Hawaiian religion encompasses the folk religious beliefs and practises of the Hawaiian people. It is unrelated to, though commonly confused with, the philosophy of Huna.
Hawaiian religion originated amongst the Tahitians and other Pacific islanders who landed in iʻHawai between 500 and 1300 AD. Today, Hawaiian religious practices are protected by the American Indian Religious Freedom Act.
The Kingdom of Hawaii was established during the years 1795 to 1810 with the subjugation of the smaller independent chiefdoms of ahuʻO, Maui, iʻMoloka, iʻLāna, iʻKaua and ihauʻNi by the chiefdom of iʻHawai (or the "Big Island") into one unified government. The Kingdom was overthrown in January 17, 1893.
Surf culture includes the people, language, fashion and lifestyle surrounding the sport of surfing. The history of surfing began with the ancient Polynesians. That initial culture directly influenced modern surfing which began to flourish and evolve in the early 20th century, with popularity spiking greatly during the 1950s and 1960s, principally in Hawaii, Australia, and California. It continues to progress and spread throughout the world. It has at times affected popular fashion, music, literature, films, jargon, and more.
The fickle nature of weather and the ocean, plus the great desire for the best possible types of waves for surfing, make surfers dependent on weather conditions that may change rapidly. Surfer Magazine, founded in the 1960s when surfing had gained popularity with teenagers, used to say that if they were hard at work and someone yelled "Surf's up!" the office would suddenly be empty. Also, since surfing has a restricted geographical necessity (i.e. the coast), the culture of beach life often influenced surfers and vice versa. Localism or territorialism is a part of the development of surf culture in which individuals or groups of surfers designate certain key surfing spots as their own.
Traditional medicine (also known as indigenous or folk medicine) comprises knowledge systems that developed over generations within various societies before the era of modern medicine.]citation needed[
The World Health Organization (WHO) defines traditional medicine as:
John Kalaipaihala Young II sometimes called Keoni Ana ʻOpio (March 12, 1810 – July 18, 1857) was a politician in the Kingdom of Hawaii, serving as Kuhina Nui of the Hawaiian Islands and Minister of Interior.