Philosophical logic refers to those areas of philosophy in which recognized methods of logic have traditionally been used to solve or advance the discussion of philosophical problems. Sybil Wolfram lists the study of argument, meaning, and truth in particular, while Colin McGinn includes identity, existence, predication, necessity, and truth as the main topics of his book on the subject. In the same vein, philosophical logic is often understood to address extensions and alternatives to classical logic—the so-called non-classical logics. Texts such as John P. Burgess' Philosophical Logic, the Blackwell Companion to Philosophical Logic, or the multi-volume Handbook of Philosophical Logic (edited by Dov M. Gabbay and Franz Guenthner) emphasize this latter usage, addressing both the formal aspects of these topics and their applications to associated philosophical problems.
& ∨ ¬ ~ → ⊃ ≡ | ∀ ∃ ⊤ ⊥ ⊢ ⊨ ∴ ∵
Subjunctive possibility (also called alethic possibility or metaphysical possibility) is the form of modality most frequently studied in modal logic. Subjunctive possibilities are the sorts of possibilities we consider when we conceive of counterfactual situations; subjunctive modalities are modalities that bear on whether a statement might have been or could be true—such as might, could, must, possibly, necessarily, contingently, essentially, accidentally, and so on. Subjunctive possibilities include logical possibility, metaphysical possibility, nomological possibility, and temporal possibility.
Subjunctive possibility is contrasted with (among other things) epistemic possibility (which deals with how the world may be, for all we know) and deontic possibility (which deals with how the world ought to be).
Analytic philosophy (sometimes analytical philosophy) is a style of philosophy that came to dominate English-speaking countries in the 20th century. In the United Kingdom, United States, Canada, Scandinavia, Australia, and New Zealand, the vast majority of university philosophy departments identify themselves as "analytic" departments.
The term "analytic philosophy" can refer to: