What are Types of trees with 6 letters?


Bur Oak, Ginkgo, Mayhaw, Paw Paw, Pin Oak are just a few names of trees that have 6 letters in there name.

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Quercus muehlenbergii
Quercus muehlenbergii, the chinkapin oak (or chinquapin oak), is an oak in the white oak group (Quercus sect. Quercus). The species was often called Quercus acuminata in older literature. Quercus muehlenbergii, (its scientific name often misspelt muhlenbergii) is native to eastern and central North America, ranging from Vermont west to Wisconsin and south to South Carolina, western Florida, New Mexico, and northeastern Mexico from Coahuila south to Hidalgo. Since its recognition as a different species from the similar-appearing )Quercus prinuschestnut oak (, Q. muehlenbergii has generally been regarded as a distinct species; no subspecies or varieties are currently recognized within it, although a few infraspecific variants had been accepted in the past. The tree's scientific name honors Gotthilf Heinrich Ernst Muhlenberg (1753–1815), a Lutheran pastor and amateur botanist in Pennsylvania. In publishing the name Quercus mühlenbergii, German-American botanist George Engelmann mistakenly used an umlaut in spelling Muhlenberg's name, even though Pennsylvania-born Muhlenberg himself did not use an umlaut in his name. Under the modern rules of botanical nomenclature, umlauts are transliterated, with "ü" becoming "ue", hence Engelmann's Quercus mühlenbergii is now presented as Quercus muehlenbergii. In lack of evidence that Engelmann's use of the umlaut was an unintended error, and hence correctable, the muehlenbergii spelling is considered correct, although the more appropriate orthographic variant Quercus muhlenbergii is often seen. The low-growing, cloning (dwarf chinkapin oak)Q. prinoides is similar to Q. muehlenbergii and has been confused with it in the past, but is now generally accepted as a distinct species. If the two are considered to be conspecific, the earlier-published name Quercus prinoides has priority over Q. muehlenbergii, and the larger chinkapin oak can then be classified as Quercus prinoides var. acuminata, with the dwarf chinkapin oak being Quercus prinoides var. prinoides. Q. prinoides was named and described by the German botanist Karl (Carl) Ludwig Willdenow in 1801, in a German journal article by Muhlenberg. Key characteristics of Quercus muehlenbergii (chinkapin oak): Chinkapin oak is monoecious in flowering habit; flowers emerge in April to late May or early June. The staminate flowers are borne in catkins that develop from the leaf axils of the previous year, and the pistillate flowers develop from the axils of the current year's leaves. The fruit, an acorn or nut, is borne singly or in pairs, matures in 1 year, and ripens in September or October. About half of the acorn is enclosed in a thin cup and is chestnut brown to nearly black. Chinkapin oak is closely related to the smaller but generally similar )Quercus prinoidesdwarf chinkapin oak (. Chinkapin oak is usually a tree, but occasionally shrubby, while dwarf chinkapin oak is a low-growing, clone-forming shrub. The two species generally occur in different habitats: chinquapin oak is typically found on calcareous soils and rocky slopes, while dwarf chinkapin oak is usually found on acidic substrates, primarily sand or sandy soils, and also dry shales. Chinkapin oak is also sometimes confused with the related )Quercus montanachestnut oak (, which it closely resembles. However, unlike the pointed teeth on the leaves of the chinkapin oak, chestnut oak leaves generally have rounded teeth. The two species have contrasting kinds of bark: Chinkapin oak has a gray, flaky bark very similar to that of )Q. albawhite oak ( but with a more yellow-brown cast to it (hence the occasional name yellow oak for this species), while chestnut oak has dark, solid, deeply ridged bark. The chinkapin oak also has smaller acorns than the chestnut oak or another similar species, the )Q. michauxiiswamp chestnut oak (, which have some of the largest acorns of any oaks. Chinkapin oak is generally found on well-drained upland soils derived from limestone or where limestone outcrops occur. Occasionally it is found on well-drained limestone soils along streams. The Chinkapin oak is generally found on soils that are weakly acid (pH about 6.5) to alkaline (above pH 7.0). It grows on both northerly and southerly aspects but is more common on the warmer southerly aspects. It is absent or rare at high elevations in the Appalachians. It is rarely a predominant tree, but it grows in association with many other species. It is a component of the forest cover type White Oak-Black Oak-Northern Red Oak (Society of American Foresters Type 52) and the Post Oak-Blackjack Oak (Type 40) (2). It grows in association with white oak (Quercus alba), black oak (Q. velutina), northern red oak (Q. rubra), scarlet oak (Q. coccinea), sugar maple (Acer saccharum), red maple (A. rubrum), hickories (Carya spp.), black cherry (Prunus serotina), cucumbertree (Magnolia acuminata), white ash (Fraxinus americana), American basswood (Tilia americana), black walnut (Juglans nigra), butternut (J. cinerea), and yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera). American beech (Fagus grandifolia), shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata), pitch pine (P. rigida), Virginia pine (P. uirginiana), Ozark chinkapin (Castanea ozarkensis), eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana), bluejack oak (Quercus incana), southern red oak (Q. falcata), blackgum (Nyssa sylvatica), and winged elm (Ulmus alata) also grow in association with chinkapin oak. In the Missouri Ozarks a redcedar-chinkapin oak association has been described.][ The most common small tree and shrub species found in association with chinkapin oak include flowering dogwood (Cornus florida), sassafras (Sassafras albidum), sourwood (Oxydendron arboreum), eastern hophornbeam (Ostrya virginiana), Vaccinium spp., Viburnum spp., hawthorns (Crataegus spp.), and sumacs (Rhus spp.). The most common woody vines are wild grape (Vitis spp.) and greenbrier (Smilax spp.).][ Chinkapin oak is classed as intolerant of shade. It withstands moderate shading when young but becomes more intolerant of shade with age. It is regarded as a climax species on dry, drought prone soils, especially those of limestone origin. On more moist sites it is subclimax to climax. It is often found as a component of the climax vegetation in stands on mesic sites with limestone soils. However, many oak-hickory stands on moist sites that contain chinkapin oak are succeeded by a climax forest including beech, maple, and ash. Severe wildfire kills chinkapin oak saplings and small pole-size trees, but these often resprout. However, fire scars serve as entry points for decay-causing fungi, and the resulting decay can cause serious losses. Oak wilt (Ceratocystis fagacearum), a vascular disease, attacks Chinkapin oak and usually kills the tree within two to four years. Other diseases that attack Chinkapin oak include the cankers Strumella coryneoidea and Nectria galligena, shoestring root rot (Armillarea mellea), anthracnose (Gnomonia veneta), and leaf blister (Taphrina spp.).][ The most serious defoliating insects that attack Chinkapin oak are the )Lymantria dispargypsy moth (, the )Anisota senatoriaorangestriped oakworm (, and the variable oakleaf caterpillar (Heterocampa manteo). Insects that bore into the bole and seriously degrade the products cut from infested trees include the carpenterworm (Prionoyxstus robiniae), little carpenterworm (P. macmurtrei), white oak borer (Goes tigrinus), Columbian timber beetle (Corthylus columbianus), oak timberworm (Arrhenodes minutus), and twolined chestnut borer (Agrilus bilineatus). The acorn weevils (Curculio spp.), larvae of moths (Valentinia glandulella and Melissopus latiferreanus), and gall forming cynipids (Callirhytis spp.) feed on the acorns.][ Like that of other white oak species, the wood of the chinkapin oak (Quercus muehlenbergii) is a durable hardwood prized for many types of construction.][ The chinquapin oak is especially known for its sweet and palatable acorns. Indeed, the nuts contained inside of the thin shell are among the sweetest of any oak, with an excellent taste even when eaten raw, providing an excellent source of food for both wildlife and people. The acorns are eaten by squirrels, mice, voles, chipmunks, deer, turkey, and other birds.

