Staph is a type of bacteria. Symptoms include red inflamed skin, possibly with some pus showing at the head. Place warm compresses over the eye (with the eye closed) three or four times a day.
Pus is an exudate, typically white-yellow, yellow, or yellow-brown, formed at the site of inflammation during infection. An accumulation of pus in an enclosed tissue space is known as an abscess, whereas a visible collection of pus within or beneath the epidermis is known as a pustule or pimple.
Pus consists of a thin, protein-rich fluid, known as liquor puris, and dead leukocytes from the body's immune response (mostly neutrophils). During infection, macrophages release cytokines which trigger neutrophils to seek the site of infection by chemotaxis. There, the neutrophils engulf and destroy the bacteria and the bacteria resist the immune response by releasing toxins called leukocidins. As the neutrophils die off from toxins and old age, they are destroyed by macrophages, forming the viscous pus.
Bacteria that cause pus are called suppurative, pyogenic, or purulent. If the agent also creates mucus, it is called mucopurulent. Purulent infections can be treated with an antiseptic.
Despite normally being of a whitish-yellow hue, changes in the color of pus can be observed under certain circumstances. Pus is sometimes green because of the presence of myeloperoxidase, an intensely green antibacterial protein produced by some types of white blood cells. Green, foul-smelling pus is found in certain infections of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The greenish color is a result of the pyocyanin bacterial pigment it produces. Amoebic abscesses of the liver produce brownish pus, which is described as looking like "anchovy paste". Pus can also have a foul odor.
In almost all cases when there is a collection of pus in the body, the clinician will try to create an opening for it to evacuate - this principle has been distilled into the famous Latin aphorism "Ubi pus, ibi evacua!"
Some common disease processes caused by pyogenic infections are impetigo, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, and necrotizing fasciitis.][
A great many species of bacteria may be pyogenic. The most commonly found include:][
An external stye or styes , also hordeolum , is an infection of the sebaceous glands of Zeis at the base of the eyelashes, or an infection of the apocrine sweat glands of Moll. External styes form on the outside of the lids and can be seen as small red bumps. Internal styes are infections of the meibomian sebaceous glands lining the inside of the eyelids. They also cause a red bump underneath the lid with only generalized redness and swelling visible on the outside. Styes are similar to chalazia, but tend to be of smaller size and are more painful and usually produce no lasting damage. They contain water and pus and the bacteria will spread if the stye is forcefully ruptured. Styes are characterized by an acute onset and usually short in duration (7–10 days without treatment) compared to chalazia that are chronic and usually do not resolve without intervention. Styes are usually caused by staphylococcus aureus bacterium.
The first sign of a stye is a small, yellowish spot at the center of the bump that develops as pus expands in the area.
Other stye symptoms may include:
Although styes are harmless in most cases and complications are very rare, styes often recur. They do not cause intraocular damage, meaning they do not affect the eye. Styes normally heal on their own by rupturing within few days to a week, causing the relief of symptoms. Few people require surgery as part of stye treatment. With adequate treatment, styes tend to heal quickly and without complications.
The prognosis is better if one does not attempt to squeeze or puncture the stye, as infection may spread to adjacent tissues. A stye usually will heal within a few days to a week, but if it does not improve or it worsens within two weeks, a doctor's opinion should be sought. Also, patients are recommended to call a doctor if they encounter problems with vision, the eyelid bump becomes very painful, the stye bleeds or reoccurs or the eyelid or eyes becomes red.
Styes are commonly caused by the blocking of an oil gland at the base of the eyelash. Although they are particularly common in infants, styes are experienced by people of all ages. Styes can be triggered by poor nutrition, sleep deprivation][, lack of hygiene, lack of water, and rubbing of the eyes. Sharing of washcloths or face towels should be curtailed to avoid spreading the infection between individuals. Styes can last from one to two weeks without treatment, or as little as four days if treated properly.
Stye prevention is closely related to proper hygiene. Proper hand washing can reduce the risks of developing not only styes, but also all other types of infections.
Upon awakening, application of a warm washcloth to the eyelids for one to two minutes may be beneficial in decreasing the occurrence of styes by liquefying the contents of the oil glands of the eyelid and thereby preventing blockage.
