Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals. The substance is ingested by an organism and assimilated by the organism's cells in an effort to produce energy, maintain life, or stimulate growth.
Historically, people secured food through two methods: hunting and gathering, and agriculture. Today, most of the food energy consumed by the world population is supplied by the food industry.
Cooking oil is plant, animal, or synthetic fat used in frying, baking, and other types of cooking. It is also used in food preparation and flavouring that doesn't involve heat, such as salad dressings and bread dips, and in this sense might be more accurately termed edible oil.
Cooking oil is typically a liquid, although some oils that contain saturated fat, such as coconut oil, palm oil and palm kernel oil, are solid at room temperature.
Cookware and bakeware are types of food preparation containers commonly found in a kitchen. Cookware comprises cooking vessels, such as saucepans and frying pans, intended for use on a stove or range cooktop. Bakeware comprises cooking vessels intended for use inside an oven. Some utensils are both cookware and bakeware.
The choice of material for cookware and bakeware items has a significant effect on the item's performance (and cost), particularly in terms of thermal conductivity and how much food sticks to the item when in use. Some choices of material also require special pre-preparation of the surface - known as seasoning - before they are used for food preparation.
Cooking spray is a spray form of an oil as a lubricant, lecithin as an emulsifier, and a propellant such as food-grade alcohol, nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide or propane. Cooking spray is applied to frying pans and other cookware to prevent food from sticking. Traditionally, cooks used butter, shortening, or oils poured or rubbed on cookware. Most cooking sprays have less food energy per serving than an application of vegetable oil, because they are applied in a much thinner layer: US regulations allow many to be labelled "zero-calorie"; in the UK sprays claim to supply "less than 1 calorie per serving". Popular US brands include Pam and Crisco. Sprays are available with plain vegetable oil, butter and olive oil flavor.
Cooking spray has other culinary uses besides cooking proper. Sticky candies such as Mike and Ike that are often sold in bulk vending machines may be sprayed with cooking spray to keep them from sticking together in the machines. Coating the inside of a measuring cup with the spray allows sticky substances such as honey to pour out more easily. Vegetables may be sprayed before seasoning to make the seasonings stick better.
Hospitality is the relationship between the guest and the host, or the act or practice of being hospitable. This includes the reception and entertainment of guests, visitors, or strangers.