Asimina triloba
Asimina triloba, the pawpaw, paw paw, paw-paw, or common pawpaw, is a species of Asimina (the pawpaw genus) in the same plant family (the Annonaceae) as the custard-apple, cherimoya, sweetsop, ylang-ylang and soursop. The pawpaw is native to the Eastern, Southern, and Midwestern United States and adjacent southernmost Ontario, Canada, from New York west to southeastern Nebraska, and south to northern Florida and eastern Texas. The pawpaw is a patch-forming (clonal) understory tree found in well-drained, deep, fertile bottom-land and hilly upland habitat, with large, simple leaves and large fruits. The paw paw is the largest edible fruit indigenous to the United States. This plant's scientific name is Asimina triloba. The genus name Asimina is adapted from the Native American (probably Miami-Illinois) name assimin or rassimin through the French colonial asiminier. The epithet triloba in the species' scientific name refers to the flowers' three-lobed calices and doubly three-lobed corollas, the shape not unlike a tricorne hat. The common name of this species is variously spelled pawpaw, paw paw, paw-paw, and papaw. It probably derives from the Spanish papaya, an American tropical fruit (Carica papaya) sometimes also called "papaw", perhaps because of the superficial similarity of their fruits.][ Asimina triloba has had numerous local common names including: wild banana, prairie banana, Indiana banana, Hoosier banana, West Virginia banana, Kansas banana, Kentucky banana, Michigan banana, Missouri banana, the poor man’s banana, Ozark banana, and banango. Asimina triloba is a large shrub or small tree growing to a height of 35 feet (11 m) (rarely to 45 feet or 14 m) with a trunks 8-12 inches (20–30 cm) or more in diameter. The large leaves of pawpaw trees are clustered symmetrically at the ends of the branches, giving a distinctive imbricated appearance to the tree's foliage. The leaves of the species are simple, alternate and spirally arranged, entire, deciduous, obovate-lanceolate, 10-12 inches (25–30 cm) long, 4-5 inches (10–13 cm) broad, and wedge-shaped at the base, with an acute apex and an entire margin, with the midrib and primary veins prominent. The petioles are short and stout, with a prominent adaxial groove. Stipules are lacking. The expanding leaves are conduplicate, green, covered with rusty tomentum beneath, and hairy above; when fully grown they are smooth, dark green above, and paler beneath. When bruised, the leaves have a disagreeable odor similar to a green bell pepper. In autumn the leaves are a rusty yellow, which make spotting pawpaw groves possible from a long distance. Pawpaw flowers are perfect, about 1-2 inches (3–5 cm) across, rich red-purple or maroon when mature, with three sepals and six petals. They are borne singly on stout, hairy, axillary peduncles. The flowers are produced in early spring at the same time as or slightly before the new leaves appear, and have a faint fetid or yeasty smell. The fruit of the pawpaw is a large, yellowish-green to brown berry, 2–6 in (5–16 cm) long and 1–3 in (3–7 cm) broad, weighing from 0.7–18 oz (20–500 g), containing several brown seeds 1/2 to 1 in (15–25 mm) in diameter embedded in the soft, edible fruit pulp. The conspicuous fruits begin developing after the plants flower; they are initially green, maturing by September or October to yellow or brown. When mature, the heavy fruits bend the weak branches down. Other characteristics: Asimina triloba, the pawpaw, commonly grows in floodplains and shady, rich bottomlands, where it often forms a dense, clonally spreading undergrowth in the forest, often appearing as a patch or thicket of individual small slender trees. Pawpaws are not the first to colonize a disturbed site (arriving roughly four years after a clearcut), but may become dominant and slow the establishment of oaks and hickories. Although shade-tolerant, pawpaws do not persist in undisturbed old growth forest. Pawpaws spread locally primarily by root suckers; sexual reproduction by seed does also occur, but at a fairly low rate. Pawpaw flowers are insect-pollinated, but fruit production is sometimes limited if few if any pollinators are attracted to the flower's faint, or sometimes non-existent scent.][ The flowers produce an odor similar to that of rotting meat to attract blowflies or carrion beetles for cross pollination.][ Other insects that are attracted to pawpaw flowers include scavenging fruit flies, carrion flies and beetles. Because of irregular fruit production, some][ believe pawpaw plants are self-incompatible, requiring cross-pollination between trees of different clones (patches). The fruits of the pawpaw are eaten by a variety of mammals, including raccoons, gray foxes, opossums, squirrels, and black bears. The disagreeable-smelling leaves, twigs, and bark of pawpaws contain natural insecticides known as acetogenins. Pawpaw leaves and twigs are seldom consumed by rabbits, deer, or goats, or by many insects. However, mules have been seen eating pawpaw leaves in Maryland. Larvae of the zebra swallowtail (Eurytides marcellus), a butterfly, feed exclusively on young leaves of Asimina triloba and various other pawpaw (Asimina) species, but never occur in great numbers on the plants. Chemicals in the pawpaw leaves confer protection from predation throughout the butterfly's life, as trace amounts of acetogenins remain present, making them unpalatable to birds and other predators. Pawpaw fruits are rich in fatty acids, the major one being octanoate. They also contain cis-δ9- and cis-δ11-hexadecenoate, cis-δ9-, cis-δ11- and cis-δ13-octadecenoate. The seeds have been shown to contain the chemicals asimitrin (an adjacent ring-hydroxylated bis-tetrahydrofuran acetogenin) and 4-hydroxytrilobin (an adjacent bis-THF ring with two flanking hydroxyl groups and an α,β-unsaturated γ-lactone with a 4-hydroxyl group). These chemicals seem to have selective cytotoxicity against prostate adenocarcinoma (PC-3) and colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29) cell lines, thus may become a useful chemotherapeutic chemical for these types of cancer. The leaves also contain toxic annonaceous acetogenins, making them impalatable to most insects. The one notable exception is the zebra swallowtail butterfly (Eurytides marcellus), whose larvae feed on the leaves of various species of Asimina, conferring protection from predation throughout the butterfly's life, as trace amounts of acetogenins remain present, making them unpalatable to birds and other predators. The bark of pawpaw trees contains other acetogenins, including asimin, asiminacin and asiminecin, which have been shown to be potent inhibitors of mitochondrial NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase, making A. triloba a promising source of pesticide and anti-tumour compounds. On a global (range-wide) scale, the common pawpaw (Asimina triloba) has a NatureServe global conservation rank of G5 (Very Common). In the United States, the species has a NatureServe national conservation rank of N5 (Very Common), but is considered a threatened species in New York, and an endangered species in New Jersey. In Canada, where the species is found only in portions of southern Ontario, it has a NatureServe national conservation rank of N3 (Vulnerable), and a NatureServe subnational conservation rank of S3 (Vulnerable) in Ontario. The Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources has given the species a general status of "Sensitive", and its populations there are monitored. In areas in which deer populations are dense, pawpaws appear to be becoming more abundant locally, since the deer avoid them but consume seedlings of most other woody plants. A strong candidate for the natural distribution of the common pawpaw (Asimina triloba) in North America, prior to the Ice Ages and lasting until roughly 10,000 years ago, was likely the then extant but now extinct megafauna of North America. (Such animals went extinct during the Quaternary extinction event.) With the arrival of humans, and the extinction of such megafauna for distributing Asimina triloba, the likely candidate for distributing these large fruit bearing plants likely became the newly-arrived humans. The earliest documented mention of pawpaws is in the 1541 report of the Spanish de Soto expedition, who found Native Americans cultivating it east of the Mississippi River. Chilled pawpaw fruit was a favorite dessert of George Washington, and Thomas Jefferson planted it at Monticello, his home in Virginia. The Lewis and Clark Expedition sometimes subsisted on pawpaws during their travels. As described by horticulturist Barbara Damrosch, the fruit of the pawpaw "looks a bit like mango, but with pale yellow, custardly, spoonable flesh and black, easy-to-remove seeds." Wild-collected pawpaw fruits, ripe in late August to mid September, have long been a favorite treat throughout the tree's extensive native range in eastern North America, and on occasion are sold locally at farmers' markets. Pawpaw fruits have a sweet, custardish flavor somewhat similar to banana, mango, and cantaloupe, varying significantly by source or cultivar, with more protein than most fruits. Nineteenth-century American agronomist E. Lewis Sturtevant described pawpaws as ... a natural custard, too luscious for the relish of most people" Ohio botanist William B. Werthner noted that The fruit ... has a tangy wild-wood flavor peculiarly its own. It is sweet, yet rather cloying to the taste and a wee bit puckery – only a boy can eat more than one at a time. Fresh fruits of the pawpaw are commonly eaten raw, either chilled or at room temperature. However, they can be kept only 2–3 days at room temperature, or about a week if refrigerated. The easily bruised pawpaw fruits do not ship well unless frozen. Where pawpaws grow, the fruit pulp is also often used locally in baked dessert recipes, with pawpaw often substituted with volumetric equivalency in many banana-based recipes. Pawpaws may also be blended into ice cream or included in pancakes. Pawpaws are also used for juice-making,][ as either a fresh pawpaw drink][ or in drink mixtures (for example, a pawpaw, pineapple, banana, lime, lemon, and orange tea mix][). The fruit pulp can also be made into a country wine.][ In southern West Virginia, pawpaws are made into a native version of banana nut cake or fruit cake baked inside canning jars, then heat-sealed, reputedly keeping the food for at least a year;][ however, due to the risk of botulism, preserving cake in a canning jar is not recommended. In cultivation, lack of successful pollination is the most common cause of poor fruiting. Cross-pollination of at least two different genetic varieties of the plant is recommended, and growers often resort to hand pollination or to use of pollinator attractants such as spraying fish emulsion or hanging chicken necks or other meat near the open flowers to attract pollinators. While pawpaws are larval hosts for the zebra swallowtail butterfly, these caterpillars are usually present only at low density, and not detrimental to the foliage of the trees. Pawpaws have never been cultivated for their fruits on the scale of (Malus domestica)apples or (Prunus persica)peaches , primarily because pawpaw fruits ripen to the point of fermentation soon after they are picked, and only frozen fruit will store or ship well. Other methods of preservation include dehydration, production of jams or jellies, and pressure canning (using the numerical values for bananas). In recent years, cultivation of pawpaws for fruit production has attracted renewed interest, particularly among organic growers, as a native fruit with few to no pests, successfully grown without pesticides. The commercial cultivation and harvesting of pawpaws is strong in southeastern Ohio,][ and also being explored in Kentucky and Maryland, as well as various areas outside the species' native range, including California, the Pacific Northwest., and Massachusetts The pawpaw is also gaining in popularity among landscapers and backyard gardeners because of the tree's distinctive growth habit, the appeal of its fresh fruit, and its relatively low maintenance needs once established. However, only container-grown pawpaws should be transplanted; use of bare-rooted pawpaws is not recommended, since their fragile root hairs tend to break off unless a cluster of moist soil is retained on the root mass. Trees are easily grown from seed. Germination is hypogeal and cotyledons remain within the seed coat. Strictly speaking, hypogeal means the cotyledons stay in the soil, acting as a food store for the seedling until the plumule emerges from the soil on the epicotyl or true stem. However, pawpaw seeds have occasionally been observed to emerge from the ground and form the form the true stem and plumule above ground ( Desirable kinds (cultivars) of pawpaw are propagated by chip budding or whip grafting. The natural insecticides in the leaves, twigs, and bark of pawpaw trees can be used to make an organic pesticide. The wood of tree-sized pawpaws is not commercially valuable. Pawpaws are sometimes included in ecological restoration plantings since this tree grows well in wet soil and has a strong tendency to form well-rooted colonial thickets. The pawpaw is particularly valued for establishing fast-growing vegetation in areas where frequent flooding might produce erosion, since their root systems help hold streambanks steady.][ Pawpaws grow well even in cold hollows with little exposure to winter sunlight.][ The tough, fibrous inner bark of the pawpaw was used by Native Americans and settlers in the Midwest for making ropes, fishing nets, and mats, and for stringing fish. Pawpaw logs have been used for split-rail fences in Arkansas. The hard, brown, shiny lima-bean-sized seeds were sometimes carried as pocket pieces in Ohio. A traditional American folk music portrays wild harvesting of pawpaws; Arty Schronce of the Georgia Department of Agriculture gives these lyrics: Where, oh where is dear little Nellie?
Where, oh where is dear little Nellie?
Where, oh where is dear little Nellie?
Way down yonder in the pawpaw patch

