Is the World's fattest man Manuel Uribe Garza still alive?


Manuel Uribe is alive and currently resides in Monterrey, Mexico. His diet consists of 2,000 daily calories, with six meals (egg-white omelets, fresh salads, chicken fajitas, fish fillet in a bed of spring greens).

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Chicken (food)
Chicken is the most common type of poultry in the world, and is prepared as food in a wide variety of ways, varying by region and culture. The modern chicken is a descendant of Red Junglefowl hybrids along with the Grey Junglefowl first raised thousands of years ago in the northern parts of the Indian subcontinent. Chicken as a meat has been depicted in Babylonian carvings from around 600 BC. Chicken was one of the most common meats available in the Middle Ages. It was widely believed to be easily digested and considered to be one of the most neutral foodstuff.][ It was eaten over most of the Eastern hemisphere and a number of different kinds of chicken such as capons, pullets and hens were eaten. It was one of the basic ingredients in the so-called white dish, a stew usually consisting of chicken and fried onions cooked in milk and seasoned with spices and sugar. Chicken consumption in the United States increased during World War II due to a shortage of beef and pork. In Europe, consumption of chicken overtook that of beef and veal in 1996, linked to consumer awareness of Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mad cow disease). Modern varieties of chicken such as the Cornish Cross, are bred specifically for meat production, with an emphasis placed on the ratio of feed to meat produced by the animal. The most common breeds of chicken consumed in the US are Cornish and White Rock. Chickens raised specifically for food are called broilers. In the United States, broilers are typically butchered at a young age. Modern Cornish Cross hybrids, for example, are butchered as early as 8 weeks for fryers and 12 weeks for roasting birds. Capons (castrated cocks) produce more and fattier meat. For this reason, they are considered a delicacy and were particularly popular in the Middle Ages. Chicken meat contains about two to three times as much polyunsaturated fat than most types of red meat when measured as weight percentage. Chicken generally includes low fat in the meat itself (castrated roosters excluded). The fat is highly concentrated on the skin. A 100g serving of baked chicken breast contains 4 grams of fat and 31 grams of protein, compared to 10 grams of fat and 27 grams of protein for the same portion of broiled, lean skirt steak. However according to a 2006 Harvard School of Public Health study of 135,000 people, people who ate grilled skinless chicken 5 or more times a week had a 52 percent higher chance of developing bladder cancer compared to people who did not. However, such strong associations were not found in individuals regularly consuming chicken with skin intact. In many factory farms, chickens are routinely administered with the feed additive Roxarsone, a relatively benign organoarsenic compound which partially decomposes into inorganic arsenic compounds in the flesh of chickens, and in their feces, which are often used as a fertilizer. The compound is used to control stomach pathogens and promote growth. A Consumer Reports study in 2004 reported finding "no detectable arsenic in our samples of muscle" but found "A few of our chicken-liver samples has an amount that according to EPA standards could cause neurological problems in a child who ate 2 ounces of cooked liver per week or in an adult who ate 5.5 ounces per week." However, the amounts found in these livers averaged to 460 part per billion; an amount still less than the 2,000 parts per billion limit set by the FDA. The FDA has found there to be no significant impact for the use of Roxarsone in the production of chicken, turkey or swine. Information obtained by the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance (CIPARS) “strongly indicates that cephalosporin resistance in humans is moving in lockstep with use of the drug in poultry production.” According to the Canadian Medical Association Journal, the unapproved antibiotic ceftiofur is routinely injected into eggs in Quebec and Ontario to discourage infection of hatchlings. Although the data are contested by the industry, antibiotic resistance in humans appears to be directly related to the antibiotic's use in eggs. A recent study by the Translational Genomics Research Institute showed that nearly half (47%) of the meat and poultry in US grocery stores was contaminated with S. aureus, with more than half (52%) of those bacteria resistant to antibiotics. Juvenile chickens, of less than 28 days of age at slaughter in the United Kingdom are marketed as poussin. Mature chicken is sold as small, medium or large. Whole mature chickens are marketed in the United States as fryers, broilers, and roasters. Fryers are the smallest size (2.5-4 lbs dressed for sale), and the most common, as chicken reach this size quickly (about 7 weeks). Most dismembered packaged chicken would be sold whole as fryers. Broilers are larger than fryers. They are typically sold whole. Roasters, or roasting hens, are the largest chickens commonly sold (3–5 months and 6-8 lbs) and are typically more expensive. Even larger and older chickens are called stewing chickens but these are no longer usually found commercially. The names reflect the most appropriate cooking method for the surface area to volume ratio. As the size increases, the volume (which determines how much heat must enter the bird for it to be cooked) increases faster than the surface area (which determines how fast heat can enter