On the Kia Forte, the cruise control button is a circular button on the left side of the steering wheel.
A steering wheel (also called a driving wheel or hand wheel) is a type of steering control in vehicles and vessels (ships and boats).
Steering wheels are used in most modern land vehicles, including all mass-production automobiles as well as light and heavy trucks. The steering wheel is the part of the steering system that is manipulated by the driver; the rest of the steering system responds to such driver inputs. This can be through direct mechanical contact as in recirculating ball or rack and pinion steering gears, without or with the assistance of hydraulic power steering, HPS, or as in some modern production cars with the assistance of computer controlled motors, known as Electric Power Steering. With the introduction of federal vehicle regulation in the United States in 1968, FMVSS 114 required the impairment of steering wheel rotation (or transmission locked in "park") to hinder motor vehicle theft; in most vehicles this is accomplished when the ignition key is removed from the ignition lock. See steering lock.
The first automobiles were steered with a tiller, but in 1894, Alfred Vacheron took part in the Paris–Rouen race with a Panhard 4 hp model which he had fitted with a steering wheel. That is believed to be one of the earliest employments of the principle.
From 1898, the Panhard et Levassor cars were equipped as standard with steering wheels. C S Rolls introduced the first car in Britain fitted with a steering wheel when he imported a 6 hp Panhard from France in 1898. Arthur Constantin Krebs replaced the tiller with an inclined steering wheel for the Panhard car he designed for the 1898 Paris–Amsterdam–Paris race which ran 7–13 July 1898.
In 1898, Thomas B. Jeffery and his son, Charles T. Jeffery, developed two advanced experimental cars featuring a front-mounted engine, as well as a steering wheel that was mounted on the left-hand side. However, the early automaker adopted a more “conventional” rear-engine and tiller-steering layout for its first mass-produced Ramblers in 1902. The following year, the Rambler Model E was largely unchanged, except that it came equipped with a tiller early in the year, but with a steering wheel by the end of 1903. By 1904, all Ramblers featured steering wheels. Within a decade, the steering wheel had entirely replaced the tiller in automobiles.
At the insistence of Thomas B. Jeffery, the position of the driver was also moved to the left-hand side of the car during the 1903 Rambler production. Most other car makers began offering cars with left-hand drive in 1910. Soon after, most cars in the U.S. converted to left hand drive.
Steering wheels for passenger automobiles are generally circular, and are mounted to the steering column by a hub connected to the outer ring of the steering wheel by one or more spokes (single spoke wheels being a rather rare exception). Other types of vehicles may use the circular design, a butterfly shape, or some other shape. In countries where cars must drive on the left side of the road, the steering wheel is typically on the right side of the car (right-hand drive or RHD); the converse applies in countries where cars drive on the right side of the road (left-hand drive or LHD).
In addition to its use in steering, the steering wheel is the usual location for a button to activate the car's horn. Modern automobiles may have other controls, such as cruise control, audio system and telephone controls, as well as paddle shifters, built into the steering wheel to minimize the extent to which the driver must take their hands off the wheel.
The steering wheels were rigid and mounted on non-collapsible steering columns. This arrangement increased the risk of impaling the driver in case of a severe crash. The first collapsible steering column was invented in 1934 but was never successful marketed. By 1956, Ford came out with a safety steering wheel that was set high above the post with spokes that would flex, but the column was still rigid. In 1968, United States regulations (FMVSS Standard No. 204) were implemented concerning the acceptable rearward movement of the steering wheel in case of crash. Collapsible steering columns were required to meet that standard.
Power steering gives the driver an easier means by which the steering of a car can be accomplished. Modern power steering has almost universally relied on a hydraulic system, although electrical systems are steadily replacing this technology. Mechanical power steering systems (e.g., Studebaker, 1952) have been invented, but their weight and complexity negate the benefits that they provide.
While other methods of steering passenger cars have resulted from experiments, for example the "wrist-twist instant steering" Mercury Park Lanes controlled by two 5-inch (127 mm) rings, none have yet been deployed as successfully as the conventional large steering wheel.
The driver's seat, and therefore the steering wheel, is centrally located on certain high-performance sports cars, such as the McLaren F1, and in the majority of single-seat racing cars.
As a driver may have his hands on the steering wheel for hours at a time these are designed with ergonomics in mind. However, the most important concern is that the driver can effectively convey torque to the steering system; this is especially important in vehicles without power steering or in the rare event of a loss of steering assist. A typical design for circular steering wheels is a steel or magnesium rim with a plastic or rubberized grip molded over and around it. Some drivers purchase vinyl or textile steering wheel covers to enhance grip or comfort, or simply as decoration. Another device used to make steering easier is the brodie knob.
A similar device in aircraft is the yoke. Water vessels not steered from a stern-mounted tiller are directed with the ship's wheel, which may have inspired the concept of the steering wheel.
Early Formula One cars used steering wheels taken directly from road cars. They were normally made from wood (necessitating the use of driving gloves), and in the absence of packaging constraints they tended to be made as large a diameter as possible, to reduce the effort needed to turn. As cars grew progressively lower and cockpits narrower throughout the 1960s and 1970s, steering wheels became smaller, so as to fit into the more compact space available.
The number of spokes in the steering wheel has continuously changed. Most early cars had four-spoke steering wheels.
A Banjo Steering Wheel was an option on many early automobiles. Banjo Wheels predate power steering. The wire spokes were a buffer or absorber between the driver's hands and the drum of the road. Most were 3 or 4 spokes made of four or five wires in each spoke, hence the name "Banjo".
The steering wheel should be used with strategic movements of the hand and wrist in spinning motions. Caution and care should be used to ensure safety of the extremities. The constant motions used must be performed with caution. "Proper posture of the hand-arm system while using hand tools is very important. As a rule the wrist should not be bent, but must be kept straight to avoid overexertion of such tissues as tendons and tendon sheaths and compression of nerves and blood vessels."
The act of turning the steering wheel while the vehicle is stationary is called dry steering. It is generally advised to avoid dry steering as it puts strain on the steering mechanism and causes undue wear of the tires.
The first button added to the steering wheel was a switch to activate the car's electric horn. Traditionally located on the steering wheel hub or center pad, the horn switch was sometimes placed on the spokes or activated via a decorative horn ring which obviated the necessity to move a hand away from the rim. A further development, the Rim Blow steering wheel, integrated the horn switch into the steering wheel rim itself.
When speed control systems were introduced in the 1960s, some automakers located the operating switches for this feature on the steering wheel. In the 1990s, a proliferation of new buttons began to appear on automobile steering wheels. Remote or alternate adjustments for the audio system, the telephone and voice control, acoustic repetition of the last navigation instruction, stereo system, and on board computer functions can be operated comfortably and safely using buttons on the steering wheel. This ensures a high standard of additional safety since the driver is able in this way to control and operate many systems without even taking hands off the wheel or eyes off the road.
The scroll buttons can be used to set volume levels or page through menus.
Steering wheel audio control can use universal interfaces, wired or wirelessly.
The buttons can be adjusted manually for reach and height.
Certain game controllers available for arcade cabinets, personal computers and console games are designed to look and feel like a steering wheel and intended for use in racing games. The cheapest ones are just paddle controllers with a larger wheel, but most today's examples employ force feedback to simulate the tactile feedback a real driver feels from a steering wheel. This contributes to steering "feel" and is one of the hallmarks of a "driver's car" or sports car.
Kia Motors (Korean: , IPA: ), headquartered in Seoul, is South Korea's second-largest automobile manufacturer, following the Hyundai Motor Company, with sales of over 1.6 million vehicles in 2012. As of June 2012[update], the company is 32.8% owned by the Hyundai Motor Company, the fourth largest automotive group in the world based on annual vehicle sales in 2012 after Toyota, General Motors, and Volkswagen AG. Since December 28, 2012, the company has been led by Peter Schreyer.
The word Kia derives from Korean words meaning "to arise to the world from Asia".
According to Kia Motors, the name "Kia" derives from the Sino-Korean words ki ("to come out") and a (which stands for Asia), it is roughly translated as "arise or come up out of Asia" or "rising out of Asia".
