Question:

Is there really a giant hole in the center of Alaska?

Answer:

A circular hole was found in the ice cap of Mount Spurr is about 165 feet in diameter and 82 feet deep in Alaska.

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1991 Third Conference
1994 Governors
1995 Governors
1996 All-Filipino
1996 Commissioner's
1996 Governors
1997 Governors
1998 All-Filipino
1998 Commissioner's
2000 All-Filipino
2003 Invitational
2007 Fiesta
2010 Fiesta
2013 Commissioner's

The Alaska Aces is a professional basketball team in the Philippine Basketball Association since 1986 under the ownership of the Alaska Milk Corporation and the owner of 14 PBA championships with the 2013 PBA Commissioner's Cup as their latest. They are one of the most popular teams in the league and the Philippines.


Alaska Airlines

Alaska Airlines (NYSE: ALK) is an airline based in the Seattle suburb of SeaTac, Washington, in the United States. The airline originated in 1932 as McGee Airways. After many mergers with and acquisitions of other airlines, including Star Air Service, it renamed itself Alaska Airlines in 1944. It now has service throughout the contiguous United States, Canada, Mexico, and four Hawaiian Islands. Alaska Airlines carries more passengers between Alaska and the contiguous United States than any other airline.

Classified as a major carrier, it is the seventh-largest US airline in passenger traffic. Alaska currently operates its largest hub at Seattle–Tacoma International Airport.


Anchorage, Alaska

Anchorage (officially called the Municipality of Anchorage) is a unified home rule municipality in the southcentral part of the U.S. state of Alaska. It is the northernmost city in the United States with more than 100,000 residents and the largest community in North America north of the 60th parallel. With an estimated 298,610 residents in 2012 (and 380,821 residents within its Metropolitan Statistical Area, which combines Anchorage with the neighboring Matanuska-Susitna Borough), it is Alaska's most populous city and constitutes more than 40 percent of the state's total population; among the 50 states, only New York has a higher percentage of residents who live in the state's most populous city.

Anchorage has been named All-America City four times, in 1956, 1965, 1984-85, and 2002, by the National Civic League. It has also been named by Kiplinger as the most tax friendly city in the United States.


Territory of Alaska

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Alaska's at-large congressional district

Alaska's at-large Congressional District is the sole congressional district for the state of Alaska. Based on size, it is the largest congressional district in the nation and is one of the largest parliamentary constituencies in the world.

The district has been represented by Republican Don Young since March 6, 1973.


University of Alaska Fairbanks

The University of Alaska Fairbanks, is a public research university located in Fairbanks, Alaska, United States. It serves as the flagship campus of the University of Alaska System, and is abbreviated as Alaska or UAF.

UAF is a land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant institution, as well as participating in the sun-grant program through Oregon State University. It is also the site where the Alaska Constitution was drafted and signed in 1955 and 1956. UAF was established in 1917 as the Alaska Agricultural College and School of Mines, first opening for classes in 1922.


Fairbanks, Alaska

Fairbanks /ˈfɛərbæŋks/ is a home rule city in and the borough seat of the Fairbanks North Star Borough in the U.S. state of Alaska.

Fairbanks is the largest city in the Interior region of Alaska, and second largest in the state, after Anchorage. It is the principal city of the Fairbanks, Alaska, Metropolitan Statistical Area which encompasses all of the Fairbanks North Star Borough and is the northernmost Metropolitan Statistical Area in the United States, lying less than 120 miles (190 km) south of the Arctic Circle.


List of boroughs and census areas in Alaska

The U.S. state of Alaska is divided into 19 organized boroughs and one "Unorganized Borough". Alaska and Louisiana are the only states that do not call their first-order administrative subdivisions counties (Louisiana uses parishes instead).

Many of the most densely populated regions of the state are part of Alaska's boroughs, which function similarly to counties in other states. However, unlike county equivalents in the other 49 states, the organized boroughs do not cover the entire land area of the state. The area not part of any organized borough is referred to as the unorganized borough. For the 1970 census, the U.S. Census Bureau, in cooperation with the state, divided the unorganized borough into 11 census areas, each roughly corresponding to an election district. However, these areas exist solely for the purposes of statistical analysis and presentation. They have no government of their own. Boroughs and census areas are both treated as county-level equivalents by the Census Bureau.


ice cap

An ice cap is an ice mass that covers less than 50 000 km² of land area (usually covering a highland area). Masses of ice covering more than 50 000 km² are termed an ice sheet.