Pickin' up pawpaws, puttin' 'em in your pocket
Pickin' up pawpaws, puttin' 'em in your pocket
Pickin' up pawpaws, puttin' 'em in your pocket
Way down yonder in the pawpaw patch He notes that "picking up pawpaws" refers to gathering the ripe, fallen fruit from beneath the trees, and that the "pocket" in the song is that of an apron or similar tie-on pocket, not a modern pants or blue jeans pocket, into which pawpaws would hardly fit. A "pawpaw patch" refers to the plant's characteristic patch-forming clonal growth habit. The pawpaw (Asimina triloba) is the basis for various place and school names in the United States, almost all using the older spelling variant "paw paw". Three U.S. high schools have names based on the pawpaw, due to their location in or near towns named Paw Paw: Nineteenth-century naturalist and painter John James Audubon included pawpaw foliage and fruits in the background of his illustration of the Yellow-billed Cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus) in his classic work, The Birds of America (1827–1838). Pawpaw fruits and a pawpaw leaf are featured in the painting Still Life with Pawpaws (ca. 1870-75) by Edward Edmondson, Jr. (1830–1884), at the Dayton Art Institute in Dayton, Ohio. The Paw Paw Formation, an Early Cretaceous geological formation in Texas. Pawpawsaurus (Pawpaw lizard), a herbivorous Cretaceous dinosaur from the Paw Paw formation in Texas. The Paw Paw Tunnel in Maryland on the historic Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, a 3118-foot (950-m) canal tunnel completed in 1850 bypassing the six-mile-long Paw Paw Bends in the Potomac River near the town of Paw Paw, West Virginia, all ultimately named after the pawpaw tree. The Paw Paw Railroad (1857–1887), which constructed and operated a 4-mile (6.4 km) rail line between Lawton and Paw Paw, in Van Buren County, Michigan. Paw Paws (or Paw Paw Bears), a 1985–1986 television cartoon series. The pawpaw (Asimina triloba) was designated as Ohio's state native fruit in 2009. Since 1999, The Ohio Pawpaw Growers' Association has sponsored an annual Ohio Pawpaw Festival at Lake Snowden, near Albany, Ohio. The 2011 festival is planned for][ the weekend of September 16–19, 2011.

