Scaling Back the Mineral Problem
These scale-related costs include: The conventional use of toxic chemicals in scale control requires large expenditures on waste disposal and pollution prevention. Even so, chemicals, such as hydrochloric acid ... nucleation reaction takes place in ...
A Simplified Method for Measuring pH Changes
Researchers at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences developed a method for producing antimony microelectrodes that allow for measuring pH changes just over the metal surface, at which chemical reactions take place.
Microreactor for biodiesel production
The liquid then sits for 12 to 24 hours while a slow chemical reaction occurs, creating biodiesel and ... but first the catalyst in it must be neutralized and removed using hydrochloric acid, a tedious and costly process. The microreactor developed at ...
Self-Stirring Liquids Now Possible
For example, the new knowledge could shed an entirely different light on the way chemical reactions and nuclear fusion takes place inside stars ... process that occurs between hydrochloric acid (HCl) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Usually, this reaction ...
Changes in solution acidity/basicity provide important information on the nature of chemical reactions occurring at metal ... The pH value for pure (inert) water is 7, for hydrochloric acid 0, and for sodium hydroxide (one of the strongest bases) 14.