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What does adderall do to people that dont have ADHD?

Answer:

For people that don't need Adderall it can cause physical dependence, jitters, lack of sleep and other problems. AnswerParty!

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ADHD

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, similar to hyperkinetic disorder in the ICD-10) is a psychiatric disorder of the neurodevelopmental type in which there are significant problems of attention and/or hyperactivity and acting impulsively that are not appropriate for a person's age. These symptoms must begin by age six to twelve and be present for more than six months for a diagnosis to be made. In school-aged individuals the lack of focus may result in poor school performance.

Despite being the most commonly studied and diagnosed psychiatric disorder in children and adolescents, the cause in the majority of cases is unknown. It affects about 6 to 7 percent of children when diagnosed via the DSM-IV criteria and 1 to 2 percent when diagnosed via the ICD-10 criteria. Rates are similar between countries and depend mostly on how it is diagnosed. ADHD is diagnosed approximately three times more frequent in boys than in girls. About 30 to 50 percent of people diagnosed in childhood continue to have symptoms into adulthood and between 2 and 5 percent of adults have the condition. The condition can be difficult to tell apart from other disorders as well as that of high normal activity.

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder predominantly inattentive (ADHD-PI), also called attention deficit disorder (ADD), is one of the two types of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The term was formally changed in 1994 in the new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV), to "ADHD predominantly inattentive" (ADHD-PI or ADHD-I) -though the term attention deficit disorder is still widely used. 'Predominantly Inattentive' is similar to the other subtypes of ADHD except that it is characterized primarily by inattentive concentration or a deficit of sustained attention, such as procrastination, hesitation, and forgetfulness; It differs in having fewer or no typical symptoms of hyperactivity or impulsiveness. Lethargy/fatigue is sometimes reported but ADHD-I is a separate condition from Sluggish cognitive tempo.

The three most popular ADHD medications in order are Amphetamine mixed salts with dopamine and norepinephrine basically balanced, Methylphenidate with a dopamine emphasis, and Atomoxetine with a norepinephrine emphasis.

Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (also referred to as Adult ADHD, Adult ADD or simply ADHD in adults) is the neurobiological condition of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults. About one-third to two-thirdsp. 87 of children with symptoms from early childhood continue to demonstrate notable ADHD symptoms throughout life.

Three subtypes of ADHD are identified in the DSM-IV (inattentive, hyperactive/impulsive, and combined). In later life, the hyperactive/impulsive subtype manifests more frequently.p44 Adults with ADHD typically have difficulty following directions, remembering information, concentrating, organizing tasks, or completing work within time limits or meeting appointments. Low self-esteem is common. These difficulties cause life problems within several different arenas, such as emotional, social, vocational, marital, legal, financial or academic areas. Adult attention deficit disorder (AADD) is marked by inattentiveness, difficulty getting work done, procrastination, and organization problems.

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) controversies include concerns about its existence as a disease, its causes, the methods by which ADHD is diagnosed and treated including the use of stimulant medications in children, possible overdiagnosis, misdiagnosis as ADHD leading to undertreatment of the real underlying disease, alleged hegemonic practices of the American Psychiatric Association and negative stereotypes of children diagnosed with ADHD. These controversies have surrounded the subject since at least the 1970s.:p.23

The best course of ADHD management is major topic of debate. Stimulants are the most commonly prescribed medication for ADHD, and, according to the National Institute of Mental Health, "under medical supervision, stimulant medications are considered safe". Safety concerns exist with concerns regarding the higher rates of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder as well as increased severity of these disorders in individuals with a history of stimulant use for ADHD in childhood. The use of stimulant medications for the treatment of ADHD has generated controversy because of undesirable side effects, uncertain long term effects, and social and ethical issues regarding their use and dispensation. Children comprise the majority of ADHD diagnoses, but because they are unable to give informed consent due to their age, treatment decisions are ultimately determined by their legal guardians on their behalf. Ethical and legal issues also arise from the promotion of stimulants to treat ADHD by groups and individuals who receive money from pharmaceutical companies.

