An oblong Pyrex Bakeware 2 quart baking dish is 11-inch x 7-inch x 1-1/2-inch.
There are a number of regular knife cuts that are basic to chef skills. Each produces a standardized piece of food, allowing a chef to translate words into cuisine.
The two basic shapes for these cuts are the strip and the cube. Strips are generally cut to 2½-3 inches, and are defined by width, from thickest to thinnest as "batonnet", "allumette", "julienne", and "fine julienne". The cube shapes, in order from largest to smallest, are the large, medium, and small dice, the brunoise, and the fine brunoise.
Translated literally from French, batonnet means "little stick". The batonnet measures approximately 1/4"x 1/4"x 2 ½" to 3". It is also the starting point for the small dice.
(same as julienne) Sometimes also called the "matchstick cut" (which is the translation of "allumette" from French) the allumette measures approximately (1/8 inch × 1/8 inch × 2 & 1/2 inches). It's also the starting point for the brunoise
An urban legend has this cut named for Julia Child, but the first reference to it occurs in François Massialot's Le Cuisinier Royal in 1722. The julienne measures approximately 3mm × 3mm × 70mm (1/8 inch × 1/8 inch × 2 inches). It's also the starting point for the brunoise cut.
Measures approximately 1.5mm × 1.5mm × 70mm (1/16 inch × 1/16 inch × 2 inches). It's also the starting point for the fine brunoise cut.
Cubes with sides measuring approximately 2 cm (¾ inch).
Cubes with sides measuring approximately 12mm (½ inch).
Cubes with sides measuring approximately 6mm (¼ inch), created by cutting the batonnet cut into cubes.
Tiny cubes, with sides measuring approximately 3mm (1/8 inch), created by cutting the julienne or allumette into cubes.
Even tinier cubes, with sides measuring approximately 1.5mm (1/16 inch), created by cutting the fine julienne into cubes.
is a food cooking method that uses prolonged dry heat by convection, rather than by thermal radiation, normally in an oven, but also in hot ashes, or on hot stones. The most common baked item is bread but many other types of foods are baked. Heat is gradually transferred "from the surface of cakes, cookies and breads to their centre. As heat travels through it transforms batters and doughs into baked goods with a firm dry crust and a softer centre". Baking can be combined with grilling to produce a hybrid barbecue variant, by using both methods simultaneously or one before the other, cooking twice. Baking is related to barbecuing because the concept of the masonry oven is similar to that of a smoke pit.
Baking has been traditionally done at home by women for domestic consumption, by men in bakeries and restaurants for local consumption and when production was industrialised, by machines in large factories. The art and skill of baking remains a fundamental one and important for nutrition, as baked goods, especially breads, are a common food, economically and culturally important. A person who prepares baked goods as a profession is called a baker.
All types of food can be baked but some require special care and protection from direct heat. Various techniques have been developed to provide this protection.
As well as bread, baking is used to prepare cakes, pastries, pies, tarts, quiches, cookies, scones, crackers and pretzels. These popular items are known collectively as "baked goods," and are sold at a bakery.
Meat, including cured meats, such as ham can also be baked, but baking is usually reserved for meatloaf, smaller cuts of whole meats, and whole meats that contain stuffing or coating such as bread crumbs or buttermilk batter. Some foods are surrounded with moisture during baking by placing a small amount of liquid (such as water or broth) in the bottom of a closed pan, and letting it steam up around the food, a method commonly known as braising or slow baking. Larger cuts prepared without stuffing or coating are more often roasted, which is a similar process, using higher temperatures and shorter cooking times. Roasting, however, is only suitable for the finer cuts of meat, so other methods have been developed to make the tougher meat cuts palatable after baking. One of these is the method known as en croûte
(French for "in a crust"), which protects the food from direct heat and seals the natural juices inside. Meat, poultry, game, fish or vegetables can be prepared by baking en croûte
. Well-known examples include Beef Wellington, where the beef is encased in pastry before baking; pâté en croûte, where the terrine is encased in pastry before baking; and the Vietnamese variant, a meat-filled pastry called pâté chaud. The en croûte
method also allows meat to be baked by burying it in the embers of a fire - a favourite method of cooking venison. In this case, the protective case (or crust) is made from a paste of flour and water and is discarded before eating. Salt can also be used to make a protective crust that is not eaten. Another method of protecting food from the heat while it is baking, is to cook it en papillote
(French for "in parchment"). In this method, the food is covered by baking paper (or aluminium foil) to protect it while it is being baked. The cooked parcel of food can be served unopened, with an element of surprise, allowing diners to discover the contents for themselves.