Ginkgo biloba
Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba; in Chinese and Japanese 銀杏, pinyin romanization: yín xìng, Hepburn romanization: ichō or ginnan), also spelled gingko and also known as the maidenhair tree, is a unique species of tree with no close living relatives. The ginkgo is a living fossil, recognisably similar to fossils dating back 270 million years. Native to China, the tree is widely cultivated and was introduced early to human history. It has various uses in traditional medicine and as a food.
Pinyin Name: Yin Xing Ye Literal Name: “silver ginkgo leaves” Alternate Chinese Names: 銀果葉 Yin Guo Ye, 白果葉 Bai Guo Ye Original Source when used as a Chinese Herbal Medicine: Ben Cao Pin Hui Jing Yao (Essentials of MateriaMedica) by Liu Wen-Tai in 1505 English Name: ginkgo leaf Botanical Name: Ginkgo biloba L. (银杏 Yin Xing) Pharmaceutical Name: Folium Ginkgo
Ginkgos are large trees, normally reaching a height of 20–35 m (66–115 feet), with some specimens in China being over 50 m (164 feet). The tree has an angular crown and long, somewhat erratic branches, and is usually deep rooted and resistant to wind and snow damage. Young trees are often tall and slender, and sparsely branched; the crown becomes broader as the tree ages. During autumn, the leaves turn a bright yellow, then fall, sometimes within a short space of time (one to 15 days). A combination of resistance to disease, insect-resistant wood and the ability to form aerial roots and sprouts makes ginkgos long-lived, with some specimens claimed to be more than 2,500 years old. Ginkgo is a relatively shade-intolerant species that (at least in cultivation) grows best in environments that are well-watered and well-drained. The species shows a preference for disturbed sites; in the "semiwild" stands at Tian Mu Shan, many specimens are found along stream banks, rocky slopes, and cliff edges. Accordingly, ginkgo retains a prodigious capacity for vegetative growth. It is capable of sprouting from embedded buds near the base of the trunk (lignotubers, or basal chi chi) in response to disturbances, such as soil erosion. Old individuals are also capable of producing aerial roots on the undersides of large branches in response to disturbances such as crown damage; these roots can lead to successful clonal reproduction upon contacting the soil. These strategies are evidently important in the persistence of ginkgo; in a survey of the "semiwild" stands remaining in Tian Mu Shan, 40% of the specimens surveyed were multistemmed, and few saplings were present. Ginkgo branches grow in length by growth of shoots with regularly spaced leaves, as seen on most trees. From the axils of these leaves, "spur shoots" (also known as short shoots) develop on second-year growth. Short shoots have very short internodes (so they may grow only one or two centimeters in several years) and their leaves are usually unlobed. They are short and knobby, and are arranged regularly on the branches except on first-year growth. Because of the short internodes, leaves appear to be clustered at the tips of short shoots, and reproductive structures are formed only on them (see pictures below - seeds and leaves are visible on short shoots). In ginkgos, as in other plants that possess them, short shoots allow the formation of new leaves in the older parts of the crown. After a number of years, a short shoot may change into a long (ordinary) shoot, or vice versa. The leaves are unique among seed plants, being fan-shaped with veins radiating out into the leaf blade, sometimes bifurcating (splitting), but never anastomosing to form a network. Two veins enter the leaf blade at the base and fork repeatedly in two; this is known as dichotomous venation. The leaves are usually 5–10 cm (2–4 in), but sometimes up to 15 cm (6 in) long. The old popular name "maidenhair tree" is because the leaves resemble some of the pinnae of the maidenhair fern, Adiantum capillus-veneris. Ginkgos are prized for their autumn foliage, which is a deep saffron yellow. Leaves of long shoots are usually notched or lobed, but only from the outer surface, between the veins. They are borne both on the more rapidly growing branch tips, where they are alternate and spaced out, and also on the short, stubby spur shoots, where they are clustered at the tips. Ginkgos are dioecious, with separate sexes, some trees being female and others being male. Male plants produce small pollen cones with sporophylls, each bearing two microsporangia spirally arranged around a central axis. Female plants do not produce cones. Two ovules are formed at the end of a stalk, and after pollination, one or both develop into seeds. The seed is 1.5–2 cm long. Its fleshy outer layer (the sarcotesta) is light yellow-brown, soft, and fruit-like. It is attractive in appearance, but contains butyric acid (also known as butanoic acid) and smells like rancid butter or vomit when fallen. Beneath the sarcotesta is the hard sclerotesta (the "shell" of the seed) and a papery endotesta, with the nucellus surrounding the female gametophyte at the center. The fertilization of ginkgo seeds occurs via motile sperm, as in cycads, ferns, mosses and algae. The sperm are large (about 70–90 micrometres) and are similar to the sperm of cycads, which are slightly larger. Ginkgo sperm were first discovered by the Japanese botanist Sakugoro Hirase in 1896. The sperm have a complex multi-layered structure, which is a continuous belt of basal bodies that form the base of several thousand flagella which actually have a cilia-like motion. The flagella/cilia apparatus pulls the body of the sperm forwards. The sperm have only a tiny distance to travel to the archegonia, of which there are usually two or three. Two sperm are produced, one of which successfully fertilizes the ovule. Although it is widely held that fertilization of ginkgo seeds occurs just before or after they fall in early autumn, embryos ordinarily occur in seeds just before and after they drop from the tree. Trunk bark Ginkgo pollen-bearing cones Ovules ready for fertilization Female gametophyte, dissected from a seed freshly shed from the tree, containing a well-developed embryo Immature ginkgo ovules and leaves Autumn leaves and fallen seeds A forest of saplings sprout among last year's seeds Ginkgo tree in autumn Although Ginkgo biloba and other species of the genus were once widespread throughout the world, their range shrank until by two million years ago, it was restricted to a small area of China. For centuries, it was thought to be extinct in the wild, but is now known to grow in at least two small areas in Zhejiang province in eastern China, in the Tian Mu Shan Reserve. However, recent studies indicate high genetic uniformity among ginkgo trees from these areas, arguing against a natural origin of these populations and suggesting the ginkgo trees in these areas may have been planted and preserved by Chinese monks over a period of about 1,000 years. This study demonstrates a greater genetic diversity in Southwestern China populations, supporting glacial refugia in mountains surrounding eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, where several old-grow, candidates to wild populations have been reported. Whether native ginkgo populations still exist has not been demonstrated unequivocally, but evidence grows favouring these Southwestern populations as wild, from genetic data but also from history of those territories, with bigger Ginkgo biloba trees being older than surrounding human settlements. Where it occurs in the wild, it is found infrequently in deciduous forests and valleys on acidic loess (i.e. fine, silty soil) with good drainage. The soil it inhabits is typically in the pH range of 5.0 to 5.5. In many areas of China, it has been long cultivated and it is common in the southern third of the country. It has also been commonly cultivated in North America for over 200 years, but during that time, it has never become significantly naturalised. The species was initially described by Linnaeus in 1771, the specific epithet biloba derived from the Latin bis, 'two' and loba, 'lobed', referring to the shape of the leaves. Two names for the species recognise the botanist Richard Salisbury, a placement by Nelson as Pterophyllus salisburiensis and the earlier Salisburia adiantifolia proposed by James Edward Smith. The epithet of the latter may have been intended to denote a characteristic resembling Adiantum, the genus of maidenhair ferns. The relationship of ginkgo to other plant groups remains uncertain. It has been placed loosely in the divisions Spermatophyta and Pinophyta, but no consensus has been reached. Since its seeds are not protected by an ovary wall, it can morphologically be considered a gymnosperm. The apricot-like structures produced by female ginkgo trees are technically not fruits, but are seeds that have a shell consisting of a soft and fleshy section (the sarcotesta), and a hard section (the sclerotesta). The ginkgo is classified in its own division, the Ginkgophyta, comprising the single class Ginkgoopsida, order Ginkgoales, family Ginkgoaceae, genus Ginkgo and is the only extant species within this group. It is one of the best-known examples of a living fossil, because Ginkgoales other than G. biloba are not known from the fossil record after the Pliocene. The older Chinese name for this plant is 銀果, meaning "silver fruit", nowadays pronounced as yínguǒ in Mandarin. The most usual names today are 白果 (bái guǒ), meaning "white fruit", and (yínxìng), meaning "silver apricot". The former name was borrowed directly in Vietnamese as bạch quả. The latter name was borrowed in Japanese ぎんなん (ginnan) and Korean 은행 (eunhaeng), when the tree itself was introduced from China. The scientific name Ginkgo appears to be due to a process akin to folk etymology. Chinese characters typically have multiple pronunciations in Japanese, and the characters 銀杏 used for ginnan can also be pronounced ginkyō. Engelbert Kaempfer, the first Westerner to see the species in 1690, wrote down this pronunciation in his Amoenitates Exoticae (1712) with the "awkward" spelling "ginkgo". This appears to be a simple error of Kaempfer, taking his spelling of other Japanese words into account, a more precise romanization would have been "ginkio" or "ginkjo". The ginkgo is a living fossil, with fossils recognisably related to modern ginkgo from the Permian, dating back 270 million years. The most plausible ancestral group for the order Ginkgoales is the Pteridospermatophyta, also known as the "seed ferns", specifically the order Peltaspermales. The closest living relatives of the clade are the cycads, which share with the extant G. biloba the characteristic of motile sperm. Fossils attributable to the genus Ginkgo first appeared in the Early Jurassic, and the genus diversified and spread throughout Laurasia during the middle Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. It declined in diversity as the Cretaceous progressed, and by the Paleocene, Ginkgo adiantoides was the only Ginkgo species left in the Northern Hemisphere, while a markedly different (and poorly documented) form persisted in the Southern Hemisphere. At the end of the Pliocene, Ginkgo fossils disappeared from the fossil record everywhere except in a small area of central China, where the modern species survived. It is doubtful whether the Northern Hemisphere fossil species of Ginkgo can be reliably distinguished. Given the slow pace of evolution and morphological similarity between members of the genus, there may have been only one or two species existing in the Northern Hemisphere through the entirety of the Cenozoic: present-day G. biloba (including G. adiantoides) and G. gardneri from the Paleocene of Scotland. At least morphologically, G. gardneri and the Southern Hemisphere species are the only known post-Jurassic taxa that can be unequivocally recognised. The remainder may have been ecotypes or subspecies. The implications would be that G. biloba had occurred over an extremely wide range, had remarkable genetic flexibility and, though evolving genetically, never showed much speciation. While it may seem improbable that a species may exist as a contiguous entity for many millions of years, many of the ginkgo's life-history parameters fit. These are: extreme longevity; slow reproduction rate; (in Cenozoic and later times) a wide, apparently contiguous, but steadily contracting distribution coupled with, as far as can be demonstrated from the fossil record, extreme ecological conservatism (restriction to disturbed streamside environments). Modern-day G. biloba grows best in environments that are well-watered and drained, and the extremely similar fossil Ginkgo favored similar environments: the sediment record at the majority of fossil Ginkgo localities indicates it grew primarily in disturbed environments along streams and levees. Ginkgo, therefore, presents an "ecological