Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms. Study of structure includes using spectroscopy and other physical and chemical methods to determine the chemical composition and constitution of organic compounds and materials. Study of properties includes both physical properties and chemical properties, and uses similar methods as well as methods to evaluate chemical reactivity, with the aim to understand the behavior of the organic matter in its pure form (when possible), but also in solutions, mixtures, and fabricated forms. The study of organic reactions includes both their preparation—by synthesis or by other means—as well as their subsequent reactivities, both in the laboratory and via theoretical (in silico) study.
The range of chemicals studied in organic chemistry include hydrocarbons, compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen, as well as compositions based on carbon but containing other elements. Organic chemistry overlaps with many areas including medicinal chemistry, biochemistry, organometallic chemistry, and polymer chemistry, as well as many aspects of materials science.
A general anaesthetic (or anesthetic, see spelling differences) is a drug that has the ability to bring about a reversible loss of consciousness. Anesthesiologists administer these drugs to induce or maintain general anaesthesia to facilitate surgery. Some of these drugs are also used in lower dosages for pain management. The biological mechanism(s) of the action of general anaesthetics are not well understood.
Janssen Pharmaceutica is a pharmaceutical company headquartered in Beerse, Belgium. It was established in 1953 by Paul Janssen with the aim of conducting pharmacological research. The company's stated aim is the continuous development of better drugs to improve quality of life.
In 1961 Janssen Pharmaceutica was purchased by the American corporation Johnson & Johnson, and is now part of Johnson & Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Developmen (J&J PRD), which conducts research and development activities related to a wide range of human medical disorders, including mental illness, neurological disorders, anaesthesia and analgesia, gastrointestinal disorders, fungal infection, allergies and cancer. Janssen and Ortho-McNeil Pharmaceutical have been placed in the Ortho-McNeil-Janssen group within Johnson & Johnson. Its Chairman and Managing Director is the baron Ajit Shetty.
A transdermal analgesic or pain relief patch is a medicated adhesive patch used to relieve minor to severe pain. There are two primary types of analgesic patches: patches containing counterirritants, which are used to treat mild to moderate pain, and patches containing fentanyl, a narcotic used to relieve moderate to severe pain in opioid-tolerant patients.