Gas duster, also mistakenly known as canned air or compressed air, is a product used for cleaning electronic equipment and other sensitive devices that cannot be cleaned using water. Despite the name "canned air," the cans actually contain gases that are much easier to compress into liquids, such as 1,1-difluoroethane, 1,1,1-trifluoroethane, or 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane. Hydrocarbons, like butane, were often used in the past, but their flammable nature forced manufacturers to use fluorocarbons. Referring to the contents as "air", compressed or otherwise, could be dangerously, even fatally misleading, if someone regards the contents as being safe to breathe in concentrated form. Such terms should not be used.
Compressed air is air kept under a pressure that is greater than atmospheric pressure. It serves many domestic and industrial purposes.
In Europe, 10 percent of all industrial electricity consumption is to produce compressed air—amounting to 80 terawatt hours consumption per year.
Intoxicative inhalants are a broad range of intoxicative drugs whose volatile vapors are taken in via the nose and trachea. They are taken by room temperature volatilization or from a pressurized container (e.g., nitrous oxide), and do not include drugs that are sniffed after burning or heating. For example, amyl nitrite and toluene are considered inhalants, but tobacco, marijuana, and crack are not, even though the latter are also inhaled.
While some inhalant drugs are used for medical purposes, as in the case of nitrous oxide (a dental anxiolytic), this article focuses on inhalant abuse as recreational drugs that are used for their intoxicating effect. Inhaling volatile substances because of their intoxicating effect is called huffing.
Progressive inflammatory neuropathy (PIN) is a disease that was identified in a report, released on January 31, 2008, by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The first known outbreak of this neuropathy occurred in southeastern Minnesota in the United States. The disease was reported among pig slaughterhouse workers who appeared at various care facilities in the area reporting similar neurological symptoms. The disease was later identified at pork processing plants in Indiana and Nebraska as well. The condition is characterized by acute paralysis, pain, fatigue, numbness, and weakness, especially in extremities. It was initially believed that workers might have contracted the disease through inhaling aerosols from pig brains blown through a compressed-air hose and that this exposure to pig neural tissue induced an auto-immune response that might have produced their mysterious peripheral neuropathy. These suspicions were confirmed in reports and investigations conducted at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota.
An initial comprehensive study of 24 known cases was conducted by multiple doctors from various disciplines at the Mayo Clinic. They identified the cause of this neurological disease to be occupational exposure to aerosolized pig neural tissue. Investigators from the Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) simultaneously determined that the 70 ppsi pressure used to liquefy and extract the pig brains caused the aerosolization of the pig neural tissue, sending it into the air in a fine mist. The workers closest in proximity to the "head" table, the area in the plant where high pressured air was used to evacuate the brain tissue from the pig's skull, were the most likely to be affected. The aerosolized mist was inhaled and readily absorbed into the workers' mucus membranes. The pig neural tissue was recognized by their systems as foreign and an immune response was initiated. The pig antigen was found most prominently in the nerve roots of the spine which were also swollen. Researchers determined that the irritation was due to the voltage-gated potassium channels being blocked. They identified 125 1-α-dendrotoxin as the antagonist that binds to and blocks the channels, causing an intracellular build-up of potassium ions which causes inflammation and irritation, and consequently, hyper-excitability in the peripheral nervous system. It is this hyper-excitability that leads to the tingling, numbness, pain, and weakness.
A disaster is a natural or man-made (or technological) hazard resulting in an event of substantial extent causing significant physical damage or destruction, loss of life, or drastic change to the environment. A disaster can be ostensively defined as any tragic event stemming from events such as earthquakes, floods, catastrophic accidents, fires, or explosions. It is a phenomenon that can cause damage to life and property and destroy the economic, social and cultural life of people.
In contemporary academia, disasters are seen as the consequence of inappropriately managed risk. These risks are the product of a combination of both hazard/s and vulnerability. Hazards that strike in areas with low vulnerability will never become disasters, as is the case in uninhabited regions.
Science of drugs including their origin, composition, pharmacokinetics,
pharmacodynamics, therapeutic use, and toxicology.
Pharmacology (from Greek φάρμακον, pharmakon, "poison" in classic Greek; "drug" in modern Greek; and -λογία, -logia "study of", "knowledge of") is the branch of medicine and biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (within the body) molecule which exerts a biochemical and/or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism. More specifically, it is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function. If substances have medicinal properties, they are considered pharmaceuticals.