paradox" because while it possesses some favorable traits for living in disturbed environments (clonal reproduction) many of its other life-history traits (slow growth, large seed size, late reproductive maturity) are the opposite of those exhibited by modern plants that thrive in disturbed settings. Given the slow rate of evolution of the genus, Ginkgo possibly represents a preangiosperm strategy for survival in disturbed streamside environments. Ginkgo evolved in an era before flowering plants, when ferns, cycads, and cycadeoids dominated disturbed streamside environments, forming low, open, shrubby canopies. Ginkgo's large seeds and habit of "bolting" - growing to a height of 10 m before elongating its side branches - may be adaptions to such an environment. Because diversity in the genus Ginkgo drops through the Cretaceous (along with that of ferns, cycads, and cycadeoids) at the same time the flowering plants were on the rise, the notion that flowering plants with better adaptations to disturbance displaced Ginkgo and its associates over time is supported. Ginkgo has been used for classifying plants with leaves that have more than four veins per segment, while Baiera for those with fewer than four veins per segment. Sphenobaiera has been used to classify plants with a broadly wedge-shaped leaf that lacks a distinct leaf stem. Trichopitys is distinguished by having multiple-forked leaves with cylindrical (not flattened), thread-like ultimate divisions; it is one of the earliest fossils ascribed to the Ginkgophyta. Ginkgo yimaensis Ginkgo apodes Ginkgo adiantoides or a new taxon from the USA, G. cranei Extant Ginkgo biloba Ginkgo has long been cultivated in China; some planted trees at temples are believed to be over 1,500 years old. The first record of Europeans encountering it is in 1690 in Japanese temple gardens, where the tree was seen by the German botanist Engelbert Kaempfer. Because of its status in Buddhism and Confucianism, the ginkgo is also widely planted in Korea and parts of Japan; in both areas, some naturalization has occurred, with ginkgos seeding into natural forests. In some areas, most intentionally planted ginkgos are male cultivars grafted onto plants propagated from seed, because the male trees will not produce the malodorous seeds. The popular cultivar 'Autumn Gold' is a clone of a male plant. Ginkgos adapt well to the urban environment, tolerating pollution and confined soil spaces. They rarely suffer disease problems, even in urban conditions, and are attacked by few insects. For this reason, and for their general beauty, ginkgos are excellent urban and shade trees, and are widely planted along many streets. Ginkgos are also popular subjects for growing as penjing and bonsai; they can be kept artificially small and tended over centuries. Furthermore, the trees are easy to propagate from seed. The ginkgo leaf is the symbol of the Urasenke school of Japanese tea ceremony. The tree is the national tree of China, and is the official tree of the Japanese capital of Tokyo, and the symbol of Tokyo is a ginkgo leaf. Extreme examples of the ginkgo's tenacity may be seen in Hiroshima, Japan, where six trees growing between 1–2 km from the 1945 atom bomb explosion were among the few living things in the area to survive the blast. While almost all other plants (and animals) in the area were destroyed, the ginkgos, though charred, survived and were soon healthy again. The trees are alive to this day. The nut-like gametophytes inside the seeds are particularly esteemed in Asia, and are a traditional Chinese food. Ginkgo nuts are used in congee, and are often served at special occasions such as weddings and the Chinese New Year (as part of the vegetarian dish called Buddha's delight). In Chinese culture, they are believed to have health benefits; some also consider them to have aphrodisiac qualities. Japanese cooks add ginkgo seeds (called ginnan) to dishes such as chawanmushi, and cooked seeds are often eaten along with other dishes. When eaten in large quantities or over a long period, especially by children the gametophyte (meat) of the seed can cause poisoning by 4'-O-methylpyridoxine (MPN). MPN is heat stable and not destroyed by cooking. Studies have demonstrated the convulsions caused by MPN can be prevented or terminated with pyridoxine. Some people are sensitive to the chemicals in the sarcotesta, the outer fleshy coating. These people should handle the seeds with care when preparing the seeds for consumption, wearing disposable gloves. The symptoms are allergic contact dermatitis or blisters similar to that caused by contact with poison ivy. However, seeds with the fleshy coating removed are mostly][][ safe to handle. Extracts of ginkgo leaves contain flavonoid glycosides (myricetin and quercetin) and terpenoids (ginkgolides, bilobalides) and have been used pharmaceutically. These extracts are shown to exhibit reversible, nonselective monoamine oxidase inhibition, as well as inhibition of reuptake at the serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine transporters, with all but the norepinephrine reuptake inhibition fading in chronic exposure.. Ginkgo extract has in addition been found to act as a selective 5-HT1A receptor agonist in vivo. Ginkgo supplements are usually taken in the range of 40–200 mg per day. In 2010, a meta-analysis of clinical trials has shown Ginkgo to be moderately effective in improving cognition in dementia patients but not preventing the onset of Alzheimer's disease in people without dementia. Ginkgo is believed to have nootropic properties, and is mainly used as memory and concentration enhancer, and antivertigo agent. However, studies differ about its efficacy. The largest and longest independent clinical trial to assess Ginkgo biloba published the finding in 2008 that the supplement does not reduce incidence of all-cause dementia or Alzheimer's disease in adults 75 years or older who had normal cognition or mild cognitive impairment when given a twice-daily dose of 120 mg extract of G. biloba. However, a similar trial published in 2010 concluded the same extract formulation of G. biloba (EGb 761), when given as a single 240-mg daily dose, "was found significantly superior to placebo in the treatment of patients with dementia with neuropsychiatric symptoms." According to some studies, ginkgo can significantly improve attention in healthy individuals. In one such study, the effect was almost immediate and reaches its peak 2.5 hours after the intake. One study suggests ginkgo's effect on cognition may be attributable to its inhibitory effect on norepinephrine reuptake. Nonetheless, a meta-analysis in 2012 reported zero effect sizes for the impact of Ginkgo biloba on memory, attention and problem-solving in healthy individuals. Ginkgo has been studied as a possible treatment for Alzheimer's disease. Preliminary studies were encouraging, but the current understanding is that Ginkgo is not an effective treatment or preventative for Alzheimer's. Research began with positive preclinical results in mice, and a 2006 study found 160 mg of ginkgo extract to be as effective as a daily 5-mg dose of the cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil in human subjects. A 2008 randomized controlled clinical trial found ginkgo ineffective at treating dementia in humans at a daily dose of 120 mg. A similar trial published in 2010, however, found ginkgo effective at treating mild to moderate dementia at the higher single dose of 240 mg daily. Another randomized controlled trial, published in 2009, found no benefit from ginkgo in preventing cognitive decline or dementia when given at a dose of 120 mg twice daily. A similar study reported in 2012 concluded the long-term use of Ginkgo biloba extract does not affect progression to Alzheimer's disease. A recent meta-analysis of 9 studies of ginkgo for use in the treatment of dementia concluded it was more effective than placebo, although, like other dementia drugs, the clinical significance of these moderate effects was difficult to quantify. An editorial in The Lancet concluded ginkgo biloba does not prevent dementia in elderly individuals with or without memory complaints or cognitive impairment and is not effective for prevention of Alzheimer's disease. 1.     Astringes the Lung, Calms Wheezing and Stops Pain Yin Xing Ye (Folium Ginkgo) relieves wheezing, and alleviates the shortness of breath and dyspnea characteristic of Lung deficiency.  2.     Relieves Chest Oppression and Pain Yin Xing Ye improves circulation in the chest to relieve feelings of chest oppression and pain. Current applications of this herb include coronary artery disease, angina, hypertension and hyperlipidemia. Of the many conflicting research results, ginkgo extract may have three effects on the human body: improvement in blood flow (including microcirculation in small capillaries) to most tissues and organs, protection against oxidative cell damage from free radicals, and blockage of many of the effects of platelet-activating factor (platelet aggregation, blood clotting) that have been related to the development of a number of cardiovascular, renal, respiratory and central nervous system disorders. Ginkgolides, especially ginkgolide B, are potent antagonists against platelet-activating factor, and thus may be useful in protection and prevention of thrombus, endotoxic shock, and from myocardial ischeamia. Ginkgo can be used for intermittent claudication. Ginkgo has been studied as a potential treatment for sexual dysfunction related to SSRI use, but failed to show any effectiveness in placebo-controlled trials. The World Health Organization reported the medicinal uses of Ginkgo biloba supported by clinical data include treatment of the effects mild to moderate cerebrovascular insufficiency, and peripheral arterial occlusive diseases. Cerebrovascular insufficiency i.e. insufficient blood flow to the brain, may manifest itself as memory deficit, disturbed concentration, or headaches. Peripheral arterial occlusive diseases are those in which the blood flow to the smaller arteries are restricted and may include claudication i.e. painful walking, and Raynaud's disease, a condition in which the extremities such as fingers, toes, nose or ears, feel numb and cold. Preliminary studies suggested ginkgo might be of benefit in multiple sclerosis (MS), but clinical trials failed to show any effect on cognitive function in MS patients. Ginkgo may have undesirable effects, especially for individuals with blood circulation disorders and those taking anticoagulants such as aspirin or warfarin, although recent studies have found ginkgo has little or no effect on the anticoagulant properties or pharmacodynamics of warfarin in healthy subjects. Ginkgo inhibits monoamine oxidase, so people who are taking certain types of antidepressants (such as monoamine oxidase inhibitors and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors), as well as pregnant women, may experience side effects. Additional side effects include increased risk of bleeding, gastrointestinal discomfort, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headaches, dizziness, heart palpitations, and restlessness. People taking pharmaceutical blood thinners such as warfarin or coumadin should consult with their doctors before taking Ginkgo biloba extracts, as it acts as an anticoagulant. The presence of amentoflavone in G. biloba leaves would indicate a potential for interactions with many medications through the strong inhibition of CYP3A4 and CYP2C9; however, no empirical evidence supports this. Further, at recommended doses, studies have shown, "[m]ultiple-dose administration of Ginkgo biloba did not affect cytochrome P-450 2D6 or 3A4 activity in normal volunteers." The concentration of amentoflavone found even in commercial ginkgo extracts possibly is too low to be pharmacologically active. Ginkgo biloba leaves and sarcotesta also contain ginkgolic acids, which are highly allergenic, long-chain alkylphenols such as bilobol or adipostatin A (bilobol is a substance related to anacardic acid from cashew nut shells and urushiols present in poison ivy and other Toxicodendron spp.) Individuals with a history of strong allergic reactions to poison ivy, mangoes, cashews and other alkylphenol-producing plants are more likely to experience an adverse reaction when consuming ginkgo-containing pills, combinations, or extracts. The level of these allergens in standardized pharmaceutical preparations from Ginkgo biloba was restricted to 5 ppm by the Commission E of the former Federal German Health Authority. The plant also contains biflavones Important constituents present in the medicinally used leaves are the terpene trilactones, i.e., ginkgolides A, B, C, J and bilobalide, many flavonol glycosides, biflavones, proanthocyanidins, alkylphenols, simple phenolic acids, 6-hydroxykynurenic acid, 4-O-methylpyridoxine and polyprenols.