Ice caps are not constrained by topographical features (i.e., they will lie over the top of mountains). By contrast, ice masses of similar size that are constrained by topographical features are known as ice fields. The dome of an ice cap is usually centred on the highest point of a massif. Ice flows away from this high point (the ice divide) towards the ice cap's periphery.


Ice cap

An ice cap is an ice mass that covers less than 50 000 km² of land area (usually covering a highland area). Masses of ice covering more than 50 000 km² are termed an ice sheet.

Ice caps are not constrained by topographical features (i.e., they will lie over the top of mountains). By contrast, ice masses of similar size that are constrained by topographical features are known as ice fields. The dome of an ice cap is usually centred on the highest point of a massif. Ice flows away from this high point (the ice divide) towards the ice cap's periphery.

Glacier
Polar ice cap

A polar ice cap is a high latitude region of a planet or natural satellite that is covered in ice. There are no requirements with respect to size or composition for a body of ice to be termed a polar ice cap, nor any geological requirement for it to be over land; only that it must be a body of solid phase matter in the polar region. This causes the term "polar ice cap" to be something of a misnomer, as the term ice cap itself is applied with greater scrutiny as such bodies must be found over land, and possess a surface area of less than 50,000 km²: larger bodies are referred to as ice sheets.

The composition of the ice will vary. For example Earth's polar ice caps are mainly water ice, while Mars's polar ice caps are a mixture of solid phase carbon dioxide and water ice.


Ice sheet

An ice sheet is a mass of glacier ice that covers surrounding terrain and is greater than 50,000 km2 (19,000 sq mi), thus also known as continental glacier. The only current ice sheets are in Antarctica and Greenland; during the last glacial period at Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) the Laurentide ice sheet covered much of North America, the Weichselian ice sheet covered northern Europe and the Patagonian Ice Sheet covered southern South America.

Ice sheets are bigger than ice shelves or alpine glaciers. Masses of ice covering less than 50,000 km2 are termed an ice cap. An ice cap will typically feed a series of glaciers around its periphery.


Greenland ice sheet

The Greenland ice sheet (Greenlandic: Sermersuaq) is a vast body of ice covering 1,710,000 square kilometres (660,000 sq mi), roughly 80% of the surface of Greenland. It is the second largest ice body in the world, after the Antarctic Ice Sheet. The ice sheet is almost 2,400 kilometres (1,500 mi) long in a north-south direction, and its greatest width is 1,100 kilometres (680 mi) at a latitude of 77°N, near its northern margin. The mean altitude of the ice is 2,135 metres (7,005 ft). The thickness is generally more than 2 km (1 mi) and over 3 km (1.9 mi) at its thickest point. It is not the only ice mass of Greenland – isolated glaciers and small ice caps cover between 76,000 and 100,000 square kilometres (29,000 and 39,000 sq mi) around the periphery. Some scientists predict that climate change may be near a "tipping point" where the entire ice sheet will melt in about 2,000 years. If the entire 2,850,000 cubic kilometres (684,000 cu mi) of ice were to melt, it would lead to a global sea level rise of 7.2 m (24 ft).

The Greenland Ice Sheet is also sometimes referred to under the term inland ice, or its Danish equivalent, indlandsis. It is also sometimes referred to as an ice cap. "Ice sheet" is considered the more correct term, as "ice cap" generally refers to less extensive ice masses.]citation needed[


Polar ice packs

Polar ice packs are large areas of pack ice formed from seawater in the Earth's polar regions, known as polar ice caps: the Arctic ice pack (or Arctic ice cap) of the Arctic Ocean and the Antarctic ice pack of the Southern Ocean, fringing the Antarctic ice sheet. Polar packs significantly change their size during seasonal changes of the year. However, underlying this seasonal variation, there is an underlying trend of melting as part of a more general process of Arctic shrinkage.