the bird). For a fast method of cooking, such as frying, a small bird is appropriate: frying a large piece of chicken results in the inside being undercooked when the outside is ready. Chicken is also sold in dismembered pieces. Pieces may include quarters, or fourths of the chicken. A chicken is typically cut into two leg quarters and two breast quarters. Each quarter contains two of the commonly available pieces of chicken. A leg quarter contains the thigh, drumstick and a portion of the back; a leg has the back portion removed. A breast quarter contains the breast, wing and portion of the back; a breast has the back portion and wing removed. Pieces may be sold in packages of all of the same pieces, or in combination packages. Whole chicken cut up refers to either the entire bird cut into 8 individual pieces. (8-piece cut); or sometimes without the back. A 9-piece cut (usually for fast food restaurants) has the tip of the breast cut off before splitting. Pick of the Chicken, or similar titles, refers to a package with only some of the chicken pieces. Typically the breasts, thighs, and legs without wings or back. Thighs and breasts are sold boneless and/or skinless. Dark meat (legs, drumsticks and thighs) pieces are typically cheaper than white meat pieces (breast, wings). Chicken livers and/or gizzards are commonly available packaged separately. Other parts of the chicken, such as the neck, feet, combs, etc. are not widely available except in countries where they are in demand, or in cities that cater to ethnic groups who favor these parts. There are many fast food restaurant chains on both a national and global scale that sell exclusively or primarily in poultry products including KFC (global), Red Rooster (Australia), Hector Chicken (Belgium) and CFC (Indonesia). Most of the products on the menu in such eateries are fried or breaded and are served with french fries. Raw chicken can be frozen for up to two years without significant changes in flavor or texture. Chicken is typically eaten cooked as when raw it often contains Salmonella. Chicken can be cooked in many ways. It can be made into sausages, skewered, put in salads, grilled, breaded and deep-fried, or used in various curries. There is significant variation in cooking methods amongst cultures. Historically common methods include roasting, baking, broasting, and frying. Today, chickens are frequently cooked by deep frying and prepared as fast foods such as fried chicken, chicken nuggets, chicken lollipops or buffalo wings. They are also often grilled for salads or tacos. Chickens often come with labels such as "roaster", which suggest a method of cooking based on the type of chicken. While these labels are only suggestions, ones labeled for stew often do not do well when cooked with other methods. Some chicken breast cuts and processed chicken breast products include the moniker "with Rib Meat." This is a misnomer, as it is the small piece of white meat that overlays the scapula, and is removed with the breast meat. The breast is cut from the chicken and sold as a solid cut, while the leftover breast and true rib meat is stripped from the bone through mechanical separation for use in chicken franks, for example. Breast meat is often sliced thinly and marketed as chicken slices, an easy filling for sandwiches. Often, the tenderloin (pectoralis minor) is marketed separately from the breast (pectoralis major). In the US, "tenders" can be either tenderloins or strips cut from the breast. In the UK the strips of pectoralis minor are called "Chicken mini-fillets". Chicken bones are hazardous to health as they tend to break into sharp splinters when eaten, but they can be simmered with vegetables and herbs for hours or even days to make chicken stock. In Asian countries it is possible to buy bones alone as they are very popular for making chicken soups, which are said to be healthy. In Australia the rib cages and backs of chickens after the other cuts have been removed are frequently sold cheaply in supermarket delicatessen sections as either "chicken frames" or "chicken carcasses" and are purchased for soup or stock purposes. Raw chicken maintains its quality longer in the freezer as compared to when having been cooked because moisture is lost during cooking. There is little change in nutrient value of chicken during freezer storage. For optimal quality, however, a maximal storage time in the freezer of 12 months is recommended for uncooked whole chicken, 9 months for uncooked chicken parts, 3 to 4 months for uncooked chicken giblets, and 4 months for cooked chicken. Freezing doesn't usually cause color changes in poultry, but the bones and the meat near them can become dark. This bone darkening results when pigment seeps through the porous bones of young poultry into the surrounding tissues when the poultry meat is frozen and thawed. It is safe to freeze chicken directly in its original packaging, however this type of wrap is permeable to air and quality may diminish over time. Therefore, for prolonged storage, it is recommended to overwrap these packages. It is recommended to freeze unopened vacuum packages as is. If a package has accidentally been torn or has opened while food is in the freezer, the food is still safe to use, but it is still recommended to overwrap or rewrap it. Chicken should be away from other foods, so if they begin to thaw, their juices won't drip onto other foods. If previously frozen chicken is purchased at a retail store, it can be refrozen if it has been handled properly. Chicken can be cooked or reheated from the frozen state, but it will take approximately one and a half times as long to cook, and any wrapping or absorbent paper should be discarded.

