Question:

What cavity surrounds organs but does not really contain them?

Answer:

The ventral body cavity is a human body cavity that is in the anterior (front) aspect of the human body. It is made up of the thoracic cavity, and the abdominopelvic cavity. It surrounds organs.

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The ventral body cavity is a human body cavity that is in the anterior (front) aspect of the human body. It is made up of the thoracic cavity, and the abdominopelvic cavity. The abdominopelvic cavity is further separated into the abdominal cavity and pelvic cavity, but there is no physical barrier between the two. The abdominal cavity contains digestive organs, the pelvic cavity contains the urinary bladder, internal reproductive organs, and rectum. There are two methods for dividing the abdominopelvic cavity. The clinical method, used by physicians and nurses, utilizes four sections called quadrants. They are the Right Upper Quadrant, the Left Upper Quadrant, the Right Lower Quadrant, and the Left Lower quadrant. The directional terms refer to the model's right and left, not the viewer's. Clinicians use the quadrant method because in reality, organs are mobile and move around when the patient is in different positions. The second method for dividing the abdominopelvic cavity is preferred by anatomists. This method divides the cavity into nine regions. The regions are the left and right hypochondriac regions, so named because they lie under the ribs; the epigastric region which is approximately where the stomach is located between the hypochondriac regions; the right and left lumbar regions which flank the umbilical region (which surrounds the umbilicus, or belly button), the right and left iliac/inguinal regions which are where the hips are, and the hypogastric/pubic region, which lies between the hips. The thoracic cavity is separated from the abdominopelvic cavity by the diaphragm. The thoracic cavity is further separated into the pleural cavity which contains the lungs and the superior mediastinum which includes the pericardial (heart) cavity. The organs within the ventral body cavity are called the viscera.
The pelvic cavity is a body cavity that is bounded by the bones of the pelvis. Its oblique roof is the pelvic inlet (the superior opening of the pelvis). Its lower boundary is the pelvic floor. The pelvic cavity primarily contains reproductive organs, the urinary bladder, the pelvic colon, and the rectum. The rectum is placed at the back of the pelvis, in the curve of the sacrum and coccyx; the bladder is in front, behind the pubic symphysis. In the female, the uterus and vagina occupy the interval between these viscera. The pelvic cavity also contains major arteries, veins, muscles, and nerves. These structures have to work together in a little crowded space. They can be affected by many different diseases and by many drugs in many different ways. One part may impact upon another, for example constipation may overload the rectum and compress the urinary bladder, or childbirth might damage the pudendal nerves and later lead to anal weakness. The pelvis has an anteroinferior, a posterior, and two lateral pelvic walls; and an inferior pelvic wall, also called the pelvic floor. The parietal peritoneum is attached here and to the abdominal wall. The lesser pelvis (or "true pelvis") is the space enclosed by the pelvic girdle and below the pelvic brim: between the pelvic inlet and the pelvic floor. This cavity is a short, curved canal, deeper on its posterior than on its anterior wall. Some consider this region to be the entirety of the pelvic cavity. Others define the pelvic cavity as the larger space including the greater pelvis, just above the pelvic inlet. The lesser pelvis is bounded in front and below by the pubic symphysis and the superior rami of the pubes; above and behind, by the sacrum and coccyx; and laterally, by a broad, smooth, quadrangular area of bone, corresponding to the inner surfaces of the body and superior ramus of the ischium, and the part of the ilium below the arcuate line. The lesser pelvis contains the pelvic colon, rectum, bladder, and some of the organs of generation. The rectum is at the back, in the curve of the sacrum and coccyx; the bladder is in front, behind the pubic symphysis. In the female, the uterus and vagina occupy the interval between these viscera. The pelvic splanchnic nerves arising at S2-S4 are in the lesser pelvis. The greater pelvis (or "false pelvis") is the space enclosed by the pelvic girdle above and in front of the pelvic brim. It is bounded on either side by the ilium; in front it is incomplete, presenting a wide interval between the