South Korea's oldest car company, Kia was founded on June 9, 1944 as a manufacturer of steel tubing and bicycle parts by hand – and has operated as one of the country's Chaebols since. In 1951 Kia began building complete bicycles. In 1952, Kia changed its name from Kyungsung Precision Industry, and later built motorcycles (starting in 1957), trucks (1962) and cars (1974). The company opened its first integrated automotive assembly plant in 1973, the Sohari Plant. Kia built the small Brisa range of cars until 1981, when production came to an end after the new military dictator Chun Doo-hwan enforced industry consolidation, meaning Kia had to give up passenger cars and focus entirely on light trucks.
Starting in 1986 (when a mere 26 cars were built, followed by over 95,000 the next year), Kia rejoined the automobile industry in partnership with Ford. Kia produced several Mazda-derived vehicles for both domestic sales in South Korea and for export into other countries. These models included the Kia Pride, based on the Mazda 121, and the Avella, which were sold in North America and Australasia as the Ford Festiva and Ford Aspire.
In 1992, Kia Motors America was incorporated in the United States. The first Kia-branded vehicles in the United States were sold from four dealerships in Portland, Oregon in February 1994.][ Since then, Kia expanded methodically one region at a time. Dealers in 1994 sold the Sephia, and a few years later the United States line expanded with the addition of the Sportage. By 1995, there existed over one hundred Kia dealerships across thirty states, selling a record 24,740 automobiles.
However, during the Asian financial crisis, Kia declared bankruptcy in 1997; in 1998 Hyundai Motor Company acquired 51% of the company outbidding Ford Motor Company which had owned an interest in Kia Motors since 1986. After subsequent divestments, Hyundai Motor Company owns less than 50% of the company.
Since 2005, Kia has focused on the European market and has identified design as its "core future growth engine"—leading to the hiring of Peter Schreyer in 2006 as Chief Design Officer and his subsequent creation of a new corporate grille known as the 'Tiger Nose'.
In October 2006, Kia Motors America broke ground for Kia Motors Manufacturing Georgia in West Point, Georgia, representing a $1 billion USD investment for the company. Kia Motors Manufacturing Georgia opened in February 2010, after Kia recorded its 15th consecutive year of increased U.S. market share.
Beginning in 2006 Kia identified design as its "core future growth engine" – leading to the 2006 hiring of Peter Schreyer as Chief Design Officer. Schreyer had previously worked at Audi (designing the Audi TT) and Volkswagen and had won the Design Award of the Federal Republic of Germany.
Schreyer has since been central to a complete restyling of Kia's lineup, overseeing design activities at Kia's design centers in Frankfurt, Los Angeles, Tokyo and the Namyang Design Center in Korea.
With the Kee concept vehicle, shown at the Frankfurt Motor Show in 2007, Kia introduced a new corporate grille to create a recognizable 'face' for the brand. Known as the Tiger Nose, Shreyer indicated he wanted "a powerful visual signal, a seal, an identifier. The front of a car needs this recognition, this expression. A car needs a face and I think the new Kia face is strong and distinctive. Visibility is vital and that face should immediately allow you to identify a Kia even from a distance." Commenting on the new signature grille in 2009: "From now on, we'll have it on all our cars".
Kia Motors Corporation (KMC) was founded in 1944, is Korea's oldest manufacturer of motor vehicles and is now a division of the Hyundai-Kia Automotive Group. Over 1.5 million vehicles a year are produced in 13 manufacturing and assembly operations in eight countries which are then sold and serviced through a network of distributors and dealers covering 172 countries. Kia today has over 42,000 employees worldwide and annual revenues of over US$14.6 billion. It is the major sponsor of the Australian Open and an official automotive partner of FIFA – the governing body of the FIFA World Cup. Kia Motors Corporation's brand slogan is "The Power to Surprise". From August 2009 until December 2012, the company has been led by Hyoung-Keun (Hank) Lee.
Kia Motors America (KMA) is the American sales, marketing and distribution arm of Kia Motors Corporation based in Seoul, South Korea. KMA offers a complete line of vehicles through more than 755 dealers throughout the United States. For 2008, KMA recorded its 14th consecutive year of increased U.S. market share. In August 2009, Kia was the 8th-best selling automotive brand in the United States, outselling makes like Chrysler and Mazda.
In November 2009, Kia started production at the first U.S. Kia Motors plant, Kia Motors Manufacturing Georgia in West Point. The facility is building the 2012Kia Sorento crossover vehicle and the 2012 Kia Optima sedan.
Kia Motors Europe (KME) is the European sales and marketing division of Kia Motors Corporation (KMC). In 2007 KME moved from its previous location at Hauptstrasse 185, Eschborn (near Frankfurt) to a new purpose built facility adjacent to the Messe in Frankfurt city centre.
From 1995 to 1999 Kia produced left and right hand drive versions of the Sportage SUV at the Karmann factory in Osnabrück, Germany. From 1999 until production of the model ceased in 2003, all Sportage production reverted to South Korea.
Kia began exporting cars to Europe in mid-1991, initially selling just the Pride mini-car. It initially proved popular with buyers but sales fell towards the end of the decade and the end of production was finally announced in May 2000, with its successor—the Rio—not going on sale for another year.
By the end of 1991, Kia had sold nearly 1,800 Prides in the United Kingdom. The first full year, 1992, saw that figure double, and in 1993 it increased again to nearly 5,500.
The European range expanded in 1994 when Kia began importing the larger Mentor, a range of medium sized hatchbacks and sedan which were marketed as cheap and well-equipped alternatives to the likes of the Ford Escort and Vauxhall/Opel Astra.
A facelift in 1999 saw the Mentor name retained for the saloon, but the hatchback was renamed Shuma. These models remained on sale until 2004, when the newer Cerato was launched and gave Kia one of its first serious competitors for mainstream brands.
The Sportage SUV range, first sold in 1995, has been popular across Europe, but since 2002 Kia has gained more sales in this market thanks to the launch of the larger Sorento.
Despite Kia's range increasing from one car as late as 1993 to three cars by the end of 1995, British sales actually decreased in that period, from nearly 5,500 in 1993 to less than 4,000 the following year. In 1998, Kia's future in Britain was thrown into serious doubt when it sold less than 3,000 of its whole range – the worst in any full year on the British market.
Kia did not enter Europe's large family car market until the launch of its Credos four-door sedan in 1999. This car was similar in size to the Ford Mondeo and Opel/Vauxhall Vectra, but on its launch was actually cheaper to buy than the smaller Focus and Astra. It had a spacious interior, large boot, competitive asking price and high equipment levels, but it had little more appeal to sway buyers away from established European brands like Ford of Europe, Vauxhall/Opel, Citroën and Peugeot. Its successor, the Magentis, launched in 2001, was still nowhere near as popular as Kia might have hoped it would be.
Kia entered the MPV market in 1999 with the Sedona. On its launch, it was the cheapest full-size people carrier on sale in the United Kingdom.
With the range expanded by 1999, sales for that year reached almost 6,400 – more than double the previous year's total. That annual sales figure had almost been matched in 2000 by the end of May, reflecting Kia's growing popularity with British buyers. By 2009, Kia was firmly established as a popular brand in Britain, when sales broke the 50,000 barrier for the first time and the brand now had a share of more than 2% in the new car market. The Picanto was the most popular single model with nearly 17,000 sales.
Although the European car market knows significant difficulties, Kia boardcast increased sales in 2013.
Kia Motors has specialized in the production of military vehicles with variants and other transportation equipment and by supplying them as a sole maker of military vehicles designated by the South Korean Government since 1976, when Kia Heavy Industry Co., Ltd was established. Kia is currently designing a Kaiser Jeep M715-type vehicle named the KM450 for the South Korean Army on license from the U.S. Government. KIA Defense produces six vehicles:
Most of Kia's main plant locations are in South Korea:
Kia also has facilities in Malaysia, Slovakia, China, Vietnam, Russia and the United States:
Kia plans mass-production of the Kia Sportage all-electric Crossover; it has unveiled the Kia Venga and Kia Pop city car, which incorporate SK Energy's lithium-ion batteries.][
Kia unveiled hybrid electric concept cars at the 2008 Paris Motor Show:
kia rio 2000-2003
Kia Motors sponsors the following sports teams, events and athletes:
The Kia Forte is a compact car manufactured by Kia Motors from Korea since mid-2008 to replace the Cerato, available in two-door coupe, four-door sedan, five-door hatchback variants. It is not available in Europe, where the similar sized Kia Cee'd is offered (except for Russia and Ukraine, where the Cee'd and the Forte are both available).