Eggs can be baked to produce savoury or sweet dishes. In combination with dairy products and/or cheese, they are often prepared to serve as a dessert. Although a baked custard, for example, can be made using starch (in the form of flour, cornflour, arrowroot or potato flour), the flavour of the dish is much more delicate if eggs are used as the thickening agent. Baked custards, such as crème caramel, are among the items that need protection from an oven's direct heat, and the bain-marie
method serves this purpose. The cooking container is half submerged in water in another, larger one, so that the heat in the oven is more gently applied during the baking process. Baking a successful soufflé requires that the baking process be carefully controlled - the oven temperature must be absolutely even and the oven space not shared with another dish. These factors, along with the theatrical effect of an air-filled dessert, have given this baked food a reputation for being a culinary achievement. Similarly, a good baking technique (and a good oven) are also needed to create a baked Alaska because of the difficulty of baking hot meringue and cold ice cream at the same time.
Baking can also be used to prepare various other foods, such as for example, baked potatoes, baked apples, baked beans, some casseroles and pasta dishes such as lasagne.
The first evidence of baking occurred when humans took wild grass grains, soaked them in water, and mixed everything together, mashing it into a kind of broth-like paste. The paste was cooked by pouring it onto a flat, hot rock, resulting in a bread-like substance. Later, this paste was roasted on hot embers, which made bread-making easier, as it could now be made any time fire was created. The Ancient Egyptians baked bread using yeast, which they had previously been using to brew beer. Bread baking began in Ancient Greece around 600 BC, leading to the invention of enclosed ovens. "Ovens and worktables have been discovered in archaeological digs from Turkey (Hacilar) to Palestine (Jericho) and these date from about 5600 BCE."
Baking flourished in the Roman Empire. In about 300 BC, the pastry cook became an occupation for Romans (known as the pastillarium). This became a respected profession because pastries were considered decadent, and Romans loved festivity and celebration. Thus, pastries were often cooked especially for large banquets, and any pastry cook who could invent new types of tasty treats was highly prized. Around 1 AD, there were more than three hundred pastry chefs in Rome, and Cato wrote about how they created all sorts of diverse foods, and flourished because of those foods. Cato speaks of an enormous amount of breads; included amongst these are the libum (sacrificial cakes made with flour), placenta (groats and cress), spira (our modern day flour pretzels), scibilata (tortes), savaillum (sweet cake), and globus apherica (fritters). A great selection of these, with many different variations, different ingredients, and varied patterns, were often found at banquets and dining halls. The Romans baked bread in an oven with its own chimney, and had mills to grind grain into flour. A bakers' guild was established in 168 BC in Rome.
Eventually, the Roman art of baking became known throughout Europe, and eventually spread to the eastern parts of Asia. From the 19th century, alternative leavening agents became more common, such as baking soda. Bakers often baked goods at home and then sold them in the streets. This scene was so common that Rembrandt, among others, painted a pastry chef selling pancakes in the streets of Germany, with children clamoring for a sample. In London, pastry chefs sold their goods from handcarts. This developed into a system of delivery of baked goods to households, and demand increased greatly as a result. In Paris, the first open-air café of baked goods was developed, and baking became an established art throughout the entire world.
Every family used to prepare the bread for its own consumption, the trade
of baking, not having yet taken shape.
Mrs Beeton (1861)
Baking developed into an industry using machinery that enabled more goods to be produced and which then had to be distributed more widely. In the United States the baking industry "was built on marketing methods used during feudal times and production techniques developed by the Romans." Some makers of snacks such as potato chips or crisps have produced baked versions of their snack items as an alternative to the usual cooking method of deep-frying in an attempt to reduce the calorie or fat content of their snack products. Baking has opened up doors to businesses such as cake making factories and private cake shops where the baking process is done with larger amounts in bigger and open furnaces.
