The four traditions of geography were created by geographer William D. Pattison: 1. spatial tradition, 2. area studies tradition, 3. man-land tradition,
William D. Pattison
The National Council for Geographic Education (NCGE) is a non-profit organization whose mission is to enhance the status and quality of geography teaching and learning. The NCGE was chartered in 1915 as the National Council of Geography Teachers, and adopted its current name in 1956. Its mission over the past century has remained focused on excellence in geography education, at all levels—-through formal and informal education, in primary education, secondary education, community college, and university settings. Its membership totals over 1,200, mostly from the USA, but with a significant and growing international component. Its members include teachers, professors, students, managers, policymakers, administrators, and others who support geographic education. These members work in schools, community colleges, universities, nonprofit organizations, local, state, tribal, national, and international government agencies, and in private industry.
The NCGE promotes and supports geography education, enhances the preparation of geography education with respect to knowledge of content, techniques, and learning processes, facilitates communication and professional development among teachers of geography, encourages and supports research on geography education, develops, publishes, and promotes the use of exemplary curricular resources and other learning materials, recognizes exceptional instructors of geography, and collaborates with other organizations that have similar goals.
Spatial analysis or spatial statistics includes any of the formal techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties. The phrase properly refers to a variety of techniques, many still in their early development, using different analytic approaches and applied in fields as diverse as astronomy, with its studies of the placement of galaxies in the cosmos, to chip fabrication engineering, with its use of 'place and route' algorithms to build complex wiring structures. The phrase is often used in a more restricted sense to describe techniques applied to structures at the human scale, most notably in the analysis of geographic data. The phrase is even sometimes used to refer to a specific technique in a single area of research, for example, to describe geostatistics.
Complex issues arise in spatial analysis, many of which are neither clearly defined nor completely resolved, but form the basis for current research. The most fundamental of these is the problem of defining the spatial location of the entities being studied. For example, a study on human health could describe the spatial position of humans with a point placed where they live, or with a point located where they work, or by using a line to describe their weekly trips; each choice has dramatic effects on the techniques which can be used for the analysis and on the conclusions which can be obtained. Other issues in spatial analysis include the limitations of mathematical knowledge, the assumptions required by existing statistical techniques, and problems in computer based calculations. Geography