In spring and summer, when melting occurs, the margins of the sea ice retreat. The vast bulk of the world's sea ice forms in the Arctic ocean and the Southern Ocean, around Antarctica. The Antarctic ice cover is highly seasonal, with very little ice in the austral summer, expanding to an area roughly equal to that of Antarctica in winter. Consequently, most Antarctic sea ice is first year ice, up to 1 meter (3.28 ft) thick. The Arctic Ocean is very different, being a polar sea surrounded by land rather than to a polar continent surrounded by sea, and its ice shows less seasonal variation. Currently 28% of Arctic basin sea ice is multi-year ice, thicker than seasonal: up to 3–4 meters (9.8–13.1 ft) thick over large areas, with ridges up to 20 meters (65.6 ft) thick.


Ice cap climate

An ice cap climate is a polar climate where the temperature never or almost never exceeds 0 °C (32 °F). The climate covers the areas around the poles, such as Antarctica and Greenland, as well as the highest mountaintops. Such areas are covered by a permanent layer of ice and have no vegetation, but they may have animal life, that usually feeds from the oceans. Due to their high latitudes, icecap climates experience 24 hours of sunlight in the summer and no sunshine in winter, the midnight sun and polar night.

Under the Köppen climate classification, the ice cap climate is denoted as EF. Ice caps are defined as a climate with no months above 0 °C (32 °F). Such areas are found around the north and south pole, and on the top of the highest mountains. Since the temperature never exceeds the melting point of water, any snow or ice that accumulates remains there permanently, over time forming a large ice sheet.

The planet Mars has two permanent polar ice caps. During a pole's winter, it lies in continuous darkness, chilling the surface and causing the deposition of 25–30% of the atmosphere into slabs of 2CO ice (dry ice). When the poles are again exposed to sunlight, the frozen CO2 sublimes, creating enormous winds that sweep off the poles as fast as 400 km/h. These seasonal actions transport large amounts of dust and water vapor, giving rise to Earth-like frost and large cirrus clouds. Clouds of water-ice were photographed by the Opportunity rover in 2004.

The caps at both poles consist primarily of water ice. Frozen carbon dioxide accumulates as a comparatively thin layer about one metre thick on the north cap in the northern winter only, while the south cap has a permanent dry ice cover about 8 m thick. The northern polar cap has a diameter of about 1000 km during the northern Mars summer, and contains about 1.6 million cubic km of ice, which if spread evenly on the cap would be 2 km thick. (This compares to a volume of 2.85 million cubic km (km3) for the Greenland ice sheet.) The southern polar cap has a diameter of 350 km and a thickness of 3 km. The total volume of ice in the south polar cap plus the adjacent layered deposits has also been estimated at 1.6 million cubic km. Both polar caps show spiral troughs, which recent analysis of SHARAD ice penetrating radar has shown are a result of roughly perpendicular katabatic winds that spiral due to the Coriolis Effect.

The Devon Ice Cap is an ice cap on eastern Devon Island, Nunavut, Canada, covering an area of over 12,000 km2 (4,600 sq mi). The highest point on Devon Island is found at the summit of the ice cap, with an elevation of 1,920 m (6,299 ft). The ice cap has a maximum thickness of 880 m (2,887 ft), and has been steadily shrinking since 1985.

The first ascent of the Devon Ice Cap was by Alfred Herbert Joy and his Inuit companions in 1926.


Barnes Ice Cap

The Barnes Ice Cap is an ice cap located in central Baffin Island, Nunavut, Canada. It covers close to 6,000 km2 (2,300 sq mi) and has been thinning due to regional warming. Between 2004 and 2006, the ice cap was thinning at a rate of 1 metre (3 ft 3 in) per year.

The ice cap contains Canada's oldest ice, some of it being over 20,000 years old. It is a remnant of the Laurentide ice sheet, which covered much of Canada during the last glacial period of the Earth's current ice age.


Mount Spurr

Mount Spurr is a stratovolcano in the Aleutian Arc of Alaska, named after United States Geological Survey geologist and explorer Josiah Edward Spurr, who led an expedition to the area in 1898. The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) currently rates Mount Spurr as Level of Concern Color Code Green. The mountain is known aboriginally by the Dena'ina Athabascan name K'idazq'eni, literally 'that which is burning inside'.