In some markets, such as Costa Rica, Australia and Brazil, the Forte is marketed as the Kia Cerato replacing its predecessor of the same name. In Colombia and Singapore, the name Kia Cerato Forte is used, while Naza of Malaysia has assembled the vehicle since 2009, selling it there under the name Naza Forte.
The first generation Forte shares the same platform as the Hyundai Elantra (HD), though employing a torsion-beam rear suspension in place of the Elantra's multilink design.
Kia has stated that the Forte was specifically designed to target younger buyers attracted to sharper auto designs.
The two-door coupe "Forte Koup" was originally unveiled as a concept car in the form of the "Kia Koup" on March 20, 2008 at the New York International Auto Show. The concept sported a twin scroll turbocharged version of the 2.0-liter Theta II inline-four engine. The production Forte Koup is badged as the "Kia Cerato Koup" in Australasia, Costa Rica and South Africa. It is called the "Kia Shuma" in China, and "Kia Koup" in Chile.
The Forte sedan was designed in Kia's California design studio by Tom Kearns and his team. The Forte two-door ("Koup") was previewed as the "Kia Koup" Concept, and was also designed in Kia's California design studio. The Korean model went on sale on August 22, 2008. The US model was unveiled at the 2009 Chicago Auto Show.
The Forte hatchback five-door debuted at the 2010 New York International Auto Show 2010.
2010 Kia Forte Koup (US)
2010 Kia Forte Koup (US)
2010 Kia Forte SX sedan (US)
2011 Kia Forte SX hatchback (US)
2011 Kia Forte SX hatchback (US)
In 2009, Kia unveiled the mild hybrid Forte at the Seoul Motor Show for the South Korean market. Taking its underpinnings from the Hyundai Elantra LPI Hybrid, the car is powered by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). It is powered with a 85-kilowatt (114 hp) 1.6-litre LPG engine coupled with a 15-kilowatt (20 hp) electric motor and a lithium-polymer battery pack, making it the first production car to use lithium-polymer batteries.
Kia Forte LPI Hybrid (concept)
Kia Forte LPI Hybrid
Kia Forte LPI Hybrid
For the Chinese market, Kia has offered the "Forte Furuidi" since 2009. The Furuidi was unveiled at the Nanjing International Expo Centre, and is available with the 1.6- Gamma and 2.0-liter Theta engines. "Furuidi" means luck and auspiciousness in the Chinese language—and has a pronunciation similar to its English name "Forte".
In Malaysia, the Forte is assembled by the joint-venture company Naza-Kia and is called the "Naza Forte". It is offered with the 1.6-liter Gamma and 2.0-liter Theta II engine variants, with six-speed automatic transmissions.
In Russia and Ukraine, the Cerato (Forte) is available as the Cee'd's notchback counterpart, with the coupe and saloon available together. The Forte is not available in other European countries, due to the relatively low popularity of small family sedans there. Despite the LPI Hybrid being launched at the Frankfurt Motor Show, the Forte is still not offered in European countries outside Russia and Ukraine.
In the United States, the 2010 LX and EX included a 2.0-liter CVVT engine and a standard five-speed manual transmission, with an optional four-speed automatic or a five-speed automatic with the Fuel Economy Package. For the 2011 model year, Forte is available with an optional six-speed automatic, with the four- and five-speed automatics being discontinued.
The LX is the base model. It comes standard with electronic stability control (ESC), and seat- and side-mounted airbags. The standard stereo includes four speakers, AM/FM radio, CD/MP3 player, and Sirius XM Radio. An iPod-compatible USB input jack and an auxiliary port for an external music device and steering wheel mounted audio controls are also integrated with the sound system. Bluetooth handsfree technology is also standard. The second-tier EX adds air conditioning, power windows and door locks, cruise control, a six-speaker radio, a key fob with keyless entry, and turn signal indicators on the side mirrors. The SX has the 2.4-liter engine with a six-speed manual or optional five-speed automatic transmission. The SX also adds alloy wheels, a leather-wrapped steering wheel and shift lever, a tilting and telescoping steering column, sport-cloth seats, and a metallic finish to the interior. Later production models have soft-touch panels on the armrest and door, as well as on the dashboard. For 2011, the EX and SX sedans are automatic-only, while the base sedan and all models of the Koup and Forte5 continue to offer the choice of manual or automatic.
An optional Fuel Economy Package adds low resistance silica tires, a more efficient alternator, a five-speed automatic transmission, and aerodynamic enhancements to increase fuel efficiency. With the Fuel Economy Package, the Forte EX has a 27 mpg-US (8.7 L/100 km; 32 mpg-imp) fuel consumption in city driving and 36 mpg-US (6.5 L/100 km; 43 mpg-imp) in highway according to United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Automatic transmission models include an "Eco" display on the instrument panel that tells the driver when better than expected fuel efficiency is reached, hoping to influence driving habits toward more efficient operation.
For the Forte Koup, an optional leather package is available on both EX and SX trims. When combined with the EX trim, leather is utilized for the upholstery, steering wheel and shift lever; heated front seats and a sunroof are also included with the package. When paired with the SX trim, it includes only heated leather seats and the sunroof, as a leather-wrapped steering wheel and shift lever are already fitted as standard.
The Forte sold in Canada has similar specifications and equipment as the US-market model. Some differences include the addition of power windows, door locks and power heated exterior mirrors on the base LX trim, a telescopic steering wheel on the EX trim, and a standard sunroof and automatic climate control system on the SX trim. The EX and SX also have a chrome-trimmed rear garnish and door handles. In contrast to the transmissions offered in the United States, the automatic transmission on offer in Canada is a 6-speed.
Kia released images of the second generation Forte for the 2014 model year in late July 2012, when the company revealed its Korean-market counterpart, Kia K3. The car is completely redesigned with a lower, wider, and longer stance, making it more aggressive.][ The 2014 Kia Forte is believed to include LED headlights and tail lights as a standard feature, and will further Kia's driver-oriented cockpit design inside. To make it more fuel efficient, the Forte is offered with the new engineNu, in a 1.8 Liter DOHC MPI 4-cylinder producing 148 hp (110 kW) with 131 pound-feet (178 N·m) of torque, and a 2.0 Liter DOHC GDI 4-cylinder rated at 173 hp (129 kW) with 154 pound-feet (209 N·m) of torque.][
The car was presented to the public for the first time out of South Korea on Santiago Motorshow (Chile) as Kia Cerato, on October 3., 2012.
Kia Racing, a factory-sponsored team in the Continental Tire Sports Car Challenge, has currently entered a few Fortes in the series. Kia has proven to be notably competitive in the series as well as the SCCA World Challenge touring car class alongside the factory-sponsored Kia Rio in the Touring Car B-Spec class.
The Hyundai Grandeur (Korean: ) is a mid-size luxury car (initially full-size car) produced by the South Korean manufacturer Hyundai since 1986. The Grandeur has evolved through five generations with intermediate restylings, and is marketed under various nameplates worldwide — prominently as the Hyundai Azera (현대 아제라). As the Azera, it was considered the flagship model of Hyundai's United States lineup until the arrival of the Genesis sedan. Currently the Azera slots between the midsize Sonata and the Genesis sedan.
The first Grandeur was a rebadged Mitsubishi Debonair produced by Hyundai. Initially launched with Mitsubishi-sourced 2.0L SOHC MPI version of the engine used in the first generation Sonata, a 2.4 L SOHC MPI engine was added in 1987. A V6 3.0 L engined model was launched in 1991 to better compete with the Daewoo Imperial.
Before the 1988 Seoul Olympics, most of the luxury car market of South Korea was held by Daewoo Motors and its Royale Series. From October 1978, Hyundai built its luxury car, Ford Granada Mark II, in Korea but the competition with Daewoo Royale seemed that it already had ended. As Hyundai was looking for entering luxury car market, it tried to make its own luxury car. However, as Daewoo Motors had much more powerful brand than Hyundai, it was difficult to do such an adventure. At last, it decided to make one, borrowing the platform, technology, and internal configuration from Mitsubishi Motors.