Paw Paw, Michigan
Paw Paw is a village in the U.S. state of Michigan. The population was 3,534 at the 2010 census. It is the county seat of Van Buren County. The village is located at the confluence of the east and south branches of the Paw Paw River in the northeast portion of Paw Paw Township. Paw Paw was incorporated in 1837 and is located in the southwestern portion of Michigan, on Interstate 94 approximately 20 miles west of Kalamazoo. Paw Paw is in a rural location whose primary agricultural product is grapes, which are used both in the local Michigan wine industry and for juice and jellies. The St. Julian Winery and Warner's Winery started in Paw Paw. Paw Paw has an annual Wine and Harvest Festival, which traditionally occurs the weekend following Labor Day. The Festival features a beer tent, bandstand, live music, a popular grape stomping competition among barefoot locals, carnival foods, and fireworks over scenic Maple Lake. Fine dining establishments in the Theater District cater to attendees of the Festival. Paw Paw is named for the pawpaw trees which once grew along the Paw Paw River. However, the pawpaw trees are less common at present due to the clearing of the shade trees that pawpaws require. An experimental planting of pawpaw trees on the high school grounds failed to flourish due to its location in an open, sunny field. The village is the main setting for the musical Dear Edwina by Marcy Heisler and Zina Goldrich. Listed in the National Register for Historic places is the Van Buren County Courthouse, wherein the first election was held in 1837. Renovations were completed in 1999. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 2.89 square miles (7.49 km2), of which, 2.67 square miles (6.92 km2) of it is land and 0.22 square miles (0.57 km2) is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 3,534 people, 1,499 households, and 862 families residing in the village. The population density was 1,323.6 inhabitants per square mile (511.0 /km2). There were 1,674 housing units at an average density of 627.0 per square mile (242.1 /km2). The racial makeup of the village was 92.3% White, 2.3% African American, 0.2% Native American, 0.4% Asian, 2.2% from other races, and 2.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.9% of the population. There were 1,499 households of which 31.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 34.6% were married couples living together, 17.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.5% had a male householder with no wife present, and 42.5% were non-families. 35.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.27 and the average family size was 2.91. The median age in the village was 36.4 years. 24.2% of residents were under the age of 18; 9.5% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 27.1% were from 25 to 44; 25.3% were from 45 to 64; and 13.8% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the village was 48.5% male and 51.5% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 3,363 people, 1,417 households, and 855 families residing in the village. The population density was 1,262.5 per square mile (488.1/km²). There were 1,511 housing units at an average density of 567.3 per square mile (219.3/km²). The racial makeup of the village was 92.83% White, 2.85% African American, 0.83% Native American, 0.27% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 1.19% from other races, and 1.96% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.97% of the population. There were 1,417 households out of which 29.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.2% were married couples living together, 14.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 39.6% were non-families. 32.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.27 and the average family size was 2.86. In the village the population was spread out with 23.3% under the age of 18, 10.0% from 18 to 24, 30.2% from 25 to 44, 21.5% from 45 to 64, and 15.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 93.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.3 males. The median income for a household in the village was $38,750, and the median income for a family was $50,889. Males had a median income of $36,548 versus $29,559 for females. The per capita income for the village was $21,859. About 1.9% of families and 5.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.1% of those under age 18 and 3.4% of those age 65 or over.