Eating flaxseed may help prevent styes.
To prevent developing styes, it is recommended to never share cosmetics or cosmetic eye tools with other people. People should also keep their eye tools clean and generally practice proper eye hygiene. It is recommended to remove makeup every night before going to sleep and discard old or contaminated eye makeup and try to avoid feeling stressed.][
The primary mode of treatment for a stye is application of warm compresses. Incision and drainage is performed if resolution does not begin in the next 48 hours after warm compresses are started.
As a part of self-care at home, patients may cleanse the affected eyelid with tap water or with a mild, nonirritating soap or shampoo (such as baby shampoo) to help clean crusted discharge. Cleansing must be done gently and while the eyes are closed to prevent eye injuries.
Medical professionals will sometimes lance a particularly persistent or irritating stye with a needle to accelerate its draining. A stye's expansion can also be fought with erythromycin ophthalmic ointment. Medical professionals may also treat styes with other antibiotics, such as chloramphenicol or amoxicillin. Chloramphenicol is used successfully in many parts of the world, but contains a black box warning in the United States due to concerns about aplastic anemia, which on rare occasions can be fatal. Erythromycin ointment enjoys widespread use, and may add to comfort and aid in preventing secondary infections. However, it is poorly absorbed when used topically, and usually requires oral dosing to reach the infection with therapeutic levels inside of a stye. AzaSite, a topical eye drop form of azithromycin, does appear to penetrate eyelid tissues fairly well, and in the future may be used as a topical treatment for styes.
If a stye bursts, care must be taken to cleanse the wound to prevent reinfection.
Treatment with moxifloxacin, an antibiotic also used to treat pink eye, is often prescribed. Over-the-counter options include ointments like polymyxin B sulfate (bacitracin zinc).
Patients are highly advised not to lance the stye, as serious infection can occur as a result. The infection could spread to the surrounding tissues and areas.
Eye stye sufferers should avoid eye makeup (e.g., eyeliner), lotions, and wearing contact lenses, since these can aggravate and spread the infection (sometimes to the cornea).
Medical treatment can also be provided by a doctor and it is aimed at relieving the symptoms. Pain relievers such as acetaminophen may be prescribed and in some cases, antibiotics may be needed. Antibiotics are normally given to patients with multiple styes or with styes that do not seem to heal, and to patients who also suffer from blepharitis or rosacea. Commonly, the ophthalmologist prescribes oral or intravenous antibiotics, such as doxycycline, only when the infection has spread. Topical antibiotic ointments or antibiotic/steroid combination ointments can also be administered in stye treatment.
Surgery is the last resort in stye treatment. Styes that do not respond to any type of therapies are usually surgically removed. Stye surgery is performed by an ophthalmologist, and generally under local anesthesia. The procedure consists of making a small incision on the inner or outer surface of the eyelid, depending if the stye is pointing externally or not. After the incision is made, the pus is drained out of the gland, and very small and unnoticeable sutures are used to close the lesion. It is common for the removed stye to be sent for histopathological examination to rule out the possibility of skin cancer.
Stye complications occur in very rare cases. However, the most frequent complication of styes is progression to a chalazion that causes cosmetic deformity, corneal irritation, and often requires surgical removal. Complications may also arise from the improper surgical lancing, and mainly consist of disruption of lash growth, lid deformity or lid fistula. Styes that are too large may interfere with one's vision.
Eyelid cellulitis is another potential complication of eye styes, which is a generalized infection of the eyelid. Progression of a stye to a systemic infection (spreading throughout the body) is extremely rare, and only a few instances of such spread have been recorded.
The word sty (first recorded in the 17th century) is probably a back-formation from styany (first recorded in the 15th century), which in turn comes from styan plus eye, the former of which in turn comes from the old English stígend, meaning riser, from the verb stígan, rise (in Old English G is often a Y sound). The homonym sty found in the combination pigsty has a slightly different origin, namely it comes from the Old English stí-fearh —fearh (farrow) is the Old English word for pig—, where stig meant hall (cf. steward), possibly an early Old Norse loanword, which could be cognate with the word stigan above.
