Question:

What are The two major components of the integumentary system are?

Answer:

The system consisting of the skin and its associated structures, such as the hair, nails, sweat glands,and sebaceous glands.

More Info:

The integumentary system is the organ system that protects the body from various kinds of damage, such as loss of water or abrasion from outside. The system comprises the skin and its appendages (including hair, scales, feathers, hooves, and nails). The integumentary system has a variety of functions; it may serve to waterproof, cushion, and protect the deeper tissues, excrete wastes, and regulate temperature, and is the attachment site for sensory receptors to detect pain, sensation, pressure, and temperature. In most terrestrial vertebrates with significant exposure to sunlight, the integumentary system also provides for vitamin D synthesis.

The skin is the largest organ in the body. In humans, it accounts for about 12 to 15 percent of total body weight and covers 1.5-2m2 of surface area. It distinguishes, separates, and protects the organism from its surroundings. Small-bodied invertebrates of aquatic or continually moist habitats respire using the outer layer (integument). This gas exchange system, where gases simply diffuse into and out of the interstitial fluid, is called integumentary exchange.

Sweat glands (also known as sudoriferous or sudoriparous glands, from Latin sudor, meaning "sweat"), are small tubular structures of the skin that produce sweat. There are two main types of sweat glands:

Domestic animals]which?[ have apocrine glands at the base of each hair follicle but eccrine glands only in foot pads and snout. Their apocrine glands, like those in humans, produce an odorless oily milky secretion evolved not to evaporate and cool but rather coat and stick to hair so odor-causing bacteria can grow on it. Eccrine glands on their foot pads, like those on palms and soles of humans, did not evolve to cool either but rather increase friction and enhance grip.

The sebaceous glands are microscopic glands in the skin that secrete an oily/waxy matter, called sebum, to lubricate and waterproof the skin and hair of mammals. In humans, they are found in greatest abundance on the face and scalp, though they are distributed throughout all skin sites except the palms and soles. In the eyelids, meibomian sebaceous glands secrete a special type of sebum into tears. There are several related medical conditions, including acne, sebaceous cysts, hyperplasia, sebaceous adenoma and sebaceous gland carcinoma (see section below: Pathology).

A branched type of acinar gland, the sebaceous glands exist in humans throughout the skin except in the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. Sebaceous glands can usually be found in hair-covered areas, where they are connected to hair follicles (see image at top). The glands deposit sebum on the hairs, and bring it to the skin surface along the hair shaft. The structure consisting of hair, hair follicle, arrector pili muscle, and sebaceous gland is known as a pilosebaceous unit. Sebaceous glands are also found in non-haired areas (glabrous skin) of eyelids, nose, penis, labia minora and nipples. Here, the sebum traverses ducts that terminate in sweat pores on the surface of the skin.]citation needed[ At the rim of the eyelids, meibomian glands are a specialized form of sebaceous gland. They secrete a form of sebum (called meibum) onto the eye, slowing the evaporation of tears.

Anatomy Glands

In the animal kingdom, the general term gland falls into two major categories with further subtypes falling under each of these.

An Exocrine gland is distinguished by the fact that it excretes its essential product by way of a duct to some environment external to itself, be it either inside the body or on a surface of the body.

Organs

The sebaceous glands are microscopic glands in the skin that secrete an oily/waxy matter, called sebum, to lubricate and waterproof the skin and hair of mammals. In humans, they are found in greatest abundance on the face and scalp, though they are distributed throughout all skin sites except the palms and soles. In the eyelids, meibomian sebaceous glands secrete a special type of sebum into tears. There are several related medical conditions, including acne, sebaceous cysts, hyperplasia, sebaceous adenoma and sebaceous gland carcinoma (see section below: Pathology).

A branched type of acinar gland, the sebaceous glands exist in humans throughout the skin except in the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. Sebaceous glands can usually be found in hair-covered areas, where they are connected to hair follicles (see image at top). The glands deposit sebum on the hairs, and bring it to the skin surface along the hair shaft. The structure consisting of hair, hair follicle, arrector pili muscle, and sebaceous gland is known as a pilosebaceous unit. Sebaceous glands are also found in non-haired areas (glabrous skin) of eyelids, nose, penis, labia minora and nipples. Here, the sebum traverses ducts that terminate in sweat pores on the surface of the skin.]citation needed[ At the rim of the eyelids, meibomian glands are a specialized form of sebaceous gland. They secrete a form of sebum (called meibum) onto the eye, slowing the evaporation of tears.

Skin

Sweat glands (also known as sudoriferous or sudoriparous glands, from Latin sudor, meaning "sweat"), are small tubular structures of the skin that produce sweat. There are two main types of sweat glands:

Domestic animals]which?[ have apocrine glands at the base of each hair follicle but eccrine glands only in foot pads and snout. Their apocrine glands, like those in humans, produce an odorless oily milky secretion evolved not to evaporate and cool but rather coat and stick to hair so odor-causing bacteria can grow on it. Eccrine glands on their foot pads, like those on palms and soles of humans, did not evolve to cool either but rather increase friction and enhance grip.

Hair

In the animal kingdom, the general term gland falls into two major categories with further subtypes falling under each of these.

An Exocrine gland is distinguished by the fact that it excretes its essential product by way of a duct to some environment external to itself, be it either inside the body or on a surface of the body.

Eccrine glands (/ˈɛkrən/, /ˈɛˌkrn/, or /ˈɛˌkrin/; from ekkrinein "secrete"; sometimes called merocrine glands) are the major sweat glands of the human body, found in virtually all skin. They produce a clear, odorless substance, consisting primarily of water and NaCl (note that the odor from sweat is due to bacterial activity on the secretions of the apocrine sweat glands). NaCl is reabsorbed in the duct to reduce salt loss. They are active in thermoregulation and emotional sweating (induced by anxiety, fear, stress, and pain).:170

Eccrine glands are composed of an intreaepidermal spiral duct, the "acrosyringium"; a dermal duct, comprising a straight and coiled portion; and a secretory tubule, coiled deep in the dermis or hypodermis.:172 Eccrine glands are innervated by the sympathetic nervous system, primarily by cholinergic fibers, but by adrenergic fibers as well.

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