Paw Paw, West Virginia
Paw Paw is a town in Morgan County, West Virginia, United States. The population was 508 at the 2010 census. The town is known for the nearby Paw Paw Tunnel. Paw Paw was incorporated by the Circuit Court of Morgan County on April 8, 1891 and named for the pawpaw, a wild fruit which formerly grew in abundance throughout this region. Paw Paw is the westernmost incorporated community in the Hagerstown-Martinsburg, MD-WV Metropolitan Statistical Area. Paw Paw is located at (39.531140, -78.456920). According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.53 square miles (1.37 km2), all of it land. As of the census of 2010, there were 508 people, 223 households, and 131 families residing in the town. The population density was 958.5 inhabitants per square mile (370.1 /km2). There were 262 housing units at an average density of 494.3 per square mile (190.9 /km2). The racial makeup of the town was 92.9% White, 2.4% African American, 2.0% Native American, 0.4% Asian, 0.4% from other races, and 2.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.6% of the population. There were 223 households of which 30.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.3% were married couples living together, 12.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.9% had a male householder with no wife present, and 41.3% were non-families. 37.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 19.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.96. The median age in the town was 38.6 years. 23.6% of residents were under the age of 18; 7.5% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 27.6% were from 25 to 44; 25% were from 45 to 64; and 16.3% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the town was 49.0% male and 51.0% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 524 people, 224 households, and 144 families residing in the town. The population density was 999.4 inhabitants per square mile (389.1/km²). There were 249 housing units at an average density of 474.9 per square mile (184.9/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 89.50% White, 7.63% African American, 2.29% from other races, and 0.57% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.44% of the population. There were 224 households out of which 27.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.8% were married couples living together, 14.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 35.3% were non-families. 28.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.87. In the town the population was spread out with 22.5% under the age of 18, 10.1% from 18 to 24, 25.2% from 25 to 44, 23.3% from 45 to 64, and 18.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 90.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.9 males. The median income for a household in the town was $25,625, and the median income for a family was $30,250. Males had a median income of $27,500 versus $23,125 for females. The per capita income for the town was $17,377. About 14.9% of families and 18.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.7% of those under age 18 and 14.0% of those age 65 or over. On George Washington's many trips west, he usually took the Winchester-Cumberland Road which closely parallels today's CR 29/51 through Paw Paw. The Potomac River, which embraces the old town in one of its bends, was navigated as early as 1750. Travelers heading west often crossed the gap in the mountains here, some settling to farm land along the river. The town is the namesake of the Paw Paw Tunnel, an important part of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal. The tunnel and the nearby canal is now part of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park. Paul "Oz" Bach, founder and bass player for the popular musical group Spanky and Our Gang, was born in Paw Paw on June 24, 1939. On February 9, 2000, West Virginia’s Interscholastic High School Boys Basketball scoring record was broken by Paw Paw’s Josh Delawder who scored 32 points in a 69-55 win against Mount Savage, Md. Former major league baseball player Paul Pop-ovich, who scored 2,660 points at Flemington High from 1955–58, held the mark for 52 years. Delawder finished with 2,965 points at the end of his career. Paw Paw is home to the West Virginia Open Disc Golf Championship which takes place on two private 18-hole courses called The Woodshed and The Whipping Post.

