Question:

What establishes the electrochemical gradient across a membrane to provide energy for ATP production?

Answer:

H+ ions (protons) collect on one side of membrane because they are pumped there by certain carriers. The electrochemical 'MORE'?

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Transport proteins Electrochemical gradient Ion transporter Carrier protein Active transport Membrane biology Cellular respiration energy Electrochemistry Electrophysiology Ion Chemiosmosis Biology
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