The aroma and texture of baked goods as they come out of the oven is strongly appealing but it is a quality that is quickly lost. Since the flavour and appeal largely depend on this freshness, commercial producers have had to compensate by using food additives as well as imaginative labelling. As baked goods are more and more purchased from commercial suppliers, producers try to capture that original appeal by adding the label "home-baked". Such a usage seeks to make an emotional link to the remembered freshness of baked goods and seeks also to attach any positive associations the purchaser has with the idea of "home" to the bought product. Freshness is such an important quality that restaurants, although they are commercial (and not domestic) preparers of food, bake their own products for their customers. For example, scones at The Ritz London Hotel "are not baked until early afternoon on the day they are to be served, to make sure they are as fresh as possible."
Baking needs an enclosed space for heating - an oven. The fuel can be supplied by wood or coal; gas or electricity. Adding and removing items from an oven may be done by a long handled tool called a peel.
Many commercial ovens are provided with two heating elements: one for baking, using convection and thermal conduction to heat the food, and one for broiling or grilling, heating mainly by radiation. Another piece of equipment still used in the 21st century for baking is the Dutch oven. "Also called a bake kettle, bastable, bread oven, fire pan, bake oven kail pot, tin kitchen, roasting kitchen, doufeu
(French: "gentle fire") or feu de compagne
(French: "country oven") [it] originally replaced the cooking jack as the latest fireside cooking technology," combining "the convenience of pot-oven and hangover oven."
There are eleven events that occur concurrently during baking, and some of them, such as starch glutenization, would not occur at room temperature.
The dry heat of baking changes the form of starches in the food and causes its outer surfaces to brown, giving it an attractive appearance and taste. The browning is caused by caramelization of sugars and the Maillard reaction. Maillard browning occurs when "sugars break down in the presence of proteins". Because foods contain many different types of sugars and proteins, Maillard browning contributes to the flavour of a wide range of foods, including nuts, roast beef and baked bread." The moisture is never entirely "sealed in"; over time, an item being baked will become dry. This is often an advantage, especially in situations where drying is the desired outcome, like drying herbs or roasting certain types of vegetables.
The baking process does not require any fat to be used to cook in an oven. When baking, consideration must be given to the amount of fat that is contained in the food item. Higher levels of fat such as margarine, butter or vegetable shortening will cause an item to spread out during the baking process.
With the passage of time breads harden; they become stale. This is not primarily due to moisture being lost from the baked products, but more a reorganization of the way in which the water and starch are associated over time. This process is similar to recrystallization, and is promoted by storage at cool temperatures, such as in a domestic refrigerator.
Baking, especially of bread, holds special significance for many cultures. Baking is such a fundamental part of everyday food consumption, so familiar to children that the nursery rhyme Pat-a-cake, pat-a-cake, baker's man
takes baking as its subject. Baked goods are normally served at all kinds of party and special attention is given to their quality at formal events. They are also one of the main components of a tea party, including at nursery teas and high teas, a tradition which started in Victorian Britain, reportedly when Anna Russell, Duchess of Bedford "grew tired of the sinking feeling which afflicted her every afternoon round 4 o'clock ... In 1840, she plucked up courage and asked for a tray of tea, bread and butter, and cake to be brought to her room. Once she had formed the habit she found she could not break it, so spread it among her friends instead. As the century progressed, afternoon tea became increasingly elaborate."
For Jews, Matzo is a baked product of considerable religious and ritual significance. Baked matzah bread can be ground up and used in other dishes, such as Gefilte fish, and baked again. For Christians, bread has to be baked to be used as an essential component of the sacrament of the Eucharist. In the Eastern Christian tradition, baked bread in the form of birds is given to children to carry to the fields in a spring ceremony that celebrates the Forty Martyrs of Sebaste.
Media related to Baking at Wikimedia Commons
Pyrex (trademarked as PYREX) is a brand which was introduced by Corning Incorporated in 1915 for a line of clear, low-thermal-expansion borosilicate glass used for laboratory glassware and kitchenware.
Corning no longer manufactures or markets Pyrex-branded borosilicate glass kitchenware and bakeware in the US, but Pyrex borosilicate products are still manufactured under license by various companies. World Kitchen, LLC, which was spun off from Corning in 1998, licensed the Pyrex brand for their own line of kitchenware products—differentiated by their use of clear tempered soda-lime glass instead of borosilicate.
Borosilicate glass was first made by German chemist and glass technologist Otto Schott, founder of Schott AG in 1893, 22 years before Corning produced the Pyrex brand. Schott AG sold the product under the name "Duran."