Mount Spurr, the highest volcano of the Aleutian arc, is a large lava dome constructed at the center of a roughly 5 km-wide horseshoe-shaped caldera that is open to the south. The volcano lies 130 km west of Anchorage and NE of Chakachamna Lake. The caldera was formed by a late-Pleistocene or early Holocene debris avalanche and associated pyroclastic flows that destroyed an ancestral Spurr volcano. The debris avalanche traveled more than 25 km to the SE, and the resulting deposit contains blocks as large as 100m in diameter. Several ice-carved post-caldera domes lie in the caldera. Present Mt. Spurr is the highest of the post-caldera. This regrown summit peak of Spurr experienced a heating event in 2004 which created a small crater lake. By 2008, the summit crater had cooled enough to have begun to have accumulated significant amounts of snow again. The youngest post-caldera dome, Crater Peak (2309m, 7575 ft), formed at the breached southern end of the caldera about 3.2 km south of Spurr, has been the source of about 40 identified Holocene tephra layers. Spurr's two historical eruptions, from Crater Peak in 1953 and 1992, deposited ash on the city of Anchorage. Crater Peak has a summit crater that is itself slightly breached along the south rim; the north wall of the crater exposes the truncated remains of an older dome or lava lake. Before the 1992 eruption, a small crater lake occupied the bottom of Crater Peak's crater. As with other Alaskan volcanoes, the proximity of Spurr to major trans-Pacific aviation routes means that an eruption of this volcano can significantly disrupt air travel. Volcanic ash can cause jet engines to fail.


Mount Spurr

Mount Spurr is a stratovolcano in the Aleutian Arc of Alaska, named after United States Geological Survey geologist and explorer Josiah Edward Spurr, who led an expedition to the area in 1898. The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) currently rates Mount Spurr as Level of Concern Color Code Green. The mountain is known aboriginally by the Dena'ina Athabascan name K'idazq'eni, literally 'that which is burning inside'.

Mount Spurr, the highest volcano of the Aleutian arc, is a large lava dome constructed at the center of a roughly 5 km-wide horseshoe-shaped caldera that is open to the south. The volcano lies 130 km west of Anchorage and NE of Chakachamna Lake. The caldera was formed by a late-Pleistocene or early Holocene debris avalanche and associated pyroclastic flows that destroyed an ancestral Spurr volcano. The debris avalanche traveled more than 25 km to the SE, and the resulting deposit contains blocks as large as 100m in diameter. Several ice-carved post-caldera domes lie in the caldera. Present Mt. Spurr is the highest of the post-caldera. This regrown summit peak of Spurr experienced a heating event in 2004 which created a small crater lake. By 2008, the summit crater had cooled enough to have begun to have accumulated significant amounts of snow again. The youngest post-caldera dome, Crater Peak (2309m, 7575 ft), formed at the breached southern end of the caldera about 3.2 km south of Spurr, has been the source of about 40 identified Holocene tephra layers. Spurr's two historical eruptions, from Crater Peak in 1953 and 1992, deposited ash on the city of Anchorage. Crater Peak has a summit crater that is itself slightly breached along the south rim; the north wall of the crater exposes the truncated remains of an older dome or lava lake. Before the 1992 eruption, a small crater lake occupied the bottom of Crater Peak's crater. As with other Alaskan volcanoes, the proximity of Spurr to major trans-Pacific aviation routes means that an eruption of this volcano can significantly disrupt air travel. Volcanic ash can cause jet engines to fail.

Alaska

The Tordrillo Mountains are a small mountain range in the Matanuska-Susitna and Kenai Peninsula Boroughs in the southcentral region of the U.S. state of Alaska. They lie approximately 75 miles (120 km) west-northwest of Anchorage. The range extends approximately 60 miles (97 km) north-south and 35 miles (56 km) east-west. The highest point is Mount Torbert (11,413 feet/3,479 m). On a clear day, they are easily visible from Anchorage.