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder management are the treatment options available to people with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

There are several effective and evidence-based options to treat people with ADHD. Multimodal treatment, that is, combined pharmacological and behavioral treatment, is the most effective ADHD management strategy, followed by medication alone, and then behavioral treatment. However, these results have been questioned because the study from the multimodal treatment group phased out the behavioral procedure 3 months prior to the last evaluation point but continued the medication group. Indeed, after 14 months the medication group lost its advantage to the long discontinued behavior modification group. By year eight socioeconomic status and family structure were the only predictive variables for ADHD treatment A separate study highlighted the influence that nonclinical factors such as family size may have in mediating the use of pharmacologic therapies for children with ADHD.

Methylphenidate

Hyperactivity has long been part of the human condition, although hyperactive behaviour has not always been seen to be problematic. The terminology used to describe the symptoms of ADHD has gone through many changes over history including: "minimal brain damage", "minimal brain dysfunction", "learning/behavioral disabilities" and "hyperactivity". In the DSM-II (1968) it was the "Hyperkinetic Reaction of Childhood". In the DSM-III "ADD (Attention-Deficit Disorder) with or without hyperactivity" was introduced. In 1987 this was changed to ADHD in the DSM-III-R and subsequent editions.

In the UK:

In the US:

For some children, diet is suspected of playing a role in the multiple behavioral and cognitive symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Concerns have focused on food additives, blood sugar regulation, food allergies and intolerances, and vitamin, mineral and fatty acid deficiencies.

Dopamine Adderall

Amphetamine mixed salts (also known as amphetamine and dextroamphetamine mixed salts, amphetamine salt combo, or simply amphetamine salts, and sold under the brand name Adderall) is a pharmaceutical drug used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. The active ingredient contained in this medication is a mixture of multiple salts of the stimulant amphetamine. There is a single commercial formulation only as of 2013, which contains a 3:1 ratio of dextroamphetamine (the dextrorotary or "right-handed" enantiomer) to levoamphetamine (the levorotary or "left-handed" enantiomer). Amphetamine mixed salts are available in immediate release and extended release formulations.

Amphetamine mixed salt is generally used for the treatment of ADHD and narcolepsy, the two conditions for which the United States Food and Drug Administration has approved its use. However, it is sometimes prescribed off-label for other conditions such as depression. It has been used to treat obesity, but the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists does not recommend this use. Nearly 14 million monthly prescriptions for the condition were written for Americans ages 20 to 39 in 2011, two and a half times the 5.6 million just four years before, according to the data company I.M.S. Health.

Stephen Elliott (born December 3, 1971) is an American author and activist living in San Francisco who has written and published seven books. He is currently Editor-in-Chief of the online literary magazine, The Rumpus.net. He is also the founder of the political action committee LitPAC, which holds readings by authors to raise money for progressive candidates.

Microtrol

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder management are the treatment options available to people with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

There are several effective and evidence-based options to treat people with ADHD. Multimodal treatment, that is, combined pharmacological and behavioral treatment, is the most effective ADHD management strategy, followed by medication alone, and then behavioral treatment. However, these results have been questioned because the study from the multimodal treatment group phased out the behavioral procedure 3 months prior to the last evaluation point but continued the medication group. Indeed, after 14 months the medication group lost its advantage to the long discontinued behavior modification group. By year eight socioeconomic status and family structure were the only predictive variables for ADHD treatment A separate study highlighted the influence that nonclinical factors such as family size may have in mediating the use of pharmacologic therapies for children with ADHD.

Dextroamphetamine

Shire Plc is a Jersey-registered, Irish-headquartered global speciality biopharmaceutical company that is the manufacturer of pharmaceuticals. Originating in the United Kingdom with a large operational base in the United States, its brands and products include Vyvanse, Adderall XR, Intuniv, Lialda, Pentasa, Fosrenol, Replagal, Elaprase, VPRIV, Firazyr and Dermagraft.

Shire has its primary listing on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index. It had a market capitalisation of approximately £11.1 billion as of 26 April 2013, making it the 37th-largest company on the London Stock Exchange. Shire has a secondary listing on NASDAQ.

