Blood plasma is the straw-colored/pale-yellow liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells in whole blood in suspension. It makes up about 55% of total blood volume. It is the intravascular fluid part of extracellular fluid (all body fluid outside of cells). It is mostly water (92% by volume), and contains dissolved proteins (i.e.—albumins, globulins, and fibrinogen), glucose, clotting factors, electrolytes (Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3- Cl- etc.), hormones and carbon dioxide (plasma being the main medium for excretory product transportation). Plasma also serves as the protein reserve of the human body. It plays a vital role in an intravascular osmotic effect that keeps electrolytes in balanced form and protects the body from infection and other blood disorders.
Blood plasma is prepared by spinning a tube of fresh blood containing an anticoagulant in a centrifuge until the blood cells fall to the bottom of the tube. The blood plasma is then poured or drawn off. Blood plasma has a density of approximately 1025 kg/m3, or 1.025 g/l.
Blood plasma fractionation refers to the general processes of separating the various components of blood plasma, which in turn is a component of blood obtained through blood fractionation.
Blood is a PC game developed by Monolith Productions and distributed by GT Interactive. Development was underway at Q Studios, an independent developer funded by 3D Realms, in parallel with a number of other well-known titles. Following the success of Duke Nukem 3D, development progress was made public starting in June 1996 with weekly updates on their website. It was originally scheduled for release in early 1997. Q Studios was acquired by Monolith in November 1996. On January 22, 1997, a press release announced that all rights had been sold to Monolith so that 3D Realms could focus efforts on Shadow Warrior, another Build engine game slated for release the same year. Released on May 31, 1997, Blood utilized an enhanced version of the Build engine from Ken Silverman which featured the addition of voxels. The game has an arsenal of weapons ranging from the mundane to the bizarre, numerous enemies and liberal amounts of gore.
The Blood franchise was continued with two official expansion packs titled Plasma Pack (developed by Monolith) and Cryptic Passage (developed by Sunstorm Interactive). Later, the sequel titled Blood II: The Chosen was released on October 31, 1998. In terms of copyrights and ownership, Monolith sold the rights for Blood to GT Interactive. GTI was later acquired by Infogrames which has since been renamed to Atari. In recent years it seems that Warner Bros. Entertainment owns the Blood trademark.
Reference ranges for blood tests are sets of values used by a health professional to interpret a set of medical test results from blood samples.
Reference ranges for blood tests are studied within the field of clinical chemistry (also known as "clinical biochemistry", "chemical pathology" or "pure blood chemistry"), the area of pathology that is generally concerned with analysis of bodily fluids.
Blood transfusion is generally the process of receiving blood products into one's circulation intravenously. Transfusions are used in a variety of medical conditions to replace lost components of the blood. Early transfusions used whole blood, but modern medical practice commonly uses only components of the blood, such as red blood cells, white blood cells, plasma, clotting factors, and platelets.
Units of packed red blood cells are typically only recommended when either a patient's hemoglobin level falls below 10g/dL or hematocrit falls below 30%; recently, this 'trigger' level has been decreased to 7-8g/dL, as a more restrictive strategy has been shown to have better patient outcomes. This is in part due to the increasing evidence that there are cases where patients have worse outcomes when transfused. One may consider transfusion for people with symptoms of cardiovascular disease such as chest pain or shortness of breath. Globally around 85 million units of red blood cells are transfused in a given year. In cases where patients have low levels of hemoglobin but are cardiovascularly stable, parenteral iron is increasingly a preferred option based on both efficacy and safety. Other blood products are given where appropriate, such as clotting deficiencies.
Plasma proteins, also termed serum proteins or blood proteins, are proteins present in blood plasma. They serve many different functions, including transport of lipids, hormones, vitamins and metals in the circulatory system and the regulation of acellular activity and functioning and in the immune system. Other blood proteins act as enzymes, complement components, protease inhibitors or kinin precursors. Contrary to popular belief, hemoglobin is not a blood protein, as it is carried within red blood cells, rather than in the blood serum.
Serum albumin accounts for 55% of blood proteins, and is a major contributor to maintaining the osmotic pressure of plasma to assist in the transport of lipids and steroid hormones. Globulins make up 38% of blood proteins and transport ions, hormones and lipids assisting in immune function. Fibrinogen comprise 7% of blood proteins; conversion of fibrinogen to insoluble fibrin is essential for blood clotting. The remainder of plasma proteins (1%) is made up of regulatory proteins such as enzymes, proenzymes and hormones. All blood proteins are synthesized in liver except for the gamma globulins.
Body fluid, bodily fluids, or biofluids are liquids originating from inside the bodies of living people. They include fluids that are excreted or secreted from the body as well as body water that normally is not.
The dominating content of body fluids is body water. Approximately 60-65% of body water is contained within the cells (in intracellular fluid) with the other 35-40% of body water contained outside the cells (in extracellular fluid). This fluid component outside of the cells includes the fluid between the cells (interstitial fluid), lymph and blood. There are approximately 6 to 10 liters of lymph in the body, compared to 3.5 to 5 liters of blood.
Blood flow is the continuous circulation of blood in the cardiovascular system. This process ensures the transportation of nutrients, hormones, metabolic wastes, 2O and 2CO throughout the body to maintain cell-level metabolism, the regulation of the pH, osmotic pressure and temperature of the whole body, and the protection from microbial and mechanical harms.
The science dedicated to describe the physics of blood flow is called hemodynamics. For the basic understanding it is important to be familiar with anatomy of the cardiovascular system and hydrodynamics. However it is crucial to mention that, blood is not a Newtonian fluid, and blood vessels are not rigid tubes, so classic hydrodynamics is not capable to explain hemodynamics.
Bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA) is one of several specialties in the field of forensic science. The use of bloodstains as evidence is not new; however, the application of modern science has brought it to a higher level. New technologies, especially advances in DNA analysis, are available for detectives and criminologists to use in solving crimes and apprehending offenders.
The science of bloodstain pattern analysis applies scientific knowledge from other fields to solve practical problems. Bloodstain pattern analysis draws on the scientific disciplines of biology, chemistry, mathematics and physics. If an analyst follows a scientific process, this applied science can produce strong, solid evidence, making it an effective tool for investigators.