In 1908, Eugene Sullivan, Director of Research at Corning Glass Works, developed Nonex, a borosilicate low-expansion glass, to reduce breakage in shock-resistant lantern globes and battery jars. Sullivan had learned about Schott's borosilicate glass as a doctoral student in Leipzig, Germany. Jesse Littleton of Corning discovered the cooking potential of borosilicate glass by giving his wife a casserole dish made from a cut-down Nonex battery jar. Corning removed the lead from Nonex, and developed it as a consumer product. Pyrex made its public debut in 1915 during World War I, positioned as an American-produced alternative to Duran.
A Corning executive gave the following account of the etymology of the name "Pyrex":
In the late 1930s and 1940s, Corning also introduced other products under the Pyrex brand, including opaque tempered soda-lime glass for bowls and bakeware, and a line of Pyrex Flameware for stovetop use; this borosilicate glass had a bluish tint caused by the addition of alumino-sulfate. In 1958 an internal design department was started by John B. Ward. He redesigned the Pyrex ovenware and Flameware. Over the years designers such as Penny Sparke, Betty Baugh, Smart Design, TEAMS Design, and others have contributed to the design of the line.
Corning divested its consumer products division in 1998, forming the company World Kitchen, LLC. Corning discontinued its production of Pyrex products, but still licensed the Pyrex brand name to other companies, including World Kitchen, and Newell Cookware Europe. France-based cookware maker Arc International acquired Newell's European business in early 2006, and currently owns rights to the brand in Europe, the Middle East and Africa.
Older clear-glass Pyrex manufactured by Corning before 1998, Arc International's Pyrex products, and Pyrex laboratory glassware is made of borosilicate glass. According to the National Institute of Standards and Technology, borosilicate Pyrex is composed of (as percentage of weight): 4.0% boron, 54.0% oxygen, 2.8% sodium, 1.1% aluminium, 37.7% silicon, and 0.3% potassium.
According to glass supplier Pulles and Hannique, borosilicate Pyrex is made of Corning 7740 glass, and is equivalent in formulation to Schott Glass 8830 glass sold under the "Duran" brand name. The composition of both Corning 7740 and Schott 8830 is given as 80.6% 2SiO, 12.6% 3O2B, 4.2% O2Na, 2.2% 3O2Al, 0.04% 3O2Fe, 0.1% CaO, 0.05% MgO, and 0.1% Cl.
Pyrex glass cookware manufactured by World Kitchen is made of tempered soda-lime glass instead of borosilicate. World Kitchen justified this change by stating that soda-lime glass was cheaper to produce, is the most common form of glass used in bakeware in the US, and that it also had higher mechanical strength than borosilicate—making it more resistant to breakage when dropped, which it believed to be the most common cause of breakage in glass bakeware. Unlike borosilicate, it is not as heat resistant, leading to an increase in breakage from heat stress.
The differences between Pyrex products depending on manufacturer has also led to safety issues—in 2010, the Consumer Product Safety Commission received several complaints by users reporting that their Pyrex glassware had shattered at high temperatures. The consumer affairs magazine Consumer Reports investigated the matter after obtaining copies of the complaints, determining that the complainants had in fact been using World Kitchen-produced Pyrex labeled products manufactured with lower cost tempered flint glass, and had incorrectly assumed that they would have the same characteristics and strength as their borosilicate counterparts.
Because of its low expansion characteristics, Pyrex borosilicate glass is often the material of choice for reflective optics in astronomy applications. The California Institute of Technology's 200-inch (5.1 m) telescope mirror at Palomar Observatory was cast by Corning during 1934–1936 out of borosilicate glass.
In 1932, George Ellery Hale approached Corning with the challenge of fabricating the required optic for his Palomar project. A previous effort to fabricate the optic from fused quartz had failed.
Corning's first attempt was a failure, the cast blank having voids. Using lessons learned, Corning was successful in the casting of the second blank. After a year of cooling, during which it was almost lost to a flood, in 1935 the blank was completed. The first blank now resides in Corning's Museum of Glass.
Pommes Anna or Anna potatoes, is a classic French dish of sliced, layered potatoes cooked in a very large amount of melted butter.