In the early eighties, Mitsubishi Motors also wanted to renew its own Mitsubishi Debonair, since the model was too old (presented in 1964). As Hyundai offered a relationship of sharing technologies and innovations, it accepted Hyundai's offer, giving its platform, internal configuration, and most importantly, engine. As Hyundai was an official sponsor of 1988 Seoul Olympics, it used this opportunity to notify all the executives and important people about their new car, Grandeur. Because of its brand lent from Mitsubishi and good quality, it became very popular in Korea.
Also called "Gak (angle)-Grandeur", it succeeded Ford Granada Mark II. Before the 1988 Summer Olympics, the official sponsor Hyundai Motor co-developed it with Mitsubishi Motors of Japan, and launched it in July, 1986. The design was done by Hyundai Motors, but the internal configuration was done by Mitsubishi. It was the second FF layout model in Korea after Hyundai Excel. Originally, only a four-cylinder 2,000 cc engine and manual transmission were offered, but later a 2,400 cc engine, a V6 3,000 cc engine, and automatic transmission were equipped. By the change, Grandeur buyers were extended from normal CEOs and businessmen to even gangsters, and it became Korea's bestselling large car by a considerable margin. It was also sold in Japan as the Mitsubishi Debonair V, but the demanding class was already absorbed by the Toyota Crown and Honda Legend and the Debonair was not competitive. Taillight design was changed in 1989, and ABS first became available in 1991. It had 4-speed automatic transmission or 5-speed manual transmission. It was discontinued in September 1992, after 122,074 had been built.
The New Grandeur and the third generation of the Mitsubishi Debonair were the products of a joint development between Hyundai and Mitsubishi Motors. Mitsubishi was responsible for the powertrain, and Hyundai was responsible for the body and trim design. Production of the car began in September 1992 and ended in 1998.
The "New Grandeur" came in various trim levels and only V6 engine combinations (2.0L, 2.5L, 3.0L, and 3.5L). The new Korea based Grandeur became a huge success following the first generation Grandeur it replaced. However, the reception of the same model marketed by Mitsubishi in Japan was perfunctory eventually leading Mitsubishi to discontinue it earlier than expected.
The 3-liter and 3.5-liter engines developed by Mitsubishi were substantial legacies to Hyundai, which at the time did not have the ability to manufacture engines of that size on its own. Following the Debonair's discontinuation in Japan, the Hyundai-Mitsubishi partnership lead to the production of the Hyundai Equus and Mitsubishi Dignity premium flagship sedans, and the slightly smaller Hyundai Dynasty and Mitsubishi Proudia. Since the production of Hyundai Equus, Hyundai develops all engines in its product line on its own, such as the industry-acclaimed 4.6-liter Tau Engine featured on the Hyundai Genesis.
Although it was not exported outside the home market, the second generation Grandeur was success in Korean domestic market as the flagship sedan of Hyundai lineup. This model became a status symbol in Korea, which many politicians and wealthy business executives have used.
The Grandeur XG was a mid-size luxury car. In some other markets, namely North America, it was called the Hyundai XG. The first two generations were essentially rebadged Mitsubishi Debonairs, with the third generations developed entirely by Hyundai, with technical experience learned from the first two generations. It shared a platform and engines with the Kia Opirus (Amanti in North America). After their success with the Grandeur, Hyundai decided to develop the next generation Grandeur on their own from the ground up with the technology they have accumulated through the past Grandeur generations. This allowed Hyundai to export the XG outside South Korea without any possible legal issues.
The XG300 debuted in 2000 with a 3.0 L Sigma V6.
It was called the XG30 in Europe and in Asian countries. It was produced from 2001 to 2003. A 2.5 litre model, called XG25, was also sold in some countries such as France. The XG30 boasted many options available to only high-end luxury models at the time such as the Mercedes E-class and BMW 5-series. The XG30 is also longer and wider than most of its rivals, and it is just a fraction smaller than the Audi A6.
The XG350 name was used as of 2002 to reflect the new 3.5 L version of the Sigma V6. The model received a mild facelift two years later.
The XG350 L featured more options such as heated seats, 210 watt Infinity sound system with 6 speakers and a trunk mounted 8 disk CD changer, wood and leather steering wheel, moon roof, 10 spoke alloy rims. It featured 200 hp (150 kW) and 216LB torque.
2.0 and 2.5 Delta engines were available in South Korea.
The Grandeur TG is a full-size sedan introduced for the 2006 model year. A redesigned XG350, it shares a platform with the Sonata. It is sold as the Hyundai Azera in North America, China, Taiwan, Philippines, Iran, Malaysia, The GCC (Persian Gulf states), South Africa, Singapore, Peru, Chile and Brazil. Despite being produced in Europe, the Azera was not sold in Europe.
The Azera had been the most expensive Hyundai model outside of Korea, China, and the Middle East — until the 2008 introduction of the Genesis.
The Azera has a four-wheel independent suspension (multi-link in the rear) and uses the company's new 3.8 L Lambda V6, which produces 265 hp (196 kW). The power is sent to the front wheels through a five or six-speed automatic transmission with a "Shiftronic" manual gear selection. Hyundai claims 6.0 s to accelerate to 60 mph (97 km/h) and a top speed of 155 mph (250 km/h). Fuel economy of 19 mpg (12.4 L/100 km) in the city and 28 mpg (8.4 L/100 km) on the highway is expected.
The 2.2 VGT CRDI diesel engine from the Santa Fe is also available, with the addition of the 2.4 Theta and 2.7 Mu diesel engines in South Korea
The Limited trim level adds 17 inch alloy wheels, heated front seats, leather seat-upholstery, and a power sun shade in the rear window. The Ultimate Package includes an enhanced audio system with 10 Infinity speakers and a 6 CD changer, a power sunroof, powered tilt-telescopic steering wheel, and rain-sensing windshield wipers.
The 2007 model featured a revised gauge pattern and steering wheel controls.
The 2008 model introduced the optional LG Navigation system. The SE models are removed in favor of a GLS model that shares the same 17 inch wheels as the Limited models, and the Aubergine color is no longer available. A wood-trimmed steering wheel is now only available with the Ultimate Package.
The 2009 model featured a new grille, new 17 inch 10-spoke alloy wheels, blue back lit gauges and dashboard lighting (vs. the previous green), dark brown wood grain accents and available hands free Bluetooth phone capability. The audio player display takes the same design as the 2009 Hyundai Sonata, and the controls for the audio player have been redesigned. An auxiliary input jack and iPod integration system is now standard, though deleted in the case of the LG Navigation system on the Limited trim level. A wood-trimmed steering wheel is once again standard for the Limited, and Limited models receive special hyper-silver finished alloy wheels.
The Korean Grandeur offers more features not available in North American version, such as Proximity Key with Push Button Start and Bluetooth hands-free capability. A refreshened 2010 model was released on December 16, 2009 that incorporated new 7 split-spoke alloy wheels, LED taillights, rectangular exhaust pipe designs, new side mirrors, redesigned headlights, and new front fascia and grille. New interior amenities include Alcantara leather seats and rear passenger audio and climate controls.
For model year 2011, Hyundai has restyled the Azera with new front and rear fascias, new alloy wheels, and new fog lamps. The engines have been updated with dual variable valve timing and the transmission has one more forward for a total of 6. The 3.3L V6 is now rated at 260 hp and 3.8L V6 now makes with 283 hp. The fuel economy has also been improved with 20/28 for 3.3 and 19/27 for 3.8 (EPA rating pending).
For the 2010 model year the Hyundai Azera was dropped in Canada due to slow sales.
In November 2010, Hyundai sued Avera Motors, a start-up automaker based in Rockledge, Florida, over the use of the name "Avera," claiming it was too close to the Azera name. As a result, Avera changed their name in March 2011 to Rivian Automotive.
The Azera comes standard with front and rear head curtain airbags and front and rear seat-mounted torso airbags.
According to the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety the Azera received a Good overall score in the frontal crash test and an Acceptable overall score in the side impact test. The driver's pelvis/leg in the side impact category was given a Poor score and the structure/safety category rated Marginal.