Amphetamine Obetrol Pliva

The men's 1500 metre freestyle event at the 2008 Olympic Games took place on 15 and 17 August at the Beijing National Aquatics Center in Beijing, China.

Competing at his third Games, Oussama Mellouli made an Olympic milestone to become Tunisia's first ever gold medalist in 48 years. He denied Australia's Grant Hackett a third straight title in the event, touching the wall first in an African record of 14:40.84. Hanging with the leaders through the first two-thirds of the race, Mellouli moved into the lead at the 1,100-metre mark, and held off Hackett's sprinted finish on the final lap. This was also a retribution for Mellouli, who served an 18-month doping ban from FINA for using the banned stimulant Adderall.

Physical dependence refers to a state resulting from chronic use of a drug that has produced tolerance and where negative physical symptoms of withdrawal result from abrupt discontinuation or dosage reduction. Physical dependence can develop from low-dose therapeutic use of certain medications such as benzodiazepines, opioids, antiepileptics and antidepressants, as well as misuse of recreational drugs such as alcohol, opioids and benzodiazepines. The higher the dose used, the greater the duration of use, and the earlier age use began are predictive of worsened physical dependence and thus more severe withdrawal syndromes. Acute withdrawal syndromes can last days, weeks or months, and protracted withdrawal syndrome, also known as "post-acute withdrawal syndrome" or "PAWS" - a low-grade continuation of some of the symptoms of acute withdrawal, typically in a remitting-relapsing pattern, that often results in relapse into active addiction and prolonged disability of a degree to preclude the possibility of lawful employment - can last for months, years, or, in relatively common to extremely rare cases, depending on individual factors, indefinitely. Protracted withdrawal syndrome is noted to be most often caused by benzodiazepines, but is also present in a majority of cases of alcohol and opioid addiction, especially that of a long-term, high-dose, adolescent-beginning, or chronic-relapsing nature (viz. a second or third addiction after withdrawal from the self-same substance of dependence). Withdrawal response will vary according to the dose used, the type of drug used, the duration of use, the age of the patient, the age of first use, and the individual person.

Physical dependence refers to a state resulting from chronic use of a drug that has produced tolerance and where negative physical symptoms of withdrawal result from abrupt discontinuation or dosage reduction. Physical dependence can develop from low-dose therapeutic use of certain medications such as benzodiazepines, opioids, antiepileptics and antidepressants, as well as misuse of recreational drugs such as alcohol, opioids and benzodiazepines. The higher the dose used, the greater the duration of use, and the earlier age use began are predictive of worsened physical dependence and thus more severe withdrawal syndromes. Acute withdrawal syndromes can last days, weeks or months, and protracted withdrawal syndrome, also known as "post-acute withdrawal syndrome" or "PAWS" - a low-grade continuation of some of the symptoms of acute withdrawal, typically in a remitting-relapsing pattern, that often results in relapse into active addiction and prolonged disability of a degree to preclude the possibility of lawful employment - can last for months, years, or, in relatively common to extremely rare cases, depending on individual factors, indefinitely. Protracted withdrawal syndrome is noted to be most often caused by benzodiazepines, but is also present in a majority of cases of alcohol and opioid addiction, especially that of a long-term, high-dose, adolescent-beginning, or chronic-relapsing nature (viz. a second or third addiction after withdrawal from the self-same substance of dependence). Withdrawal response will vary according to the dose used, the type of drug used, the duration of use, the age of the patient, the age of first use, and the individual person.

Substance dependence, commonly called drug addiction, is a compulsive need to use drugs in order to function normally. When such substances are unobtainable, the user suffers from withdrawal.

The section about substance dependence in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (more specifically, the 2000 "text revision", the DSM-IV-TR) does not use the word addiction at all. It explains:

Physiological tolerance or drug tolerance is commonly encountered in pharmacology, when a subject's reaction to a specific drug and concentration of the drug is progressively reduced, requiring an increase in concentration to achieve the desired effect. Drug tolerance can involve both psychological drug tolerance and physiological factors. The following are characteristics of drug tolerance: it is reversible, the rate depends on the particular drug, dosage and frequency of use, differential development occurs for different effects of the same drug. Physiological tolerance also occurs when an organism builds up a resistance to the effects of a substance after repeated exposure. This can occur with environmental substances, such as salt or pesticides.]citation needed[ A rapid drug tolerance is termed tachyphylaxis.