The recipe calls for firm-fleshed potatoes and butter only. Potatoes are peeled and sliced very thin. The slices, salted and peppered, are layered into a pan (see below), generously doused with melted butter, and baked/fried until they form a cake. Then they are turned upside down every ten minutes until the outside is golden and crispy. At the end of the cooking period, the dish is unmoulded and forms a cake 6 to 8 inches in diameter and about 2 inches high. It is then cut in wedges and served immediately on a hot plate, usually accompanying roasted meats.
A special double baking dish made of copper called la cocotte à pommes Anna is still manufactured in France for the cooking of this dish. It consists of upper and lower halves which fit into each other so that the whole vessel with its contents can be inverted during cooking.
The dish is generally credited with having been created during the time of Napoleon III by the chef Adolphe Dugléré, a pupil of Carême, when Dugléré was head chef at the Café Anglais, the leading Paris restaurant of the 19th century, where he reputedly named the dish for one of the grandes cocottes of the period. There is disagreement about which beauty the dish was named after: the actress Dame Judic (real name: Anna Damiens), or Anna DesLions.
A muffin tray (UK bun tray) is a mold in which muffins or cupcakes are baked. A single cup within a regular muffin tin is 3 and 1/2 ounces and most often has room for 12 muffins, although tins holding 6, 8, 11, 24, and 35 muffins do exist. A single cup within a mini muffin tin is 2 and 1/8 ounces, and because these are more uncommon, there is no standard number of cups per tin. Mini muffin tins of 6, 12, and 24 cups per tin do exist. A single cup within a jumbo muffin tin is 8 and 3/16 ounces, and again because these are more uncommon, there is no standard number of cups per tin. Jumbo muffin tins of 4, 6, and 12 cups per tin do exist.
Muffin tins can be made out of aluminum, stainless steel, cast iron, or silicone. In addition, aluminum and stainless steel muffin tins may be coated with Teflon or other non-stick coatings. Historically, galvanized steel has been used for muffin tins, but this is no longer common.
The quart is a unit of volume (for either the imperial or United States customary units) equal to a quarter of a gallon (hence the name quart), two pints, or four cups. Since gallons of various sizes have historically been in use, quarts of various sizes have also existed; see gallon for further discussion. Three of these kinds of quarts remain in current use, all approximately equal to one litre. Its proper abbreviation is qt.
All traditional U.S. length and volume measures have been legally standardized for commerce by the international yard and pound agreement of 1959 using the definition of 1 yard being exactly equal to 0.9144 meter. From this definition is derived the metric equivalencies for inches, feet, and miles; as well as area measures; and measures of volume. The US liquid quart equals 57.75 cubic inches, which is exactly equal to 0.946352946 litres.
The US dry quart is equal to 1/4 of a US dry gallon, exactly 1.101220942715 litres.
The imperial quart, used for both liquid or dry capacity, is equal to one quarter of an imperial gallon, or exactly 1.1365225 litres.
In French Canada, by federal law, the imperial quart is called pinte.][
The Winchester quart is an archaic measure, roughly equal to 2 Imperial quarts or 2.25 litres. The 2.5 litre bottles in which laboratory chemicals are supplied are sometimes referred to as Winchester quart bottles, although they contain slightly more than a traditional Winchester quart.
Winchester measure is a set of legal standards of volume instituted in the late 15th century by King Henry VII of England and in use, with some modifications, until the present day. It consists of the Winchester bushel and its dependent quantities, the peck, (dry) gallon and (dry) quart.
Winchester measure may also refer to:
During the tenth century, the capital city of the English king, Edgar, was at Winchester and, at his direction, standards of measurement were instituted. However, nothing is known of these standards except that, following the Norman Conquest, the physical standards (prototypes) were removed to London. In 1496, a law of King Henry VII instituted the bushel that would later come to be known by the name "Winchester". In 1588 Queen Elizabeth I, while reforming the English weight system (which, at the time, included no less than three different pounds going by the name "avoirdupois") based the new Exchequer standard on an ancient set of bronze weights found at Winchester and dating to the reign of Edward III.
These incidents have led to the widespread belief that the Winchester units of dry capacity measure, i.e., the bushel and its dependent quantities the peck, gallon and quart, must have originated in the time of King Edgar. However, contemporary scholarship can find no evidence for the existence of any these units in Britain prior to the Norman Conquest. Furthermore, all of the units associated with Winchester measure (quarter, bushel, peck, gallon, pottle, quart, pint) have names of French derivation, at least suggestive of Norman origin.