Side Rear Passenger (earlier models):
Side Rear Passenger (later models):
The Grandeur HG was released by Hyundai as a 2012 model with an all new appearance and an engine which followed the "fluidic sculpture" design of modern Hyundai vehicles. This design is dubbed as the "Grand Glide" concept.
The fifth generation Azera (unveiled at the 2011 Los Angeles International Auto Show) was developed over a period of three and half years with a cost of 450 million dollars. The four-cylinder has a fuel economy of 12.8 km/L (36 mpg-imp; 30 mpg-US) (7.8 l/100 km) and the V6 is rated at 11.8 km/L (33 mpg-imp; 28 mpg-US) (8.5 l/100 km). The Premium model features adaptive cruise control and a semi-automatic parking assist system.
In terms of dimensions, the full size Azera slots between the midsize Sonata and the rear-wheel drive Genesis.
The Azera's competitors include full-size cars such as the Ford Taurus, Dodge Charger, Chevrolet Impala, and entry-level luxury (or near-luxury) cars such as the Buick LaCrosse, Acura TL and Lexus ES350, Nissan Maxima, Toyota Avalon, Chrysler 300.
Since its introduction to the U.S. market in late-2000, the XG/Azera had been a consistent seller until late-2008, when it suffered a significant drop in sales. Although there are several possible explanations for this decline, it’s worth pointing out that the Hyundai Genesis sedan was introduced to the U.S. market in late-2008, suggesting that the more sophisticated rear-wheel drive Genesis may have cannibalized sales of the Azera. It is also noteworthy that the Hyundai Genesis sedan is considered by auto journalists to be a rival to the aforementioned full-size and near luxury vehicles that the 2012 Azera is positioned against, such as the Ford Taurus, Toyota Avalon, and Buick LaCrosse.
The Kia Soul is a compact car designed at Kia's design center in California, unveiled at the 2008 Paris Motor Show, manufactured in Seoul, South Korea and marketed globally beginning with model year 2010.
In early 2005, as a new member of Tom Kearns’ American Kia Design Team in Irvine California, the Soul concept was the brainchild of Mike Torpey, who was sent to KIA's Korean Concept Design Center to brainstorm a new type of vehicle that would help bring KIA Automobile Designs to the next level. In the short time he had...he had an inspiration for the design...using a mental visual picture of a powerful Boar with big front shoulders sloping back to its rear legs...and for utility... wearing a back pack! So the KIA Soul was born with a sloping roof line and a "trunk" on the hatchback.][
The new design sketches were a hit, and the Soul car concept was built for the 2008 Paris Auto Show.][
Peter Schreyer, formally the designer of the Audi TT and other cars at Volkswagen, came on board with the KIA Automotive Group as the new KIA Corporte Design Chief, and added some touches to the new Soul Concept for the upcoming Auto Show, adding to the Soul Concepts nose his now Signature Kia corporate grille, known as the Tiger Nose.][
The design was based on the Kia Mesa concept. It included a 2.0L I4 engine, 5-speed automatic transmission with manual shift capability and adaptive cruise control.
The vehicle was unveiled at the 2006 North American International Auto Show in Detroit, Michigan.
By late 2006, Kia announced it would put the car into production as a 2009 model.
The Kia Soul Burner, Diva, and Searcher are concept vehicles, created by Kia's European design team, under the guidance of Kia's Chief Design Officer, Peter Schreyer.
The Soul Diva was created as a fashion accessory for a style-conscious young-at-heart woman, who regards her car to be as important as her entire outfit. It included a white, gold and black colour scheme, full-length tinted glass panoramic roof, glossy black imitation leather, using 'quilted' stitching and trimmed to look like sofas, and black long-pile 'Pony-hide' carpet.
The Soul Burner was described as the 'bad boy' of Soul concepts. It included a solid roof panel and no roof rails, 245/40R19 tires, 4 bucket seats, and L-shaped day-light LED driving lamps around the outer edges. At the rear, two vertical exhaust pipes were placed at the extremes of the bumper.
Kia's Soul Searcher was designed to capture the spirit of Korean and Far Eastern culture, with a focus on achieving personal inner peace and creating a calm cocoon for the occupants. It included an old leather finish on the bonnet, powered folding roof, tailgate panel, dashboard, door panels and steering wheel rim, plus grey-beige felt floor and seats.
The Soul Hamstar Edition, introduced in 2011, featured body colored bumpers, rear sport spoiler, black 18-inch wheels, black fender vents w/side marker repeater, rear bumper applique, matte alloy fuel door, hamstar exterior graphics, black leather seating, heated seats, hamstar edition floor mats, smart key push button starting, automatic climate control, fog lights, and leather steering wheel and shift knob.
The vehicles were unveiled at the 2008 Geneva Motor Show. The Soul Burner later appeared in the 2008 SEMA auto show.
The Soul Hybrid/Eco-Soul is a concept vehicle with Gamma 1.6L petrol engine, an electric motor rated 15 kW (20 PS; 20 hp) and 105 N·m (77 lbf·ft), continuously variable transmission, ISG (Idle Stop&Go), regenerative braking.
The vehicle was unveiled at the 2008 Paris Motor Show and later at Auto Shanghai and later at the Canadian International Auto Show.
The Soul'ster is a concept vehicle with two doors and four seats with an open roof over the rear seats. It includes dual chrome exhaust, polished aluminum exhaust tips featuring carbon-fiber interior sleeves, and 19-inch 5-spoke aluminum alloy wheels. It is similar to the Jeep Wrangler. The vehicle was unveiled at the 2009 NAIAS.
The production version includes a choice of 1.6L I4 rated 120 hp (89 kW) with 5-speed manual transmission or 2.0L I4 rated 120 hp (89 kW) with 5-speed manual transmission. It will go on sale in 2010.
The Denim is a limited (1200 units) version of 2010 Kia Soul Soul+ for US market. It includes Denim body colour with white racing stripes, white painted side-view mirrors, white 18-inch alloy wheels.
The vehicle has MSRP of $17,300US for 5-speed manual, $18,250 for 4-speed automatic.
Kia Motors presented the Soul Flex at the 2010 São Paulo International Auto Show. The Soul Flex is the first Korean flexible-fuel vehicle capable of running on any blend from E20-E25 gasoline (mandatory Brazilian blend) to E100 (neat ethanol). The new Soul Flex delivers a 44% improvement in fuel efficiency compared with the existing gasoline model, as well as superior power and torque.
The interior features two semi-bucket seats in the front. In the rear there are flat-folding seats that can be moved in order to increase storage space.
The Kia Soul is sold with a six-speaker stereo system that includes a CD player, a USB port for iPod connection, and Sirius Satellite Radio. Additional features available for upgrade include additional speakers, steering-wheel-mounted audio controls and Bluetooth for hands-free connectivity.
Designed to introduce an emotional appeal into the Kia range, the car can be specified with a number of design options and is available in several themed special editions. Custom upgrades include 18-inch alloy wheels, cruise control, leather-wrapped steering wheel, racing stripes, "dragon" and "houndstooth" graphics, and LED turn indicators.
For 2011, the Kia Soul was updated with more conventional pull-out door handles, standard metallic interior trim, redesigned instrument cluster, leather boot shifter, and switchblade style fold-in integrated key and remote, with an optional Smart Key available in the Exclaim ("!") trim.
The 2012 model year brought a more thorough update, with revised exterior and interior styling and new powertrains. In North America the updated 1.6, now featuring direct injection, makes 138 hp/123 lb-ft, the 2.0 makes 164 hp/148 lb-ft of torque. The 1.6 now delivers 27mpg in the city and 35 on the highway. The 2.0 returns 26 in the city and 34 on the highway. New features include navigation, UVO infotainment, leather and heated seats and automatic climate control.
As part of the 2012 upgrades, European models were fitted with new 1.6-litre GDI petrol or 1.6 CRDi diesel engines, both of which can be specified with an automatic gearbox or a new six-speed manual gearbox, replacing the five-speed unit in the old version. As a result, the petrol offers a 14 bhp uplift in power compared to its predecessor, while returning improved fuel economy. The modified 1.6 CRDi diesel returns 57.6mpg and has cut its CO2 emissions from 138g/km to 129g/km - particularly important for the European market where taxation is based on carbon emissions.<re></ref>
The 2013 North American KIA Soul received some more modest upgrades (called "Refreshers") including 3 new colors, a buldged hood, revised grill with black chrome accents, LED Red Tail light, LED Amber front turn signals under the headlights and white LED running lights under the front turn signals. The exterior Kia badges are now smooth instead of raised lettering. Inside, audio controls are now located on the steering wheel and Bluetooth is standard even on base manual transmission equipped cars. Also upper line models now come with power folding heated mirrors with built in turn signal repeaters. The center display for sound system was all red LED but is now full colored.