Benzodiazepine dependence or benzodiazepine addiction is when one has developed three or more of either tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, drug seeking behaviors, continued use despite harmful effects, and maladaptive pattern of substance use, according to the DSM-IV. In the case of benzodiazepine dependence however, the continued use seems to be associated with the avoidance of unpleasant withdrawal reaction rather than from the pleasurable effects of the drug. Benzodiazepine dependence develops with long term use, even at low therapeutic doses, even without the described dependence behavior.

Addiction, or what is sometimes referred to as psychological dependence, includes people misusing and/or craving the drug not to relieve withdrawal symptoms but to experience its euphoric and/or intoxicating effects. It is important to distinguish between addiction and drug abuse of benzodiazepines and normal physical dependence on benzodiazepines.The increased inhibitionAGABA caused by benzodiazepines is counteracted by the body's development of tolerance to the drug's effects; the development of tolerance occurs as a result of neuroadaptations, which result in decreased GABA inhibition and increased excitability of the glutamate system; these adaptations occur as a result of the body trying to overcome the central nervous system depressant effects of the drug to restore homeostasis. When benzodiazepines are stopped, these neuroadaptations are "unmasked" leading to hyper-excitability of the nervous system and the appearance of withdrawal symptoms.

Diazepam

Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome—often abbreviated to benzo withdrawal—is the cluster of symptoms that emerge when a person who has taken benzodiazepines has developed a physical dependence (which is distinct from behavioral addiction where a person seeks a high, or exhibits other "addictive" behaviors such as far exceeding prescribed dosages, engaging in criminal behaviors for the sake of obtaining said "high," a continuation of medication abuse despite consistent and significant harm, or attempts to circumvent medical aid with regard to the dependence) undergoes dosage reduction or discontinuation. It is characterized by often severe sleep disturbance, irritability, increased tension and anxiety, panic attacks, hand tremor, sweating, difficulty with concentration, confusion and cognitive difficulty, memory problems, dry retching and nausea, weight loss, palpitations, headache, muscular pain and stiffness, a host of perceptual changes, hallucinations, seizures, psychosis, and suicide (see "Signs and Symptoms" section below for full list). Further, these symptoms are notable for the manner in which they wax and wane and vary in severity from day to day or week by week instead of steadily decreasing in a straightforward linear manner.

It is a potentially serious condition, and is complex and often protracted in time course. Not every long-term user will experience symptoms upon discontinuation, but the proportion of those who will has been variably estimated to be between 15% and 44%. Long-term use, defined as daily use for at least three months, is not desirable because of the associated increased risk of dependence, dose escalation, loss of efficacy, increased risk of accidents and falls, particularly for the elderly, as well as cognitive, neurological, and intellectual impairments. Use of short-acting hypnotics, while being effective at initiating sleep, worsen the second half of sleep due to withdrawal effects. Nevertheless, long-term users of benzodiazepines should not be forced to withdraw against their will.

Benzodiazepine

Drug withdrawal is the group of symptoms that occur upon the abrupt discontinuation or decrease in intake of medications or recreational drugs.

In order to experience the symptoms of withdrawal, one must have first developed a physical and/or mental dependence (often referred to as chemical dependency). This happens after consuming one or more substances for a certain period of time, which is both dose dependent and varies based upon the drug consumed. For example, prolonged use of an anti-depressant is most likely to cause a much different reaction when discontinued than the repeated use of an opioid, such as heroin. Symptoms and body response to the absence can vary from mild discomfort, return of previous underlying medical problems and their respective symptoms. Withdrawal can also lead up to death for signs and symptoms. Many legal and unrestricted chemicals and/or substances available without prescriptions and over the counter can cause withdrawal effects when users stop consuming them, even if taken per directions.

Morphine

Alcohol withdrawal syndrome is a set of symptoms that can occur when an individual reduces or stops alcohol consumption after long periods of alcohol use. Prolonged use of alcohol leads to tolerance and physical dependence. The withdrawal syndrome is largely a hyper-excitable response of the central nervous system to lack of alcohol. Symptoms typical of withdrawal include agitation, seizures, and delirium tremens.

