Bronchospasm or a bronchial spasm is a sudden constriction of the muscles in the walls of the bronchioles. It is caused by the release (degranulation) of substances from mast cells or basophils under the influence of anaphylatoxins. It causes difficulty in breathing which can be very mild to severe.
Bronchospasms appear as the feature of asthma, chronic bronchitis, anaphylaxis, as a possible side effect of the drug pilocarpine (which is used to treat illness resulting from the ingestion of deadly nightshade as well as other things) and also as a side effect for beta blockers (used to treat hypertension) and other drugs. It can present as a sign of giardiasis.
A Respiratory Therapist is specialized healthcare practitioner who has graduated from a college or a university and passed a national board certifying examination. Respiratory therapists work under the general supervision of a primary provider, such as physician or nurse practitioner most often in intensive care and operating rooms, but also in outpatient clinics.
Respiratory therapists are specialists and educators in cardiology and pulmonology. Respiratory therapists are also advanced-practice clinicians in airway management; establishing and maintaining the airway during management of trauma, intensive care, and may administer anaesthesia for surgery or conscious sedation.
Lower respiratory tract infection, while often used as a synonym for pneumonia, can also be applied to other types of infection including lung abscess and acute bronchitis. Symptoms include shortness of breath, weakness, high fever, coughing and fatigue.
Lower respiratory tract infections place a considerable strain on the health budget and are generally more serious than upper respiratory infections. Since 1993 there has been a slight reduction in the total number of deaths from lower respiratory tract infection. However in 2002 they were still the leading cause of deaths among all infectious diseases, and they accounted for 3.9 million deaths worldwide and 6.9% of all deaths that year.