Salad is a popular, ready-to-eat dish made of heterogeneous ingredients, usually served chilled or at a moderate temperature. Many people use the word "salad" to describe light, savory leafy vegetable dishes, most often served with a sauce or dressing, but the category may additionally include dishes made of ingredients such as fruits, grains, meats, seafood and sweets. It is difficult to define what is meant by the term "salad", as it encompasses a wide array of serving styles and options. Though many salads use raw ingredients, some use cooked ingredients; most salads use vegetables, though fruit salads also exist. Most salads are served cold, although some, such as south German potato salad, are served warm. Some consider the warmth of a dish a factor that excludes it from the salad category. These people may call the warm mixture a casserole, a sandwich topping or more specifically, name it for the ingredients which comprise it, e.g. potatoes in, say, a mayo base cooked with bacon. Leafy vegetable salads are generally served with a dressing, as well as various garnishes such as nuts or croutons, and sometimes with meat, fish, pasta, cheese, eggs, or whole grains. Salads may be served at any point during a meal, such as: The word "salad" comes from the French salade of the same meaning, from the Latin salata (salty), from sal (salt). In English, the word first appears as "salad" or "sallet" in the 14th century. Salt is associated with salad because vegetables were seasoned with brine or salty oil-and-vinegar dressings during Roman times. The terminology "salad days", meaning a "time of youthful inexperience" (on notion of "green"), is first recorded by Shakespeare in 1606, while the use of salad bar first appeared in American English in 1976. The Romans and ancient Greeks ate mixed greens and dressing. In his 1699 book, Acetaria: A Discourse on Sallets, John Evelyn attempted with little success to encourage his fellow Britons to eat fresh salad greens. Mary, Queen of Scots, ate boiled celery root over greens covered with creamy mustard dressing, truffles, chervil, and slices of hard-boiled eggs. The United States popularized mixed greens salads in the late 19th century; other regions of the world adopted them throughout the second half of the 20th century. From Europe and the Americas to China, Japan, and Australia, salads are sold in supermarkets, at restaurants (restaurants will often have a "Salad Bar" laid out with salad-making ingredients, which the customers will use to put together their salad) and at fast food chains. In the US market, fast food chains such as McDonald's and KFC, that typically sell hamburgers, fries, and fried chicken, now also sell packaged salads. The "green salad" or "garden salad" is most often composed of leafy vegetables such as lettuce varieties, spinach, or rocket (arugula). Due to their low caloric density, green salads are a common diet food. The salad leaves may be cut or torn into bite-sized fragments and tossed together (called a tossed salad), or may be placed in a predetermined arrangement (a composed salad). Vegetables other than greens may be used in a salad. Common raw vegetables used in a salad include cucumbers, peppers, tomatoes, mushrooms, onions, spring onions, red onions, carrots, celery, and radishes. Other ingredients, such as avocado, olives, hard boiled egg, artichoke hearts, heart of palm, roasted red bell peppers, green beans, croutons, cheeses, meat (e.g. bacon, chicken), or seafood (e.g. tuna, shrimp), are sometimes added to salads. A "bound" salad can be composed (arranged) or tossed (put in a bowl and mixed with a thick dressing). They are assembled with thick sauces such as mayonnaise. One portion of a true bound salad will hold its shape when placed on a plate with an ice-cream scoop. Examples of bound salad include tuna salad, pasta salad, chicken salad, egg salad, and potato salad. Bound salads are often used as sandwich fillings. They are popular at picnics and barbecues, because they can be made ahead of time and refrigerated. Main course salads (also known as "dinner salads" and commonly known as "entrée salads" in North America) may contain grilled or fried chicken pieces, seafood such as grilled or fried shrimp or a fish steak such as tuna, mahi-mahi, or salmon or sliced steak, such as sirloin or skirt. Caesar salad, Chef salad, Cobb salad, Greek salad, and Michigan salad are dinner salads. Fruit salads are made of fruit, and include the fruit cocktail that can be made fresh or from canned fruit. Although tomatoes are considered fruits, and commonly included in salads, they are not normally an ingredient in Fruit Salad. