An oxidizing agent (also oxidant, oxidizer or oxidiser) is the element or compound in an oxidation-reduction (redox) reaction that accepts an electron from another species. Because the oxidizing agent is gaining electrons, it is said to have been reduced.
The oxidizing agent itself is reduced, as it is taking electrons onto itself, but the reactant is oxidized by having its electrons taken away by the oxidizing agent. Oxygen is the prime (and eponymous) example among the varied types of oxidizing agents.
Equilibrium chemistry is a concerned with systems in chemical equilibrium. The unifying principle is that the free energy of a system at equilibrium is the minimum possible, so that the slope of the free energy with respect to the reaction coordinate is zero. This principle, applied to mixtures at equilibrium provides a definition of an equilibrium constant. Applications include acid-base, host-guest, metal-complex, solubility, partition, chromatography and redox equilibria.
A chemical system is said to be in equilibrium when the quantities of the chemical entities involved do not and cannot change in time without the application of an external influence. In this sense a system in chemical equilibrium is in a stable state. The system at chemical equilibrium will be at a constant temperature, pressure (or volume) and composition. It will be insulated from exchange of heat with the surroundings, that is, it is a closed system. A change of temperature, pressure (or volume) constitutes an external influence and the equilibrium quantities will change as a result of such a change. If there is a possibility that the composition might change, but the rate of change is negligibly slow, the system is said to be in a metastable state. The equation of chemical equilibrium can be expressed symbolically as
Oil of vitriol
AIV Fodder is a kind of silage. The AIV liquid is added to the green fodder to improve the storage. This is especially important during long winters. The process includes adding a dilute hydrochloric or sulfuric acid to newly stored grain. Increased acidity stops harmful fermentation and has no adverse effect on the nutritive value of the fodder or the animals it is fed to.
A Finnish researcher of chemistry and agriculture Artturi Virtanen invented the method and named it after his initials (Artturi Ilmari Virtanen). First commercial AIV fodder products were introduced in 1929 and the method was patented in 1932. In 1945 Virtanen became a Nobel Prize laureate in chemistry "for his research and inventions in agricultural and nutrition chemistry, especially for his fodder preservation method" (AIV Fodder).
The sulfur oxoacids are chemical compounds that contain sulfur, oxygen and hydrogen. The best known and most important industrially is sulfuric acid. Sulfur has a number of oxoacids; however, some of these are known only from their salts (these are shown in italics in the table below). The acids that have been characterised contain a variety of structural features, for example:
Present in fuming sulfuric acid, oleum. Examples known for n=1,2.
A disaster is a natural or man-made (or technological) hazard resulting in an event of substantial extent causing significant physical damage or destruction, loss of life, or drastic change to the environment. A disaster can be ostensively defined as any tragic event stemming from events such as earthquakes, floods, catastrophic accidents, fires, or explosions. It is a phenomenon that can cause damage to life and property and destroy the economic, social and cultural life of people.
In contemporary academia, disasters are seen as the consequence of inappropriately managed risk. These risks are the product of a combination of both hazard/s and vulnerability. Hazards that strike in areas with low vulnerability will never become disasters, as is the case in uninhabited regions.