The vernier caliper is used in length measurements to gain an additional digit of accuracy compared to a simple ruler.
A vernier scale is a device that lets the user measure more precisely than could be done by reading a uniformly-divided straight or circular measurement scale. It is scale that indicates where the measurement lies in between two of the marks on the main scale.
Verniers are common on sextants used in navigation, scientific instruments used to conduct experiments, machinists' measuring tools (all sorts, but especially calipers and micrometers) used to work materials to fine tolerances, and on theodolites used in surveying.
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Least count is the highest degree of accuracy of measurement that can be achieved. For example the least count of a voltmeter is the minimum change that can be discerned. The formula is - Range/number of divisions.
A measuring instrument is a device for measuring a physical quantity. In the physical sciences, quality assurance, and engineering, measurement is the activity of obtaining and comparing physical quantities of real-world objects and events. Established standard objects and events are used as units, and the process of measurement gives a number relating the item under study and the referenced unit of measurement. Measuring instruments, and formal test methods which define the instrument's use, are the means by which these relations of numbers are obtained. All measuring instruments are subject to varying degrees of instrument error and measurement uncertainty.
Scientists, engineers and other humans use a vast range of instruments to perform their measurements. These instruments may range from simple objects such as rulers and stopwatches to electron microscopes and particle accelerators. Virtual instrumentation is widely used in the development of modern measuring instruments.