Sedative-hypnotics, such as alcohol, are well known for their propensity to induce physiological dependence. This dependence is due to alcohol-induced neuro-adaptation. Withdrawal is characterized by neuropsychiatric excitability and autonomic disturbances. Dependence on other sedative-hypnotics can increase the severity of the withdrawal syndrome.

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, similar to hyperkinetic disorder in the ICD-10) is a psychiatric disorder of the neurodevelopmental type in which there are significant problems of attention and/or hyperactivity and acting impulsively that are not appropriate for a person's age. These symptoms must begin by age six to twelve and be present for more than six months for a diagnosis to be made. In school-aged individuals the lack of focus may result in poor school performance.

Despite being the most commonly studied and diagnosed psychiatric disorder in children and adolescents, the cause in the majority of cases is unknown. It affects about 6 to 7 percent of children when diagnosed via the DSM-IV criteria and 1 to 2 percent when diagnosed via the ICD-10 criteria. Rates are similar between countries and depend mostly on how it is diagnosed. ADHD is diagnosed approximately three times more frequent in boys than in girls. About 30 to 50 percent of people diagnosed in childhood continue to have symptoms into adulthood and between 2 and 5 percent of adults have the condition. The condition can be difficult to tell apart from other disorders as well as that of high normal activity.

Amphetamines

Disorders that are usually first present during childhood.

This category has the following 2 subcategories, out of 2 total.

Medicine Psychiatry

Educational psychology is the study of human learning. This involves studying instructional processes within the classroom setting. The study of learning processes, both cognitive and affective, allows researchers to the understand individual differences in behavior, personality, intellect, and self- concept. The field of educational psychology heavily relies on testing, measurement, assessment, evaluation, and training to enhance educational activities and learning processes.

Educational psychology can in part be understood through its relationship with other disciplines. It is informed primarily by psychology, bearing a relationship to that discipline analogous to the relationship between medicine and biology. It is also informed by neuroscience. Educational psychology in turn informs a wide range of specialities within educational studies, including instructional design, educational technology, curriculum development, organizational learning, special education and classroom management. Educational psychology both draws from and contributes to cognitive science and the learning sciences. In universities, departments of educational psychology are usually housed within faculties of education, possibly accounting for the lack of representation of educational psychology content in introductory psychology textbooks.

Pharmacology

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) controversies include concerns about its existence as a disease, its causes, the methods by which ADHD is diagnosed and treated including the use of stimulant medications in children, possible overdiagnosis, misdiagnosis as ADHD leading to undertreatment of the real underlying disease, alleged hegemonic practices of the American Psychiatric Association and negative stereotypes of children diagnosed with ADHD. These controversies have surrounded the subject since at least the 1970s.:p.23

The best course of ADHD management is major topic of debate. Stimulants are the most commonly prescribed medication for ADHD, and, according to the National Institute of Mental Health, "under medical supervision, stimulant medications are considered safe". Safety concerns exist with concerns regarding the higher rates of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder as well as increased severity of these disorders in individuals with a history of stimulant use for ADHD in childhood. The use of stimulant medications for the treatment of ADHD has generated controversy because of undesirable side effects, uncertain long term effects, and social and ethical issues regarding their use and dispensation. Children comprise the majority of ADHD diagnoses, but because they are unable to give informed consent due to their age, treatment decisions are ultimately determined by their legal guardians on their behalf. Ethical and legal issues also arise from the promotion of stimulants to treat ADHD by groups and individuals who receive money from pharmaceutical companies.

Science of drugs including their origin, composition, pharmacokinetics,
pharmacodynamics, therapeutic use, and toxicology.

Pharmacology (from Greek φάρμακον, pharmakon, "poison" in classic Greek; "drug" in modern Greek; and -λογία, -logia "study of", "knowledge of") is the branch of medicine and biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (within the body) molecule which exerts a biochemical and/or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism. More specifically, it is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function. If substances have medicinal properties, they are considered pharmaceuticals.

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