anterior borders of the ilia, which is filled by the parietes of the abdomen; behind is a deep notch on either side between the ilium and the base of the sacrum. It is generally considered part of the abdominal cavity (this is why it is sometimes called the false pelvis). Some][ consider this region part of the pelvic cavity,][ while others reframe the classification question by calling the combination the abdominopelvic cavity. The greater pelvis supports the intestines (specifically, the ileum and sigmoid colon), and transmits part of their weight to the anterior wall of the abdomen. The femoral nerve from L2-L4 is in the greater pelvis, but not in the lesser pelvis. The pelvis can be classified into four main types by measuring the pelvic diameters and conjugates at the pelvic inlet and outlet and as oblique diameters. Articulations of pelvis. Anterior view. The arteries of the pelvis. Dissection of side wall of pelvis showing sacral and pudendal plexuses. Sacral plexus of the right side. Male pelvic cavity Female pelvic cavity Body cavities This article incorporates text from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. gluteal lines (posterior, anterior, inferior) iliac spines (anterior superior, anterior inferior, posterior superior, posterior inferior) acetabulum (acetabular notch)  iliopubic eminence / iliopectineal line  linea terminalis  ischiopubic ramus / pubic arch
obturator foramen  greater sciatic foramen / greater sciatic notch  lesser sciatic foramen
M: BON/CAR anat (c/f/k/f, u, t/p, l)/phys/devp/cell noco/cong/tumr, sysi/epon, injr proc, drug (M5) M: DIG anat (t, g, p)/phys/devp/enzy noco/cong/tumr, sysi/epon proc, drug (A2A/2B/3/4/5/6/7/14/16), blte
The abdominopelvic cavity is a body cavity that consists of the abdominal cavity and the pelvic cavity. It contains the stomach, liver, spleen, gallbladder, kidneys, and most of the small and large intestines. It also contains urinary bladder and internal reproductive organs.
M: DIG anat (t, g, p)/phys/devp/enzy noco/cong/tumr, sysi/epon proc, drug (A2A/2B/3/4/5/6/7/14/16), blte
The human body consists of the following body cavities:
The thoracic wall (or chest wall) is the boundary of the thoracic cavity. The bony portion is known as the thoracic cage. However, the wall also includes muscle, skin, and fascia. When not breathing for long and dangerous periods of time in cold water, your body undergoes great temporary changes to try and prevent death. It achieves this through the activation of the Mammalian diving reflex, which has 3 main properties. Other than Bradycardia and Peripheral vasoconstriction, there is a blood shift which occurs only during very deep dives that affects the thoracic cavity (a chamber of the body protected by the thoracic wall.) When this happens, organ and circulatory walls allow plasma/water to pass freely throughout the thoracic cavity, so its pressure stays constant and the organs aren't crushed. In this stage, the lungs' alveoli fill up with blood plasma, which is reabsorbed when the organism leaves the pressurized environment. This stage of the diving reflex has been observed in humans (such as world champion freediver Martin Štěpánek) during extremely deep (over 90 metres or 300 ft) free dives. Parietal pleura (Cervical, Costal, Mediastinal, Diaphragmatic)  Visceral pleura  Pulmonary ligament  recesses (Costomediastinal, Costodiaphragmatic)  Pleural cavity
M: RES anat (n, x, l, c)/phys/devp noco (c, p)/cong/tumr, sysi/epon, injr proc, drug (R1/2/3/5/6/7)
The abdominal cavity is the largest body cavity of the human body (and animal bodies) that holds the bulk of the viscera. It is located below (or inferior to) the thoracic cavity, and above the pelvic cavity. Its dome-shaped roof is the thoracic diaphragm (a thin sheet of muscle under the lungs), and its oblique floor is the pelvic inlet (the superior opening of the pelvis). It is a part of the abdominopelvic cavity. It is well connected with the pleural (thoracic) cavity. Organs of the abdominal cavity include the stomach, liver, gallbladder, spleen, pancreas, small intestine, kidneys, large intestine, and adrenal glands. The abdominal cavity is lined with a protective membrane termed the peritoneum. The inside wall is covered by the parietal peritoneum. The kidneys are located in the abdominal cavity behind the peritoneum, in the retroperitoneum. The viscera are also covered visceral peritoneum. Between the visceral and parietal peritoneum is the peritoneal cavity, which is a potential space. It contains serous fluid that allows motion. This motion is apparent of the gastrointestinal tract. The peritoneum, by virtue of its connection to the two (parietal and