Paw Paw High School (Michigan)
Paw Paw High School, the only secondary school in the Paw Paw, Michigan area, is located in a rural setting on Red Arrow Highway. Construction on the current building was completed in 1998, with a new auditorium added in 2002. Construction of a new wing and renovations began in the summer of 2007 and were completed in the fall of that year. Paw Paw High School students have the opportunity to enroll at the Van Buren Technology Center or to dual enroll in area colleges including Kalamazoo Valley Community College and Western Michigan University. In addition to these programs, the school offers several Advanced Placement courses. Programs of distinction include the largest SADD chapter in the state of Michigan, and 39 athletic offerings. School Website:

List of Quercus species
The genus Quercus (oak) contains about 600 species, some of which are listed here. The white oaks (synonym sect. Lepidobalanus or Leucobalanus). Europe, Asia, north Africa, North America. Styles short; acorns mature in 6 months, sweet or slightly bitter, inside of acorn shell hairless. Europe, Asia, north Africa. Styles long; acorns mature in 6 months, bitter, inside of acorn shell hairless (closely related to sect. Quercus and sometimes included in it). Europe, Asia, north Africa. Styles long; acorns mature in 18 months, very bitter, inside of acorn shell hairless or slightly hairy. The intermediate oaks. Southwest USA & northwest Mexico. Styles short, acorns mature in 18 months, very bitter, inside of acorn shell woolly. The red oaks (synonym sect. Erythrobalanus). North, Central & South America. Styles long, acorns mature in 18 months, very bitter, inside of acorn shell woolly. The ring-cupped oaks (synonym genus Cyclobalanopsis). Eastern and southeastern Asia. They are distinct from subgenus Quercus in that they have acorns with distinctive cups bearing concrescent rings of scales; they commonly also have densely clustered acorns, though this does not apply to all of the species. About 150 species. # Species with evergreen foliage ("live oaks") are tagged #. Note that the change from deciduous to evergreen character (or vice-versa) has evolved on numerous occasions in Quercus, and does not necessarily indicate that the species concerned are closely related.


Southern (list)

Fruit Maloideae Mayhaw
Quercus macrocarpa

Quercus macrocarpus (lapsus)

Quercus macrocarpa, the Bur oak, sometimes spelled Burr oak, is a species of oak in the white oak section Quercus sect. Quercus, native to North America in the eastern and midwestern United States and south-central Canada. This plant is also called Mossycup oak and Mossycup white oak.

Quercus palustris

Quercus palustris, the Pin oak or Swamp Spanish oak, is an oak in the red oak section Quercus sect. Lobatae.

It is native to North America, mainly in the eastern United States from Connecticut west to eastern Kansas, and south to Georgia, across to eastern Oklahoma; it is also native in the extreme south of Ontario, Canada. The pin oak is also well adapted to life in Australia (where it has been introduced) and is quite widespread across the Australian continent especially in the cooler southern States such as Victoria and New South Wales. Is also well adapted to life in Argentina, especially in the Río de la Plata region.

Medicinal plants

Medicinal plants have been identified and used throughout human history. Toxic plants even have use in pharmaceutical development. Angiosperms (flowering plants) were the original source of most plant medicines. Some herbs and spices come from flowering plants.

Topics concerning medicinal plants include:

Asimina triloba

Asimina triloba, the pawpaw, paw paw, paw-paw, or common pawpaw, is a species of Asimina (the pawpaw genus) in the same plant family (the Annonaceae) as the custard-apple, cherimoya, sweetsop, ylang-ylang and soursop. The pawpaw is native to the Eastern, Southern, and Midwestern United States and adjacent southernmost Ontario, Canada, from New York west to southeastern Nebraska, and south to northern Florida and eastern Texas. The pawpaw is a patch-forming (clonal) understory tree found in well-drained, deep, fertile bottom-land and hilly upland habitat, with large, simple leaves and large fruits. The paw paw is the largest edible fruit indigenous to the United States.

Flora of the United States

The native flora of the United States includes about 17,000 species of vascular plants, plus tens of thousands of additional species of other plants and plant-like organisms such as algae, lichens and other fungi, and mosses. About 3,800 additional non-native species of vascular plants are recorded as established outside of cultivation in the U.S., as well as a much smaller number of non-native non-vascular plants and plant relatives. The United States possesses one of the most diverse temperate floras in the world, comparable only to that of China.]citation needed[

Several biogeographic factors contribute to the richness and diversity of the U.S. flora. While most of the United States has a temperate climate, Alaska has vast arctic areas, the southernmost part of Florida is subtropical to tropical, Hawaii is fully tropical (including high mountains), and alpine summits are present on many western mountains, as well as a few in the Northeast. The U.S. coastline borders three oceans: The Atlantic (and Gulf of Mexico), the Arctic, and the Pacific. Finally, the U.S. shares long borders with Canada and Mexico, and is relatively close to the Bahamas, Cuba and other Caribbean islands, and easternmost Asia.

Ornamental trees

Ornamental plants are plants that are grown for decorative purposes in gardens and landscape design projects, as houseplants, for cut flowers and specimen display. The cultivation of these, called floriculture, forms a major branch of horticulture.

Most commonly ornamental garden plants are grown for the display of aesthetic features including: flowers, leaves, scent, overall foliage texture, fruit, stem and bark, and aesthetic form. In some cases, unusual features may be considered to be of interest, such as the prominent and rather vicious thorns of Rosa sericea and cacti. In all cases, their purpose is for the enjoyment of gardeners, visitors, and/or the public.

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