In probability theory, the **normal** (or **Gaussian**) **distribution** is a very commonly occurring continuous probability distributionâ€”a function that tells the probability that an observation in some context will fall between any two real numbers. For example, the distribution of grades on a test administered to many people is normally distributed. Normal distributions are extremely important in statistics and are often used in the natural and social sciences for real-valued random variables whose distributions are not known.

The normal distribution is immensely useful because of the central limit theorem, which states that, under mild conditions, the mean of many random variables independently drawn from the same distribution is distributed approximately normally, irrespective of the form of the original distribution: physical quantities that are expected to be the sum of many independent processes (such as measurement errors) often have a distribution very close to the normal. Moreover, many results and methods (such as propagation of uncertainty and least squares parameter fitting) can be derived analytically in explicit form when the relevant variables are normally distributed.