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The meibomian glands (or tarsal glands) are a special kind of sebaceous gland at the rim of the eyelids inside the tarsal plate, responsible for the supply of meibum, an oily substance that prevents evaporation of the eye's tear film. Meibum prevents tear spillage onto the cheek, trapping tears between the oiled edge and the eyeball, and makes the closed lids airtight. There are approximately 50 glands on the upper eyelids and 25 glands on the lower eyelids. The glands are named after Heinrich Meibom (1638–1700), a German physician.
Lipids are the major components of meibum (also known as "meibomian gland secretions"). The term "meibum" was originally introduced by Nicolaides et al. in 1981. The biochemical composition of meibum is extremely complex and very different from that of sebum. Lipids are universally recognized as major components of human and animal meibum. Recently, an update on the composition of human meibum and on the structures of various positively identified meibomian lipids was published. Currently, the most sensitive and informative approach to lipidomic analysis of meibum is mass spectrometry in combination with liquid chromatography.
In humans, more than 90 different proteins have been identified in meibomian gland secretions.
Dysfunctional meibomian glands often cause dry eyes, one of the more common eye conditions. They may also cause blepharitis, as the dry eyeball rubs off small pieces of skin from the eyelid, which may get infected. Inflammation of the meibomian glands (also known as meibomitis, meibomian gland dysfunction, or posterior blepharitis) causes the glands to be obstructed by thick waxy secretions. Besides leading to dry eyes, the obstructions can be degraded by bacterial lipases, resulting in the formation of free fatty acids, which irritate the eyes and sometimes cause punctate keratopathy.
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An eyelid is a thin fold of skin that covers and protects the eye. With the exception of the prepuce and the labia minora, it has the thinnest skin of the whole body. The levator palpebrae superioris muscle retracts the eyelid to "open" the eye. This can be either voluntarily or involuntarily. The human eyelid features a row of eyelashes which serve to heighten the protection of the eye from dust and foreign debris, as well as from perspiration. "Palpebral" (and "blepharal") means relating to the eyelids. Its key function is to regularly spread the tears and other secretions on the eye surface to keep it moist, since the cornea must be continuously moist. They keep the eyes from drying out when asleep. Moreover, the blink reflex protects the eye from foreign bodies.
The eyelid is made up of several layers; from superficial to deep, these are: skin, subcutaneous tissue, orbicularis oculi, orbital septum and tarsal plates, and palpebral conjunctiva. The meibomian glands lie within the eyelid and secrete the lipid part of the tearfilm.
The skin is similar to areas elsewhere, but is relatively thin and has more pigment cells. In diseased persons these may wander and cause a discoloration of the lids. It contains sweat glands and hairs, the latter becoming eyelashes as the border of the eyelid is met. The skin of the eyelid contains the greatest concentration of sebaceous glands found anywhere in the body.
In humans, the sensory nerve supply to the upper eyelids is from the infratrochlear, supratrochlear, supraorbital and the lacrimal nerves from the ophthalmic branch (V1) of the trigeminal nerve (CN V). The skin of the lower eyelid is supplied by branches of the infratrochlear at the medial angle, the rest is supplied by branches of the infraorbital nerve of the maxillary branch (V2) of the trigeminal nerve.
In humans, the eyelids are supplied with blood by two arches on each upper and lower lid. The arches are formed by anastamoses of the lateral palpebral arteries and medial palpebral arteries, branching off from the lacrimal artery and ophthalmic artery, respectively.
After death, it is common in many cultures to pull the eyelids of the deceased down to close the eyes. This is a typical part of the last offices.
Any condition that affects the eyelid is called eyelid disorder. The most common eyelid disorders, their causes, symptoms and treatments are the following:
The eyelid surgeries are called blepharoplasties and are performed either for medical reasons or to improve one's facial appearance.
Most of the cosmetic eyelid surgeries are aimed to enhance the look of the face and to boost one's self-confidence by restoring a youthful eyelid appearance. They are intended to remove fat and excess skin that may be found on the eyelids after a certain age. Cosmetic eyelid surgeries are mostly used to regain a younger and refreshed look but the costs are quite high, so not everyone can afford them.