The North American version of the Soul is initially available with one of two inline four-cylinder gasoline engines. The base model is powered by a 1.6-litre unit producing 122 bhp (91 kW) and mated exclusively with a six-speed manual transmission. Higher trims feature a 2.0-litre unit producing 142 bhp (106 kW) connected to a standard five-speed manual transmission with a four-speed automatic available as a stand-alone option. A 1.6-litre diesel engine producing 126 bhp (94 kW) and 260 N·m (190 lb·ft) torque is offered in European models instead of the 2.0-liter gas, mated to a five-speed manual gearbox.
For the 2012 model, it acquires 2 new powertrains and a new engine. Mated with a 6 speed manual or a six speed automatic, with either the new Nu 2.0-litre D-cvvt engine or the slightly older Gamma 1.6-litre d-cvvt. The Gamma 1.6 gets a new dual variable valve timing (128 hp), and in some countries, gets a direct injection fuel system.
Kia Soul earned a maximum five star safety rating from Euro NCAP . In 2009, According to Euro NCAP, the five star safety rating places Kia Soul among the safest B-segment family cars in the world. The Soul was awarded the maximum five star safety rating by the Australasian New Car Assessment Program (ANCAP), but only on the New Zealand version. Australian versions get 4 out of 5 stars.
The Kia Soul was awarded 'Top Safety Pick' from the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) in the United States.
Soon after the vehicle's release, Kia launched a series of commercials as part of their "A new way to roll" campaign. The ads, created by Los Angeles-based ad agency David&Goliath, features (a combination of motion-captured and costumed) hamsters on stationary Hamster wheels on city streets, which are then all passed by "cooler" hamsters riding in the Kia Soul. The commercials have attracted a cult following and have surged in popularity on video-sharing sites like YouTube. The commercials were awarded "Automotive Ad of the Year" at the Nielsen Automotive Advertising Awards.
Songs featured in the ads include "Do What You Do" by Marz, "Fort Knox" by Goldfish, "Junkyard" by The Potbelleez, "Colours" by Calvin Harris, "The Choice Is Yours (Revisited)" by Black Sheep and, during the 2011 MTV Video Music Awards, "Party Rock Anthem" by LMFAO.
For the 2013 Kia Soul commercial, the song played is "In My Mind (Axwell Remix)" by Ivan Gough and Feenixpawl featuring Georgi Kay. The hamsters were seen rocking out at a 18th-century opera house to the song. It was released on August 30, 2012.
In October 2011, the Kia Soul Hamsters were inducted into the Madison Avenue Walk of Fame, advertising industry’s equivalent of Hollywood and Vine. As of 2011, Kia is also the only car manufacturer to be inducted.
As an April Fool's Day joke, Kia published a press release on a new environmentally friendly concept based on the Soul in 2010, called the Air Propulsion and Retardation Installation Line. The concept used sensors on the bumpers and retractable panels to harness the flow of wind.
Kia sold 67,000 cars into the US market in 2010—the first full sales year—followed by 102,000 in 2011 and 116,000 in 2012. They have sold 52,000 vehicles in the US through the first five months of 2013. In the Canadian market, Kia has sold 9900, 11600 and 7600 in 2010 through 2012, respectively, with 2800 sold in 2013 as of May sales data.
It is a 3-door concept vehicle with custom HRE-K1 monoblock billet performance wheels designed by Kia's California design team and HRE, 245/40-19-inch front and 285/35-19-inch rear Michelin Pilot Sport PS2 tires, 14-inch Brembo vented and cross-drilled front disc brakes with six-piston calipers, 13.6-inch rear brake discs with four-piston calipers, angled roof accented with Inferno Orange, lengthened front door with smooth billet push-style handles, carbon fiber lower side valances in Inferno Orange Orange and incorporate functional rear-brake cooling ducts, back hatch incorporates a horizontal Inferno Orange "backpack" panel five inches wider than a production Soul, 2.0-liter turbocharged four-cylinder engine rated 250 hp, electronically controlled four-wheel-drive system, short-throw six-speed manual transmission with a stubby spherical shift lever, Inferno Orange suede-covered racing seats, Granite Gray leather upholstery, Granite Gray suede wraps the sport steering wheel and door panels, red-glowing nacelles, rear seats removed and replaced with a fully integrated equipment tray and spare-tire well, paneled bins in Inferno Orange behind seats, custom rear strut brace incorporates a quick-release handle to allow for fast wheel changes.
The vehicle was unveiled in 2012 Chicago Auto Show.
The design of the 2nd generation Kia Soul was based on the Track'ster concept. It included 28.7 percent increase in torsional rigidity over the current Soul, longer 101.2-inch wheelbase (up 0.8 inches), overall width that's broadened to 70.9 inches (increased by 0.6 inches) and the same overall height of 63.4 inches, wraparound greenhouse, high-mounted tail lights, large trapezoidal lower air intake from Track'ster, unique "floating" body color panel inset into the lift gate from Track'ster, center console design from Track'ster.][
The vehicle was unveiled in 2013 New York Auto Show.][
Early US model][ includes a choice of 1.6 Gamma GDI or 2.0 Nu MPI engines, 6-speed manual or 6-speed automatic transmission; Base Soul, Soul Plus][ and Soul Exclaim][ trim levels.
The second generation KIA Soul uses the same underpinnings as the second generation KIA Cee'd hatchback. Thus the chassis is now 29 percent stiffer than that of the previous model. In addition to the chassis, the body has also endured strengthening using ultra high strength steel, which makes it 66 percent stiffer over the old model. The front subframe uses four bushings (the first generation has none) and the shock absorbers on the rear torsion bar are now mounted vertically allowing for more suspension travel. In favor of all the bracing and toughening, the safety and rigidity, together with the handling and overall performance of the car have been improved.
The Kia Cadenza, or Kia K7 in South Korea, is Kia's full-size Luxury car launched in 2009 to replace the Kia Opirus/Amanti.
The Cadenza uses the new front-wheel-drive Type-N platform with MacPherson front suspension and a multilink rear suspension. Cadenza will be offered with three gasoline engines ranging from 165 horsepower to 290 horsepower for the 3.5-liter Lambda, included the new 2.4-liter Theta II with gasoline direct injection (GDI) and 201 horsepower.
The Kia Cadenza was designed by Kia design chief Peter Schreyer who was chief designer at Audi and uses Kia's corporate Tiger Nose grille.
In January of 2013, Kia announced that the Cadenza will be available in the United States. It will be Kia's version of the Hyundai Azera, and is expected to cost close to $35,000 or more. It will be Kia of America's new flagship car, upstaging the Kia Optima. The Cadenza is available Kia showrooms across the United States and Canada. Standard features will include leather seats, Bluetooth, a navigation system , Kia UVO, alloy wheels, and other luxury car features. This will be one of three Korean luxury sedans sold in the United States, the other two cars being the Hyundai Genesis and Hyundai Equus, both of which are currently on sale in the United States, and are manufactured by Hyundai, who owns Kia.
Electronic Stability Control (ESC), also referred to as electronic stability program (ESP) or dynamic stability control (DSC), is a computerized technology that improves the safety of a vehicle's stability by detecting and reducing loss of traction (skidding). When ESC detects loss of steering control, it automatically applies the brakes to help "steer" the vehicle where the driver intends to go. Braking is automatically applied to wheels individually, such as the outer front wheel to counter oversteer or the inner rear wheel to counter understeer. Some ESC systems also reduce engine power until control is regained. ESC does not improve a vehicle's cornering performance; instead, it helps to minimize the loss of control. According to Insurance Institute for Highway Safety and the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, one-third of fatal accidents could be prevented by the use of the technology.
