The product is the result obtained by multiplying two or more quantities together, while the quotient is the result of division.
In algebra, which is a broad division of mathematics, abstract algebra is a common name for the sub-area that studies algebraic structures in their own right. Such structures include groups, rings, fields, modules, vector spaces, and algebras. The specific term abstract algebra was coined at the beginning of the 20th century to distinguish this area from the other parts of algebra. The term modern algebra has also been used to denote abstract algebra.
Two mathematical subject areas that study the properties of algebraic structures viewed as a whole are universal algebra and category theory. Algebraic structures, together with the associated homomorphisms, form categories. Category theory is a powerful formalism for studying and comparing different algebraic structures.
Elementary arithmetic is the simplified portion of arithmetic which includes the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.
Elementary arithmetic starts with the natural numbers and the written symbols (digits) which represent them. The process for combining a pair of these numbers with the four basic operations traditionally relies on memorized results for small values of numbers, including the contents of a multiplication table to assist with multiplication and division.
In mathematics, a binary operation on a set is a calculation involving two elements of the set (called operands) and producing another element of the set (more formally, an operation whose arity is two, and whose two domains and one codomain are (subsets of) the same set). Examples include the familiar elementary arithmetic operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. Other examples are readily found in different areas of mathematics, such as vector addition, matrix multiplication and conjugation in groups.
In mathematics and abstract algebra, group theory studies the algebraic structures known as groups. The concept of a group is central to abstract algebra: other well-known algebraic structures, such as rings, fields, and vector spaces can all be seen as groups endowed with additional operations and axioms. Groups recur throughout mathematics, and the methods of group theory have strongly influenced many parts of algebra. Linear algebraic groups and Lie groups are two branches of group theory that have experienced tremendous advances and have become subject areas in their own right.
Various physical systems, such as crystals and the hydrogen atom, can be modelled by symmetry groups. Thus group theory and the closely related representation theory have many important applications in physics and chemistry.
Mathematical notation is a system of symbolic representations of mathematical objects and ideas. Mathematical notations are used in mathematics, the physical sciences, engineering, and economics. Mathematical notations include relatively simple symbolic representations, such as the numbers 0, 1 and 2, function symbols sin and +; conceptual symbols, such as lim, dy/dx, equations and variables; and complex diagrammatic notations such as Penrose graphical notation and Coxeter–Dynkin diagrams.
A mathematical notation is a writing system used for recording concepts in mathematics.
Classical Hamiltonian quaternions
In mathematics, specifically group theory, a quotient group (or factor group) is a group obtained by aggregating similar elements of a larger group using an equivalence relation. For example, the cyclic group of naddition modulo can be obtained from the integers by identifying elements that differ by a multiple of n and defining a group structure that operates on each such class (known as a congruence class) as a single entity.
In a quotient of a group, the equivalence class of the identity element is always a normal subgroup of the original group, and the other equivalence classes are precisely the cosets of that normal subgroup. The resulting quotient is written G / N, where G is the original group and N is the normal subgroup. (This is pronounced "G mod N," where "mod" is short for modulo.)
William Rowan Hamilton invented quaternions, a mathematical entity in 1843. This article describes Hamilton's original treatment of quaternions, using his notation and terms. Hamilton's treatment is more geometric than the modern approach, which emphasizes quaternions' algebraic properties. Mathematically, quaternions discussed differ form the modern definition only by the terminology which is used.
Hamilton defined a quaternion as the quotient of two directed lines in tridimensional space; or, more generally, as the quotient of two vectors.