The Tordrillos are bordered on the south by the Chigmit Mountains, the northernmost extension of the Aleutian Range. (The Tordrillos are sometimes counted as part of the Aleutian Range, but this is not official usage.) On the west and north they meet the southern tip of the Alaska Range, while on the east they fade into the hills and lowlands of southcentral Alaska. The north side of the range feeds the Skwentna River, and the south drains into Chakachamna Lake and the Chakachatna River.


Alaska Range

The Alaska Range is a relatively narrow, 650-km-long (400 mi) mountain range in the southcentral region of the U.S. state of Alaska, from Lake Clark at its southwest end to the White River in Canada's Yukon Territory in the southeast. The highest mountain in North America, Denali (or Mount McKinley), is in the Alaska Range.

Spurr

Josiah Edward Spurr (1870–1950) was an American geologist, explorer, and author. Born in Gloucester, Massachusetts, he was considered something of a failure as a youth, unsuited for the family fishing business, since on a voyage he invariably became seasick. Since he could not be a productive fisherman like his brothers, his parents decided he might as well go to college. After working his way through Harvard, he began his career with the Minnesota Geological Survey, making the first-ever geological map of the great Mesabi iron range in Minnesota.

J. E. Spurr led two expeditions of historic importance in Alaska for the United States Geological Survey in 1896 and 1898, made without the benefit of telephones, airplanes, the internal combustion engine, or electrical appliances. In 1896 he led the first expedition to map and chart the interior of Alaska, exploring the Yukon Territory, where gold had been discovered. In 1898 Spurr went down the length of the Kuskokwim River, naming as he traveled previously undiscovered mountains, mountain ranges, creeks, rivers, lakes and glaciers. At the end of the Kuskokwim expedition he made the first scientific observations of the Mount Katmai volcano, and the valley that later became known as the "Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes." During these expeditions he encountered Native Americans, Aleuts, traders, missionaries, prospectors, whiskey smugglers and various con artists. His books were seen as the definitive work on Alaskan minerals during the Alaska Gold Rush. They read like an adventure including the expedition's experiences with ice dams bearing down on them and lost provisions, as well as interactions with native Indians and missionaries.


Aleutian Arc

The Aleutian Arc is a large volcanic arc in the U.S. state of Alaska. It consists of a number of active and dormant volcanoes that have formed as a result of subduction along the Aleutian Trench. Although taking its name from the Aleutian Islands, this term is a geologic grouping rather than a geographic one, and the Aleutian Arc extends through the Alaska Peninsula following the Aleutian Range to the Aleutian Islands.

The Aleutian arc reflects subduction of the Pacific plate beneath the North American plate. It extends 3,000 km from the Kamchatka Peninsula in the west to the Gulf of Alaska in the east. Unimak Pass at the southwestern end of the Alaska Peninsula marks the eastward transition from an intra-oceanic in the west to a continental arc in the east. Due to the arcuate geometry of the trench, the relative velocity vector changes from almost trench-normal in the Gulf of Alaska to almost trench-parallel in the west. Along the oceanic part of the subduction zone, convergence varies from 6.3 cm/yr to the NNW in the east to 7.4 cm/yr towards the NW in the west (DeMets and Dixon 1999).]citation needed[

Mount Torbert is the highest point of the Tordrillo Mountains, a small, primarily volcanic range, northwest of Anchorage, Alaska. It is a heavily glaciated peak, and is not itself a volcano, although nearby Mount Spurr and Crater Peak are active volcanoes.


Flattop Mountain is a 3,510-foot (1,070 m) mountain in the U.S. state of Alaska, located in Chugach State Park just east of urban Anchorage. It is the most climbed mountain in the state.

It is usually reached by driving to the Glen Alps trailhead and following a well-maintained 1.5-mile (2.4-km) trail, with an elevation gain of 1280 feet (390 m) from the parking lot to the summit. Since it is the most accessible mountain to Anchorage, Flattop is a very popular location for hiking, climbing, berry picking, paragliding, and backcountry skiing. Campouts are held on the summit at the summer and winter solstices.

List of large volcanic eruptions of the 20th century Alaska Alaska Alaska!