In 1987, the earliest innovators of ESC, Mercedes-Benz and BMW, introduced their first traction control systems. Traction control works by applying individual wheel braking and throttle to keep traction while accelerating but, unlike the ESC, it is not designed to aid in steering.
BMW, working with Robert Bosch GmbH and Continental Automotive Systems, developed a system to reduce engine torque to prevent loss of control and applied it to the entire BMW model line for 1992. From 1987 to 1992, Mercedes-Benz and Robert Bosch GmbH co-developed a system called Elektronisches Stabilitätsprogramm (Ger. "Electronic Stability Programme" trademarked as ESP) to control lateral slippage.
GM worked with Delphi Corporation and introduced its version of ESC called "StabiliTrak" in 1997 for select Cadillac models. StabiliTrak was made standard equipment on all GM SUVs and vans sold in the U.S. and Canada by 2007 except for certain commercial and fleet vehicles. While the "StabiliTrak" name is used on most General Motors vehicles for the U.S. market, the "Electronic Stability Control" identity is used for GM overseas brands, such as Opel, Holden and Saab, except in the case of Saab's 9-7X which also uses the "StabiliTrak" name. Ford's version of ESC, called AdvanceTrac, was launched in the year 2000. Ford later added Roll Stability Control to AdvanceTrac which was first introduced in Volvo XC90 in 2003 when Volvo Cars was fully owned by Ford and it is now being implemented in many Ford vehicles.
In 1995, automobile manufacturers introduced ESC systems. Mercedes-Benz, supplied by Bosch, was the first to implement this with their W140 S-Class model. That same year BMW, supplied by Bosch and ITT Automotive (later acquired by Continental Automotive Systems). Volvo Cars][ began to offer their version of ESC called DSTC in 1998 on the new S80. Toyota's Vehicle Stability Control system (also in 2004, a preventive system called VDIM) appeared on the Crown Majesta in 1995. Meanwhile others investigated and developed their own systems.
During a moose test (swerving to avoid an obstacle), which became famous in Germany as "the Elk test", the Swedish journalist Robert Collin of Teknikens Värld (World of Technology) in October 1997 rolled a Mercedes A-Class (without ESC) at 78 km/h. Because Mercedes-Benz promotes a reputation for safety, they recalled and retrofitted 130,000 A-Class cars with ESC. This produced a significant reduction in crashes and the number of vehicles with ESC rose. Today, virtually all premium brands have made ESC standard on all vehicles, and the number of models with ESC continues to increase. The availability of ESC in small cars like the A-Class ignited a market trend so that ESC became available for all models at least as an option. As a consequence, the European Union decided in 2009 to make ESC mandatory — all new models must be equipped with ESC since November 01, 2011, and by the end of 2013, all old models without ESC may not be sold anymore. However, some new cars introduced since November 2011 do not have ESC as standard.
Ford and Toyota announced that all their North American vehicles would be equipped with ESC standard by the end of 2009 (it was standard on Toyota SUVs as of 2004, and after the 2011 model-year, All Lexus, Toyota, and Scion vehicles have ESC; the last one to get it was the 2011 model-year Scion tC). However, as recent as November 2010, Ford still sells models in North America without ESC. General Motors had made a similar announcement for the end of 2010. The NHTSA requires all new passenger vehicles to be equipped with ESC by 2012 and estimates it will prevent 5,300–9,600 annual fatalities once all passenger vehicles are equipped with the system.
During normal driving, ESC works in the background and continuously monitors steering and vehicle direction. It compares the driver's intended direction (determined through the measured steering wheel angle) to the vehicle's actual direction (determined through measured lateral acceleration, vehicle rotation (yaw), and individual road wheel speeds).
ESC intervenes only when it detects a probable loss of steering control, i.e. when the vehicle is not going where the driver is steering. This may happen, for example, when skidding during emergency evasive swerves, understeer or oversteer during poorly judged turns on slippery roads, or hydroplaning. ESC may also intervene in an unwanted way during high-performance driving, because steering input may not always be directly indicative of the intended direction of travel (i.e. controlled drifting). ESC estimates the direction of the skid, and then applies the brakes to individual wheels asymmetrically in order to create torque about the vehicle's vertical axis, opposing the skid and bringing the vehicle back in line with the driver's commanded direction. Additionally, the system may reduce engine power or operate the transmission to slow the vehicle down.
ESC can work on any surface, from dry pavement to frozen lakes. It reacts to and corrects skidding much faster and more effectively than the typical human driver, often before the driver is even aware of any imminent loss of control. In fact, this led to some concern that ESC could allow drivers to become overconfident in their vehicle's handling and/or their own driving skills. For this reason, ESC systems typically inform the driver when they intervene, so that the driver knows that the vehicle's handling limits have been approached. Most activate a dashboard indicator light and/or alert tone; some intentionally allow the vehicle's corrected course to deviate very slightly from the driver-commanded direction, even if it is possible to more precisely match it.
Indeed, all ESC manufacturers emphasize that the system is not a performance enhancement nor a replacement for safe driving practices, but rather a safety technology to assist the driver in recovering from dangerous situations. ESC does not increase traction, so it does not enable faster cornering (although it can facilitate better-controlled cornering). More generally, ESC works within inherent limits of the vehicle's handling and available traction between the tires and road. A reckless maneuver can still exceed these limits, resulting in loss of control. For example, in a severe hydroplaning scenario, the wheels that ESC would use to correct a skid may not even initially be in contact with the road, reducing its effectiveness.
In July 2004, on the Crown Majesta, Toyota offered a Vehicle Dynamics Integrated Management (VDIM) system that incorporated formerly independent systems, including ESC. This worked not only after the skid was detected but also to prevent the skid from occurring in the first place. Using electric variable gear ratio steering power steering, this more advanced system could also alter steering gear ratios and steering torque levels to assist the driver in evasive maneuvers.
Due to the fact that stability control can sometimes be incompatible with high-performance driving (i.e. when the driver intentionally loses traction as in drifting), many vehicles have an over-ride control which allows the system to be partially or fully shut off. In simpler systems, a single button may disable all features, while more complicated setups may have a multi-position switch or may never be truly turned fully off.
Numerous studies around the world confirm that ESC is highly effective in helping the driver maintain control of the car, thereby saving lives and reducing the severity of crashes. In the fall of 2004 in the U.S., the National Highway and Traffic Safety Administration confirmed the international studies, releasing results of a field study in the U.S. of ESC effectiveness. The NHTSA in United States concluded that ESC reduces crashes by 35%. Additionally, Sport utility vehicles (SUVs) with stability control are involved in 67% fewer accidents than SUVs without the system. The United States Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) issued its own study in June 2006 showing that up to 10,000 fatal US crashes could be avoided annually if all vehicles were equipped with ESC The IIHS study concluded that ESC reduces the likelihood of all fatal crashes by 43%, fatal single-vehicle crashes by 56%, and fatal single-vehicle rollovers by 77–80%.
ESC is described as the most important advance in auto safety by many experts. including Nicole Nason, Administrator of the NHTSA, Jim Guest and David Champion of Consumers Union of the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA), E-Safety Aware, Csaba Csere, editor of Car and Driver, and Jim Gill, long time ESC proponent of Continental Automotive Systems The European New Car Assessment Program (EuroNCAP) "strongly recommends" that people buy cars fitted with stability control.
The IIHS requires that a vehicle must have ESC as an available option in order for it to qualify for their Top Safety Pick award for occupant protection and accident avoidance.
ESC incorporates yaw rate control into the anti-lock braking system (ABS). Yaw is a rotation around the vertical axis; i.e. spinning left or right. Anti-lock brakes enable ESC to brake individual wheels. Many ESC systems also incorporate a traction control system (TCS or ASR), which senses drive-wheel slip under acceleration and individually brakes the slipping wheel or wheels and/or reduces excess engine power until control is regained. However, ESC achieves a different purpose than ABS or Traction Control.
The ESC system uses several sensors to determine what the driver wants (input). Other sensors indicate the actual state of the vehicle (response). The control algorithm compares driver input to vehicle response and decides, when necessary, to apply brakes and/or reduce throttle by the amounts calculated through the state space (set of equations used to model the dynamics of the vehicle). The ESC controller can also receive data from and issue commands to other controllers on the vehicle such as an all wheel drive system or an active suspension system to improve vehicle stability and controllability.
