianity.
Iberian kingdoms have had a maritime innovation in Age of discoveries that led to the opening of the world that had never known true globalization. The evolution of expansion through exploration and colonization was dependent on the ships that the Iberians used to transport them.
Ship technology and improving developments allowed for the continuing expansion of Iberian trade and Iberian influence in the world. Developments in shipbuilding went uninhibited so long as there was a demand to cross the seas. Expansion into these new lands led to the early impact of Mesoamerican goods in Iberian society. Ship improvements were continually innovating ever since the fourteenth and fifteenth century when Christians were assaulting Muslim powers and the boundary between the two kingdoms kept getting pushed further and further south. When the boundary moved across the sea to Africa, Iberian Kingdoms followed suit and needed improved ships to take them there to continue the Reconquista and later to establish colonies.
The Age of Discovery (also known as the Age of Exploration) was a period starting in the early 15th century and continuing to the 17th century. During this period Europeans explored Africa, the Americas, Asia and Oceania. The fall of Constantinople in 1453 severed European trade links by land with Asia leading many to begin seeking routes east by sea and spurred the age of exploration. Historians often refer to the 'Age of Discovery' as the pioneer Portuguese and Spanish long-distance maritime travels in search of alternative trade routes to "the East Indies", moved by the trade of gold, silver and spices.
The Age of Discovery can be seen as a bridge between the Middle Ages and the Modern era, along with its contemporary Renaissance movement, triggering the early modern period and the rise of European nation states. European overseas expansion led to the rise of colonial empires, with the contact between the Old and New Worlds producing the Columbian Exchange: a wide transfer of plants, animals, foods, human populations (including slaves), communicable diseases and culture between the Eastern and Western hemispheres, in one of the most significant global events concerning ecology, agriculture, and culture in history. European exploration allowed the global mapping of the world, resulting in a new world-view and distant civilizations acknowledging each other, reaching the most remote boundaries much later.
Maritime history is the study of human activity at sea. It covers a broad thematic element of history that often uses a global approach, although national and regional histories remain predominant. As an academic subject, it often crosses the boundaries of standard disciplines, focusing on understanding humankind's various relationships to the oceans, seas, and major waterways of the globe. Nautical history records and interprets past events involving ships, shipping, navigation, and seafarers.
Maritime history is the broad overarching subject that includes fishing, whaling, international maritime law, naval history, the history of ships, ship design, shipbuilding, the history of navigation, the history of the various maritime-related sciences (oceanography, cartography, hydrography, etc.), sea exploration, maritime economics and trade, shipping, yachting, seaside resorts, the history of lighthouses and aids to navigation, maritime themes in literature, maritime themes in art, the social history of sailors and passengers and sea-related communities.
Finance is the practice]citation needed[ of funds management, or the allocation of assets and liabilities over time under conditions of certainty and uncertainty. A key point in finance is the time value of money, which states that a unit of currency today is worth more than the same unit of currency tomorrow. Finance aims to price assets based on their risk level, and expected rate of return. Finance can be broken into three different sub categories: public finance, corporate finance and personal finance.