visceral) portions, gives support to the abdominal organs. The peritoneum divides the cavity into numerous compartments. One of these the lesser sac is located behind the stomach and joins into the greater sac via the foramen of Winslow. Some of the organs are attached to the walls of the abdomen via folds of peritoneum and ligaments, such as the liver and others use broad areas of the peritoneum, such as the pancreas. The peritoneal ligaments are actually dense folds of the peritoneum that are used to connect viscera to viscera or viscera to the walls of the abdomen. They are named in such a way as to show what they connect typically. For example the gastrocolic ligament connects the stomach and colon and the splenocolic ligament connects the spleen and the colon, or sometimes by their shape as the round ligament or triangular ligament. Mesenteries are folds of peritoneum that are attached to the walls of the abdomen and enclose viscera completely. They are supplied with plentiful amounts of blood. The three most important mesenteries are mesentery for the small intestine, the transverse mesocolon, which attaches the back portion of the colon to the abdominal wall, and the mesosigmoid which enfolds the sigmoid portion of the colon. The omentum are specialized folds of peritoneum that enclose nerves, blood vessels, lymph channels, fatty tissue, and connective tissue. There are two omenta. First, is the greater omentum that hangs off of the small intestine. The other is the lesser omentum that extends between the stomach and the liver. When fluid collects in the abdominal cavity it is called . This is usually not noticeable until enough has collected to distend the abdomen. The collection of fluid will cause pressure on the viscera, veins, and the thoracic cavity. Treatment is directed at the cause of the fluid accumulation. One method is to decrease the portal vein pressure, especially useful in treating cirrhosis. heals best if the lymphatic vessel involved is closed. Heart failure can cause recurring ascites. Another disorder is called peritonitis which usually accompanies inflammatory processes elsewhere. It can be caused by damage to an organ, or from a contusion to the abdominal wall from the outside or by surgery. It may be brought in by the bloodstream or the lymphatic system. The most common origin is the gastrointestinal tract. Peritonitis can be acute or chronic, generalized, or localized, and may be have one origin or multiple origins. The omenta can help control the spread of infection; however without treatment, the infection will spread throughout the cavity. An abscess may form as a secondary reaction to an infection. Antibiotics have become an important tool in fighting abscesses; however external drainage is usually required also. M: DIG anat (t, g, p)/phys/devp/enzy noco/cong/tumr, sysi/epon proc, drug (A2A/2B/3/4/5/6/7/14/16), blte
The thoracic cavity (or chest cavity) is the chamber of the human body (and other animal bodies) that is protected by the thoracic wall (thoracic cage and associated skin, muscle, and fascia). The thoracic area includes the tendons as well as the cardiovascular system which could be damaged from injury to the back, spine or the neck. Structures within the thoracic cavity include: It contains three potential spaces lined with mesothelium: the paired pleural cavities and the pericardial cavity. The mediastinum comprises those organs which lie in the centre of the chest between the lungs. If the pleural cavity is breached from the outside, as by a bullet wound or knife wound, a pneumothorax, or air in the cavity, may result. If the volume of air is significant, one or both lungs may collapse, which requires immediate medical attention. splenius (capitis, cervicis)  erector spinae (iliocostalis, longissimus, spinalis)  latissimus dorsi transversospinales: (semispinalis dorsi, semispinalis cervicis, semispinalis capitis, multifidus, rotatores)  interspinales  intertransversarii vertebral column: trapezius  latissimus dorsi  rhomboid (major, minor)  levator scapulae intercostales (external, internal, innermost)  subcostales  transversus thoracis  levatores costarum  serratus posterior (inferior, superior)  diaphragm
thoracic cavity: pectoralis major  pectoralis minor  subclavius  serratus anterior M: MUS, DF+DRCT anat (h/n, u, t/d, a/p, l)/phys/devp/hist noco (m, s, c)/cong (d)/tumr, sysi/epon, injr proc, drug (M1A/3) Parietal pleura (Cervical, Costal, Mediastinal, Diaphragmatic)  Visceral pleura  Pulmonary ligament  recesses (Costomediastinal, Costodiaphragmatic)  Pleural cavity
M: RES anat (n, x, l, c)/phys/devp noco (c, p)/cong/tumr, sysi/epon, injr proc, drug (R1/2/3/5/6/7)
Thorax