Eyelid surgeries are also performed to improve one's peripheral vision or to treat chalazion, eyelid tumors, ptosis, trichiasis, and other eyelid-related conditions.
Eyelid surgeries are overall safe procedures but they carry certain risks since the area on which the operation is performed is so close to the eye.
Bloodvessels of the eyelids, front view
Horizontal section through the eye of an eighteen days' embryo rabbit. X 30
Sagittal section of right orbital cavity
Sagittal section through the upper eyelid
The tarsi and their ligaments. Right eye; front view
The lacrimal apparatus. Right side
Extrinsic eye muscle. Nerves of orbita. Deep dissection
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Gland of Zeis
Blepharitis ( ) is an eye condition characterized by chronic inflammation of the eyelid, the severity and time course of which can vary. Onset can be acute, resolving without treatment within 2–4 weeks (this can be greatly reduced with lid hygiene), but more generally is a long standing inflammation varying in severity. It may be classified as seborrhoeic, staphylococcal, mixed, posterior or meiobomitis, or parasitic.
Signs and symptoms that are associated with the chronic inflammation can be:
The lids may become red and may have ulcerative, non-healing areas which may actually bleed. Blepharitis does not tend to cause problems with the patient's vision whatsoever, but due to a poor tear film, one may experience blurred vision.
Eye redness and swelling tend to appear in more advanced cases, and they are rarely primary symptoms. The symptoms can slightly vary based on the exact cause of the condition. Blepharitis due to an allergy can cause dark lids, symptom which is known as "allergic shiner" and which tends to be more frequent in children rather than adults. Infectious blepharitis is accompanied by a yellow- or green-colored discharge which is more abundant in the morning and which leads to stuck lids. Blepharitis may also cause eyelid matting or "gluing" of the lashes.
Other blepharitis symptoms include sensitivity to light, eyelashes that grow abnormally or even loss of eyelashes. Also, the tears might seem frothy or bubbly in nature and mild scarring might occur to the eyelids. The symptoms and signs of blepharitis are often erroneously ascribed by the patient as being due to "recurrent conjunctivitis".
Blepharitis that localizes in the skin of the eyelids may cause styes or chalazia, which appear like red bumps, sometimes with a yellow spot if infection is present. Although pain is not common among blepharitis symptoms, if the condition persists or becomes painful, the individual is recommended to seek medical attention.
Chronic blepharitis may result in damage of varying severity which may have a negative effect upon vision and therefore upon the eyeglass prescription.
Infectious blepharitis can cause hard crusts around the eyelashes which leave small ulcers that may bleed or ooze after cleaning.
As a general rule, blepharitis symptoms which do not improve, despite good hygiene consisting of proper cleaning and care of the eye area, should be referred to a doctor.
People who usually wear contact lenses may have more trouble in coping with their symptoms, because the lenses cause further irritation to the eye.
Staphylococcal blepharitis is caused by infection of the anterior portion of the eyelid by Staphylococcal bacteria. Patients notice a foreign body sensation, matting of the lashes, and burning. Collarette around eyelashes, a ring-like formation around the lash shaft, can be observed, which is an important sign of this condition. Other symptoms include loss of eyelashes or broken eyelashes. The condition can sometimes lead to a chalazion or a stye.
Staphylococcal blepharitis is a condition which may start in childhood and continue through adulthood. It is commonly recurrent and it requires special medical care. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in the conjunctival sac and on the lid margin varies among countries, probably due to climate.
Staphylococcal blepharitis is normally treated with antibiotics such as Chloramphenicol ointment. Fusidic acid is usually the choice of antibiotics in cases when Chloramphenicol is contraindicated. Antibiotics are given for at least four to six weeks, which may be enough to completely cure the infection. A short course of topical steroids are administered to control the inflammation. The infection is only treated effectively if given at the same time with extra cautious eyelid hygiene. This consists of proper cleaning of the eyelid, removing crusts and debris.
Posterior blepharitis is inflammation of the eyelids secondary to dysfunction of the meibomian glands. Like anterior blepharitis it is a bilateral chronic condition and manifested by a broad spectrum of symptoms involving the lids including inflammation and plugging of the meibomian orifices and production of abnormal secretion upon pressure over the glands. It may be associated with skin rosacea.
