It used to be believed that O negative was the universal blood donor but there can still be reactions. It's best to get the same!
Transfusion medicine (or transfusiology) is the branch of medicine that is concerned with the transfusion of blood and blood components. The blood bank is the section of the clinical laboratory where medical technologists process and distribute blood products under the supervision of a medical director, often certified in Pathology or Transfusion Medicine. The blood donor center, also under the supervision of a physician who may be a Transfusion Medicine specialist, is the facility that collects and processes blood products. Transfusion medicine is a board-certified specialty recognized by the American Board of Pathology.]citation needed[ Physicians from a wide range of backgrounds, including pathology, hematology, anesthesiology and pediatrics, are eligible for board certification in Transfusion Medicine following a 1-2 year fellowship.
Physicians certified in Transfusion Medicine are trained in blood product selection and management, immunohematology, apheresis, stem cell collection, cellular therapy, and coagulation. They are often considered a consultant for physicians who require expertise advice on the subjects listed above.
A blood donation occurs when a person voluntarily has blood drawn and used for transfusions and/or made into biopharmaceutical medications by a process called fractionation (separation of whole-blood components). Donation may be of whole-blood (WB), or of specific components directly (the latter called apheresis). Blood banks often participate in the collection process as well as the procedures that follow it.
In the developed world, most blood donors are unpaid volunteers (voluntary non remunerated repeat donations, VNRD) who donate blood for a community supply. In poorer countries, established supplies are limited and donors usually give blood when family or friends need a transfusion (directed donation). Many donors donate as an act of charity, but some are paid and in some cases there are incentives other than money such as paid time off from work. Donors can also have blood drawn for their own future use (autologous donation). Donating is relatively safe, but some donors have bruising where the needle is inserted or may feel faint.
A blood type (also called a blood group) is a classification of blood based on the presence or absence of inherited antigenic substances on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs). These antigens may be proteins, carbohydrates, glycoproteins, or glycolipids, depending on the blood group system. Some of these antigens are also present on the surface of other types of cells of various tissues. Several of these red blood cell surface antigens can stem from one allele (or very closely linked genes) and collectively form a blood group system. Blood types are inherited and represent contributions from both parents. A total of 32 human blood group systems are now recognized by the International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT). The two most important ones are ABO and the RhD antigen; they determine someone's blood type (A, B, AB and O, with + and - denoting RhD status).
Many pregnant women carry a fetus with a blood type different from their own, and the mother can form antibodies against fetal RBCs. Sometimes these maternal antibodies are IgG, a small immunoglobulin, which can cross the placenta and cause hemolysis of fetal RBCs, which in turn can lead to hemolytic disease of the newborn called erythroblastosis fetalis, an illness of low fetal blood counts that ranges from mild to severe. Sometimes this is lethal for the fetus; in these cases it is called hydrops fetalis.
Universal blood is a melting pot of bloods compatible between several people. This concept was created by André Gernez in 1986 and is presently promoted through Organic Union International. Universal blood can be created by immune adoption during the three first months after birth. Universal blood helps organism to resist allergies and make organ transplant possible. Experienced on rabbits, Gernez recommends to use a spray on toddlers. Volunteers for a strongest human specie depend on parents, corporations and institutions.
Researchers have found a way to efficiently convert different human blood types into a neutral type that can be given to any patient. Scientists have used embryonic stem cells to generate blood that could lead to endless supplies of type O-negative blood.
Packed red blood cells
Sperm donation is the provision (or ‘donation’) by a man (known as a sperm donor) of his sperm (known as donor sperm) for the purpose of inseminating or impregnating a woman who is not necessarily his sexual partner. The woman may be inseminated by either natural or artificial insemination methods. Sperm may be donated privately and directly to the intended recipient, or through a sperm bank or fertility clinic. The primary recipients of donor sperm are heterosexual couples suffering from male infertility, lesbian couples and single women.
When going through a sperm bank, the recipient may select donor sperm on the basis of the donor's looks, personality, academic ability, race, and many other factors. Sperm banks or clinics are subject to varying state regulations, including restrictions on donor anonymity and number of offspring, and there may be other legal protections of the rights and responsibilities of both recipient and donor. Some sperm banks, either by choice or regulation, limit the amount of information available to potential recipients; a desire to obtain more information on donors is one reason why recipients may choose to use a known donor and/or private donation.
Health Medical Pharma
In transfusion medicine, packed red blood cells (sometimes called stored packed red blood cells or simply packed cells) are red blood cells (RBC, also called erythrocytes) that have been collected, processed, and stored in bags as blood product units available for blood transfusion purposes. The collection may be from a "whole blood" (WB) donation followed by component separation, or by RBC apheresis (sometimes called "double-red," due to the potential to donate two units' worth at once that way). The processing (often termed "manufacture," since the end result is deemed a biologic biopharmaceutical product) and the storage can occur at a collection center and/or a blood bank. RBCs are mixed with an anticoagulant and storage solution which provides nutrients and aims to preserve viability and functionality of the cells (limiting their so-called "storage lesion"), which are stored at refrigerated temperatures for up to 42 days (in the US), except for the rather unusual long-term storage in which case they can be frozen for up to 10 years. The cells are separated from the fluid portion of the blood after it is collected from a donor, or during the collection process in the case of apheresis. The product is then sometimes modified after collection to meet specific patient requirements.
The product is typically abbreviated RBC, pRBC, PRBC, and sometimes StRBC or even LRBC (the latter being to indicate those that have been leukoreduced, which is now true for the vast majority of RBC units). The name "Red Blood Cells" with initial capitals indicates a standardized blood product in the United States. Without capitalization, it is simply generic without specifying whether or not the cells comprise a blood product, patient blood, an etc. (with other generic terms for it being "erythrocyte" and "red cell").
Science of drugs including their origin, composition, pharmacokinetics,
pharmacodynamics, therapeutic use, and toxicology.
Pharmacology (from Greek φάρμακον, pharmakon, "poison" in classic Greek; "drug" in modern Greek; and -λογία, -logia "study of", "knowledge of") is the branch of medicine and biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (within the body) molecule which exerts a biochemical and/or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism. More specifically, it is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function. If substances have medicinal properties, they are considered pharmaceuticals.
In journalism, a human interest story is a feature story that discusses a person or people in an emotional way. It presents people and their problems, concerns, or achievements in a way that brings about interest, sympathy or motivation in the reader or viewer.
Human interest stories may be "the story behind the story" about an event, organization, or otherwise faceless historical happening, such as about the life of an individual soldier during wartime, an interview with a survivor of a natural disaster, a random act of kindness or profile of someone known for a career achievement.