Enhanced Voice-Data Optimized or Enhanced Voice-Data Only (Ev-DO, EV, EVDO, etc.) is a telecommunications standard for the wireless transmission of data through radio signals, typically for broadband Internet access. It uses multiplexing techniques including code division multiple access (CDMA) as well as time division multiplexing (TDM) to maximize both individual users' throughput and the overall system throughput. It is standardized by 3rd Generation Partnership Project 2 (3GPP2) as part of the CDMA2000 family of standards and has been adopted by many mobile phone service providers around the world – particularly those previously employing CDMA networks. It is also used on the Globalstar satellite phone network.
EV-DO was designed as an evolution of the CDMA2000 (IS-2000) standard that would support high data rates and could be deployed alongside a wireless carrier's voice services. An EV-DO channel has a bandwidth of 1.25 MHz, the same bandwidth size that IS-95A (IS-95) and IS-2000 (1xRTT) use. The channel structure, on the other hand, is very different. Additionally, the back-end network is entirely packet-based, and thus is not constrained by the restrictions typically present on a circuit switched network.
Verizon Communications (NYSE: VZ, NASDAQ: VZ), branded as Verizon (pronounced // və-RY-zən), is an American broadband and telecommunications company and a corporate component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average. It started in 1983 as Bell Atlantic (based in Philadelphia) with a footprint covering New Jersey to Virginia and emerged as part of the 1984 breakup of AT&T into seven "Baby Bells." In 1997, Bell Atlantic merged with another Regional Bell Operating Company, NYNEX, based in New York City with a footprint spanning from New York to Maine. The combined company kept the Bell Atlantic name. In 2000, Bell Atlantic merged with former independent phone company GTE, and adopted the name "Verizon", a portmanteau of veritas (Latin for "truth") and horizon. The company's headquarters are located in the Verizon Building at 140 West Street in Lower Manhattan, New York City.
Cellco Partnership, doing business as Verizon Wireless, is the largest mobile network operator in the United States, providing wireless services to 118.194 million subscribers as of Q2 2013. Headquartered in Basking Ridge, New Jersey, the company was formed as a joint venture of American telecommunications firm Bell Atlantic (renamed Verizon Communications) and global British telecommunications company Vodafone. Verizon Communications holds 55 percent ownership and Vodafone holds the remaining 45 percent of the joint venture. On September 2, 2013, Verizon Communications announced that it had agreed to buy Vodafone's stake for $130 billion in a deal expected to close by the first quarter of 2014. With this deal the company becomes a division of Verizon Communications.
Sprint Corporation, also known as Sprint is a United States telecommunications holding company that provides wireless services and is also a major global Internet carrier. It's the third largest U.S. wireless network operator as of 2013, and served more than 54 million customers at the end of the third quarter of 2013, in addition to the Sprint brand, the company also offers wireless voice, messaging, and broadband services through its various subsidiaries under the Boost Mobile, Virgin Mobile, and Assurance Wireless brands, as well as wholesale access to its wireless networks to mobile virtual network operators. The company is headquartered in Overland Park, Kansas. In July 2013, a majority of the company was purchased by Japanese telecommunications company SoftBank Corporation, although the remaining shares of the company continue to trade on the New York Stock Exchange.
Sprint traces its origins to the Brown Telephone Company, which was founded in 1899 to deploy telephone service to the rural area around Abilene, Kansas. In 2006, Sprint exited the local landline telephone business, spinning those assets off into a newly created company named Embarq, which later became a part of CenturyLink. The company continues to be one of the largest long distance providers in the United States.
Electronics engineering, or electronic engineering, is an engineering discipline where non-linear and active electrical components such as electron tubes, and semiconductor devices, especially transistors, diodes and integrated circuits, are utilized to design electronic circuits, devices and systems, typically also including passive electrical components and based on printed circuit boards. The term denotes a broad engineering field that covers important subfields such as analog electronics, digital electronics, consumer electronics, embedded systems and power electronics. Electronics engineering deals with implementation of applications, principles and algorithms developed within many related fields, for example solid-state physics, radio engineering, telecommunications, control systems, signal processing, systems engineering, computer engineering, instrumentation engineering, electric power control, robotics, and many others.]verification needed[
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is one of the most important and influential organizations for electronics engineers.
Code division multiple access (CDMA) is a channel access method used by various radio communication technologies.
CDMA is an example of multiple access, which is where several transmitters can send information simultaneously over a single communication channel. This allows several users to share a band of frequencies (see bandwidth). To permit this to be achieved without undue interference between the users CDMA employs spread-spectrum technology and a special coding scheme (where each transmitter is assigned a code).