Prior to the Norman Conquest, the following units of capacity measure were used: sester, amber, mitta, coomb, and seam. A statute of 1196 (9 Richard I. c 27.) decreed: It is established that all measures of the whole of England be of the same amount, as well of corn as of vegetables and of like things, to wit, one good horse load; and that this measure be level as well in cities and boroughs as without. This appears to be a description of the seam, which would later be equated with the quarter. The word seam is of Latin derivation (from the Vulgar Latin sauma = packsaddle). Some of the other units are likewise of Latin derivation, sester from sextarius, amber from amphora. The sester could thus be taken as roughly a pint, the amber a bushel. However, the values of these units, as well as their relationships to one another, varied considerably over the centuries so that no clear definitions are possible except by specifying the time and place in which the units were used.
One of the earliest documents defining the gallon, bushel and quarter is the Assize of Weights and Measures, also known as the Tractatus de Ponderibus et Mensuris, sometimes attributed to Henry III or Edward I, but nowadays generally listed under Ancient Statutes of Uncertain Date and presumed to be from c. 1250 - 1305. It states, By Consent of the whole Realm the King’s Measure was made, so that an English Penny, which is called the Sterling, round without clipping, shall weigh Thirty-two Grains of Wheat dry in the midst of the Ear; Twenty-pence make an Ounce; and Twelve Ounces make a Pound, and Eight Pounds make a Gallon of Wine; and Eight Gallons of Wine make a Bushel of London; which is the Eighth Part of a Quarter.
In 1496, An Act for Weights and Measures (12 Henry VII. c5.) stated That the Measure of a Bushel contain viij. Gallons of Wheat, and that every Gallon contain viij. li. of Wheat of Troy Weight, and every Pound contain xij. Ounces of Troy Weight, and every Ounce contain xx. Sterlings, and every Sterling be of the Weight of xxxij. Corns of Wheat that grew in the Midst of the Ear of Wheat, according to the old Laws of this Land. Even though this bushel does not quite fit the description of the Winchester bushel, the national standard prototype bushel constructed the following year (and still in existence) is near enough to a Winchester bushel that it is generally considered the first, even though it was not known by that name at the time.
The Winchester bushel is first mentioned by name in a statute of 1670 entitled An Act for ascertaining the Measures of Corn and Salt (22 Charles II. c8.) which states, And that if any person or persons after the time aforesaid shall sell any sort of corn or grain, ground or unground, or any kind of salt, usually sold by the bushel, either in open market, or any other place, by any other bushel or measure than that which is agreeable to the standard, marked in his Majesty's exchequer, commonly called the Winchester measure, containing eight gallons to the bushel, and no more or less, and the said bushel strucken even by the wood or brim of the same by the seller, and sealed as this act directs, he or they shall forfeit for every such offence the sum of forty shillings.
It is first defined in law by a statute of 1696-7 (8 & 9 William III c 22. s 9 & s 45) And to the End all His Majesties Subjects may know the Content of the Winchester Bushell whereunto this Act referrs, and that all Disputes and Differences about Measure may be prevented for the future, it is hereby declared that every round Bushel with a plain and even Bottom, being Eighteen Inches and a Halfe wide throughout, & Eight Inches deep, shall be esteemed a legal Winchester Bushel according to the Standard in His Majesty's Exchequer.
In 1824 a new Act was passed in which the gallon was defined as the volume of ten pounds of pure water at 62 °F with the other units of volume changing accordingly. The "Winchester bushel", which was some 3% smaller than the new bushel (eight new gallons), was retained in the English grain trade until formally abolished in 1835. In 1836, the United States Department of the Treasury formally adopted the Winchester bushel as the standard for dealing in grain and, defined as 2,150.42 cubic inches, it remains so today.
None of Edgar's standard measures, which were probably made of wood, remain, but the city's copy of the standard yard, although stamped with the official mark of Elizabeth I, may date from the early twelfth century, during the reign of Henry I. Preserved standard weights date from 1357 and, although the original bushel is lost, a standard bushel, gallon and quart made of bronze, issued in 1497 and stamped with the mark of Henry VII are still held.
Cookware and bakeware