1991 Third Conference
1994 Governors
1995 Governors
1996 All-Filipino
1996 Commissioner's
1996 Governors
1997 Governors
1998 All-Filipino
1998 Commissioner's
2000 All-Filipino
2003 Invitational
2007 Fiesta
2010 Fiesta
2013 Commissioner's

The Alaska Aces is a professional basketball team in the Philippine Basketball Association since 1986 under the ownership of the Alaska Milk Corporation and the owner of 14 PBA championships with the 2013 PBA Commissioner's Cup as their latest. They are one of the most popular teams in the league and the Philippines.


Alaska Airlines

Alaska Airlines (NYSE: ALK) is an airline based in the Seattle suburb of SeaTac, Washington, in the United States. The airline originated in 1932 as McGee Airways. After many mergers with and acquisitions of other airlines, including Star Air Service, it renamed itself Alaska Airlines in 1944. It now has service throughout the contiguous United States, Canada, Mexico, and four Hawaiian Islands. Alaska Airlines carries more passengers between Alaska and the contiguous United States than any other airline.

Classified as a major carrier, it is the seventh-largest US airline in passenger traffic. Alaska currently operates its largest hub at Seattle–Tacoma International Airport.


Anchorage, Alaska

Anchorage (officially called the Municipality of Anchorage) is a unified home rule municipality in the southcentral part of the U.S. state of Alaska. It is the northernmost city in the United States with more than 100,000 residents and the largest community in North America north of the 60th parallel. With an estimated 298,610 residents in 2012 (and 380,821 residents within its Metropolitan Statistical Area, which combines Anchorage with the neighboring Matanuska-Susitna Borough), it is Alaska's most populous city and constitutes more than 40 percent of the state's total population; among the 50 states, only New York has a higher percentage of residents who live in the state's most populous city.

Anchorage has been named All-America City four times, in 1956, 1965, 1984-85, and 2002, by the National Civic League. It has also been named by Kiplinger as the most tax friendly city in the United States.


Territory of Alaska

Flag of Alaska Territory

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Alaska's at-large congressional district

Alaska's at-large Congressional District is the sole congressional district for the state of Alaska. Based on size, it is the largest congressional district in the nation and is one of the largest parliamentary constituencies in the world.

The district has been represented by Republican Don Young since March 6, 1973.


University of Alaska Fairbanks

The University of Alaska Fairbanks, is a public research university located in Fairbanks, Alaska, United States. It serves as the flagship campus of the University of Alaska System, and is abbreviated as Alaska or UAF.

UAF is a land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant institution, as well as participating in the sun-grant program through Oregon State University. It is also the site where the Alaska Constitution was drafted and signed in 1955 and 1956. UAF was established in 1917 as the Alaska Agricultural College and School of Mines, first opening for classes in 1922.


Fairbanks, Alaska

Fairbanks /ˈfɛərbæŋks/ is a home rule city in and the borough seat of the Fairbanks North Star Borough in the U.S. state of Alaska.

Fairbanks is the largest city in the Interior region of Alaska, and second largest in the state, after Anchorage. It is the principal city of the Fairbanks, Alaska, Metropolitan Statistical Area which encompasses all of the Fairbanks North Star Borough and is the northernmost Metropolitan Statistical Area in the United States, lying less than 120 miles (190 km) south of the Arctic Circle.


List of boroughs and census areas in Alaska

The U.S. state of Alaska is divided into 19 organized boroughs and one "Unorganized Borough". Alaska and Louisiana are the only states that do not call their first-order administrative subdivisions counties (Louisiana uses parishes instead).

Many of the most densely populated regions of the state are part of Alaska's boroughs, which function similarly to counties in other states. However, unlike county equivalents in the other 49 states, the organized boroughs do not cover the entire land area of the state. The area not part of any organized borough is referred to as the unorganized borough. For the 1970 census, the U.S. Census Bureau, in cooperation with the state, divided the unorganized borough into 11 census areas, each roughly corresponding to an election district. However, these areas exist solely for the purposes of statistical analysis and presentation. They have no government of their own. Boroughs and census areas are both treated as county-level equivalents by the Census Bureau.

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