The sensors used for ESC have to send data at all times in order to detect possible defects as soon as possible. They have to be resistant to possible forms of interference (rain, holes in the road, etc.). The most important sensors are:
Other sensors can include:
ESC uses a hydraulic modulator to assure that each wheel receives the correct brake force. A similar modulator is used in ABS. ABS needs to reduce pressure during braking, only. ESC additionally needs to increase pressure in certain situations and an active vacuum brake booster unit may be utilized in addition to the hydraulic pump to meet these demanding pressure gradients.
The brain of the ESC system is the electronic control unit (ECU). The various control techniques are embedded in it. Often, the same ECU is used for diverse systems at the same time (ABS, Traction control system, climate control, etc.). The input signals are sent through the input-circuit to the digital controller. The desired vehicle state is determined based upon the steering wheel angle, its gradient and the wheel speed. Simultaneously, the yaw sensor measures the actual state. The controller computes the needed brake or acceleration force for each wheel and directs via the driver circuits the valves of the hydraulic modulator. Via a Controller Area Network interface the ECU is connected with other systems (ABS, etc.) in order to avoid giving contradictory commands.
Many ESC systems have an "off" override switch so the driver can disable ESC, which may be desirable when badly stuck in mud or snow, or driving on a beach, or if using a smaller-sized spare tire which would interfere with the sensors. Some systems also offer an additional mode with raised thresholds so that a driver can utilize the limits of adhesion with less electronic intervention. However, ESC defaults to "On" when the ignition is restarted. Some ESC systems that lack an "off switch", such as on many recent Toyota and Lexus vehicles, can be temporarily disabled through an undocumented series of brake pedal and handbrake operations. Furthermore, unplugging a wheel speed sensor is another method of disabling most ESC systems. The ESC implementation on newer Ford vehicles cannot be completely disabled even through the use of the "off switch". The ESC will automatically reactivate at highway speeds, and below that if it detects a skid with the brake pedal depressed.
ESC is built on top of an anti-lock brake (ABS) system, and all ESC-equipped vehicles are fitted with traction control. The ESC components include a yaw rate sensor, a lateral acceleration sensor, a steering wheel sensor, and an upgraded integrated control unit. According to National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) research, ABS in 2005 cost an estimated US$368; ESC cost a further US$111. The retail price of ESC varies; as a stand-alone option it retails for as little as $250 USD. However, ESC is rarely offered as a sole option, and is generally not available for aftermarket installation. Instead, it is frequently bundled it with other features or more expensive trims, so the cost of a package that includes ESC could be several thousand dollars. Nonetheless, ESC is considered highly cost-effective and it might pay for itself in reduced insurance premiums. In the US, Federal regulations will require that ESC be installed as a standard feature on all passenger cars and light trucks beginning in 2012.
Availability of ESC in passenger vehicles varies between manufacturers and countries. In 2007, ESC was available in roughly 50% of new North American models compared to about 75% in Sweden. However, consumer awareness affects buying patterns so that roughly 45% of vehicles sold in North America and the UK are purchased with ESC, contrasting with 78–96% in other European countries such as Germany, Denmark, and Sweden. While few vehicles had ESC prior to 2004, increased awareness will increase the number of vehicles with ESC on the used car market.
ESC is available on cars, SUVs and pickup trucks from all major auto makers. Luxury cars, sports cars, SUVs, and crossovers are usually equipped with ESC. Midsize cars are also gradually catching on, though the 2008 model years of the Nissan Altima and Ford Fusion only offered ESC on their V6 engine-equipped cars; however, some midsize cars, such as the Honda Accord had it as standard equipment by then. While ESC includes traction control, there are vehicles such as the 2008 Chevrolet Malibu LS and 2008 Mazda6 that have traction control but not ESC. ESC is rare among subcompact cars as of 2008. The 2009 Toyota Corolla in the United States (but not Canada) has stability control as a $250 option on all trims below that of the XRS which has it as standard. In Canada, for the 2010 Mazda3, ESC is as an option on the midrange GS trim as part of the moonroof package, and is standard on the top-of-the-line GT version. The 2009 Ford Focus has ESC as an option for the S and SE models, and standard on the SEL and SES models
In the UK, even mass-market superminis such as the Ford Fiesta Mk.6 and VW Polo Mk.5 come with ESC as standard.
ESC is also available on some motor homes. Elaborate ESC and ESP systems (including Roll Stability Control (RSC)) are available for many commercial vehicles, including transport trucks, trailers, and buses from manufacturers such as Bendix Corporation, WABCO Daimler, Scania AB, and Prevost, and light passenger vehicles.
The ChooseESC! campaign, run by the EU's eSafetyAware! project, provides a global perspective on ESC. One ChooseESC! publication shows the availability of ESC in EU member countries.
In the US, the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) website shows availability of ESC in individual US models and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA website) lists US models with ESC.
In Australia, the National Roads and Motorists' Association NRMA shows the availability of ESC in Australian models.
The market for ESC is growing quickly, especially in European countries such as Sweden, Denmark, and Germany. For example, in 2003 in Sweden the purchase rate on new cars with ESC was 15%. The Swedish road safety administration issued a strong ESC recommendation and in September 2004, 16 months later, the purchase rate was 58%. A stronger ESC recommendation was then given and in December 2004, the purchase rate on new cars had reached 69% and by 2008 it had grown to 96%. ESC advocates around the world are promoting increased ESC use through legislation and public awareness campaigns and by 2012, most new vehicles should be equipped with ESC.
Just as ESC is founded on the Anti-lock braking system (ABS), ESC is the foundation for new advances such as Roll Stability Control (RSC) that works in the vertical plane much like ESC works in the horizontal plane. When RSC detects impending rollover (usually on transport trucks or SUVs), RSC applies brakes, reduces throttle, induces understeer, and/or slows down the vehicle.
The computing power of ESC facilitates the networking of active and passive safety systems, addressing other causes of crashes. For example, sensors may detect when a vehicle is following too closely and slow down the vehicle, straighten up seat backs, and tighten seat belts, avoiding and/or preparing for a crash.
While Sweden used public awareness campaigns to promote ESC use, others implemented or proposed legislation.
The Canadian province of Quebec was the first jurisdiction to implement an ESC law, making it compulsory for carriers of dangerous goods (without data recorders) in 2005.
The United States was next, requiring ESC for all passenger vehicles under 10,000 pounds (4536 kg), phasing in the regulation starting with 55% of 2009 models (effective 1 September 2008), 75% of 2010 models, 95% of 2011 models, and all 2012 models.
Canada will require all new passenger vehicles to have ESC from 1 September 2011.
The Australian Government announced on 23 June 2009 that ESC would be compulsory from 1 November 2011 for all new passenger vehicles sold in Australia, and for all new vehicles from November 2013.
The European Parliament has also called for the accelerated introduction of ESC. The European Commission has confirmed a proposal for the mandatory introduction of ESC on all new cars and commercial vehicle models sold in the EU from 2012, with all new cars being equipped by 2014.
The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe has passed a Global Technical Regulation to harmonize ESC standards.
Electronic stability control (ESC) is the generic term recognised by the European Automobile Manufacturers Association (ACEA), the North American Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), the Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association, and other worldwide authorities. However, vehicle manufacturers may use a variety of different trade names for ESC:
ESC system manufacturers include:
The Kia Forte is a compact car produced by the South Korean manufacturer Kia Motors since mid-2008. It replaced the Kia Cerato and is available in two-door coupé, four-door sedan, five-door hatchback variants. It is not available in Europe, where the similar sized Kia Cee'd is offered (except for Russia and Ukraine, where the Cee'd and the Forte are both available). In South Korea, this car is marketed as the Kia K3.
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The Kia Carens is a compact MPV launched in 1999 by the Korean manufacturer Kia, now in its fourth generation, and marketed worldwide under various nameplates — prominently as the Kia Rondo.
The model was discontinued in Australia in 2001, with production continuing elsewhere for a new model which was launched in 2002. In 2006, Kia presented a second generation Carens for model year 2007. Transport
A compact car (North America), or small family car in British acceptation, is a classification of cars that are larger than a subcompact car but smaller than a mid-size car, equating roughly to the C-segment in Europe.
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