The single most important treatment principle is a daily routine of lid margin hygiene, as described below. Such a routine needs to be convenient enough to be continued for life to avoid relapses as blepharitis is often a chronic condition. But it can be acute, and one episode does not mean it is a lifelong condition.
A typical lid margin hygiene routine consists of four steps. The steps are more challenging to perform by visually disabled or frail patients as they require good motor skills:
Often the above is advised together with mild massage to mechanically empty glands located at the lid margin (Meibomian glands, Zeis glands, Moll glands).
Microbial blepharitis is treated with antibiotics such as Sulfacetamide eye ointment applied on a cotton applicator once daily to the lid margins. Ophthalmologists may prescribe low-dose oral antibiotics such as Doxycycline and occasionally weak topical steroids.
Physicians may consider allergy testing and ocular antihistamines. Allergic responses to dust mite feces and other allergens can cause lid inflammation, ocular irritation, and dry eyes. Prescription ocular antihistamines and over-the-counter ocular antihistamines can bring relief to patients whose lid inflammation is caused by allergies.
Researchers have found Omega-3 supplementation in the form of Fish Oil or Flaxseed to be beneficial in reducing the primary symptoms of Blepharitis.
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Arthritis Dermatomyositis soft tissue (Myositis, Synovitis/Tenosynovitis, Bursitis, Enthesitis, Fasciitis, Capsulitis, Epicondylitis, Tendinitis, Panniculitis)
female: Oophoritis Salpingitis Endometritis Parametritis Cervicitis Vaginitis Vulvitis Mastitis
male: Orchitis Epididymitis Prostatitis Balanitis Balanoposthitis
Glands of Zeis are unilobar sebaceous glands located on the margin of the eyelid. The glands of Zeis service the eyelash. These glands produce an oily substance that is issued through the excretory ducts of the sebaceous lobule into the middle portion of the hair follicle. In the same area of the eyelid, near the base of the eyelashes are sweat glands called the "glands of Moll".
If eyelashes are not kept clean, conditions such as folliculitis may take place, and if the sebaceous gland becomes infected, it can lead to abscesses and styes. The glands of Zeis are named after German ophthalmologist Eduard Zeis (1807–68).
Ocular rosacea is a manifestation of rosacea that affects the eyes and eyelids. Symptoms generally consist of redness, irritation or burning of the eyes. Patients may also feel that there is something, such as an eyelash, in the eye. Commonly patients also show redness of the nose and cheeks.
Patients who suffer from ocular rosacea may be treated with warm compresses, artificial tears and washing the area around the eye with warm water, including the eyelids, to help alleviate symptoms. Additionally, oral antibiotics, typically doxycycline, may be prescribed. Some patients feel that dietary restrictions of caffeine, spicy foods, and Alcoholic beverages may reduce or eliminate symptoms.
Human anatomy (gr. ἀνατομία, "dissection", from ἀνά, "up", and τέμνειν, "cut") is primarily the scientific study of the morphology of the human body. Anatomy is subdivided into gross anatomy and microscopic anatomy. Gross anatomy (also called topographical anatomy, regional anatomy, or anthropotomy) is the study of anatomical structures that can be seen by the naked eye. Microscopic anatomy is the study of minute anatomical structures assisted with microscopes, which includes histology (the study of the organization of tissues), and cytology (the study of cells). Anatomy, human physiology (the study of function), and biochemistry (the study of the chemistry of living structures) are complementary basic medical sciences that are generally together (or in tandem) to students studying medical sciences.
In some of its facets human anatomy is closely related to embryology, comparative anatomy and comparative embryology, through common roots in evolution; for example, much of the human body maintains the ancient segmental pattern that is present in all vertebrates with basic units being repeated, which is particularly obvious in the vertebral column and in the ribcage, and can be traced from very early embryos.
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Tenericutes (no wall)
Fibrobacteres–Chlorobi/Bacteroidetes (FCB group)
Planctomycetes–Verrucomicrobia/Chlamydiae (PVC group)