Anatomy (from the Greek ἀνατέμνωanatemnō, "I cut up, cut open" from ἀνά – ana, "on, upon", and τέμνω – temnō, "I cut") is the study of the body plan of animals. In some of its facets, anatomy is closely related to embryology, comparative anatomy and comparative embryology, through common roots in evolution. Human anatomy is important in medicine.

The discipline of anatomy is subdivided into gross (or macroscopic) anatomy and microscopic anatomy. Gross anatomy is the study of structures that can, when suitably presented or dissected, be seen by unaided vision with the naked eye. Microscopic anatomy is the study of structures on a microscopic scale, including histology (the study of tissues) and cytology (the study of cells).

The ventral body cavity is a human body cavity that is in the anterior (front) aspect of the human body. It is made up of the thoracic cavity, and the abdominopelvic cavity. The abdominopelvic cavity is further separated into the abdominal cavity and pelvic cavity, but there is no physical barrier between the two. The abdominal cavity contains digestive organs, the pelvic cavity contains the urinary bladder, internal reproductive organs, and rectum.

There are two methods for dividing the abdominopelvic cavity. The clinical method, used by physicians and nurses, utilizes four sections called quadrants. They are the Right Upper Quadrant, the Left Upper Quadrant, the Right Lower Quadrant, and the Left Lower quadrant. The directional terms refer to the model's right and left, not the viewer's. Clinicians use the quadrant method because in reality, organs are mobile and move around when the patient is in different positions.

Human body cavities

The abdominopelvic cavity is a body cavity that consists of the abdominal cavity and the pelvic cavity. It contains the stomach, liver, spleen, gallbladder, kidneys, and most of the small and large intestines. It also contains urinary bladder and internal reproductive organs.


By the broadest definition, a body cavity is any fluid-filled space in a multicellular organism, other than those of vessels (such as blood vessels and lymph vessels). However, the term usually refers to the space located between an animal’s outer covering (epidermis), and the outer lining of the gut cavity, where internal organs develop. "The human body cavity", normally refers to the ventral body cavity, because it is by far the largest one in volume.

The type of body cavity places an organism into one of three groups:

The thoracic cavity (or chest cavity) is the chamber of the human body (and other animal bodies) that is protected by the thoracic wall (thoracic cage and associated skin, muscle, and fascia).

The thoracic area includes the tendons as well as the cardiovascular system which could be damaged from injury to the back, spine or the neck.

Human anatomical terms make up a distinct nomenclature to describe areas of the body, to provide orientation when describing parts of human anatomy, and to distinguish different movements of the body. An understanding of these terms is necessary to study the human body in depth. Many of these terms are also applicable in animal anatomy (zootomy).

The international standard anatomical position is the position that provides a reference point for describing the structures of the human body. In this position, the body is standing erect with good posture and the face is looking directly forward. Both feet together, flat on the floor and the toes pointing forward. The arms are down at the sides with the palms turned forward and thumbs pointing away from the body. When the body is lying face down in the anatomical position, this is called the prone position. When the body is lying face up, this is called the supine position.

The abdominal cavity is the largest body cavity in humans and many animals, and holds the bulk of the viscera. It is located below (inferior to) the thoracic cavity, and above the pelvic cavity. Its dome-shaped roof is the thoracic diaphragm (a thin sheet of muscle under the lungs), and its oblique floor is the pelvic inlet (the superior opening of the pelvis). It is a part of the abdominopelvic cavity. It is well connected with the pleural (thoracic) cavity.

Organs of the abdominal cavity include the stomach, liver, gallbladder, spleen, pancreas, small intestine, kidneys, large intestine, and adrenal glands.

Human anatomy (gr. ἀνατομία, "dissection", from ἀνά, "up", and τέμνειν, "cut") is primarily the scientific study of the morphology of the human body. Anatomy is subdivided into gross anatomy and microscopic anatomy. Gross anatomy (also called topographical anatomy, regional anatomy, or anthropotomy) is the study of anatomical structures that can be seen by the naked eye. Microscopic anatomy is the study of minute anatomical structures assisted with microscopes, which includes histology (the study of the organization of tissues), and cytology (the study of cells). Anatomy, human physiology (the study of function), and biochemistry (the study of the chemistry of living structures) are complementary basic medical sciences that are generally together (or in tandem) to students studying medical sciences.

In some of its facets human anatomy is closely related to embryology, comparative anatomy and comparative embryology, through common roots in evolution; for example, much of the human body maintains the ancient segmental pattern that is present in all vertebrates with basic units being repeated, which is particularly obvious in the vertebral column and in the ribcage, and can be traced from very early embryos.

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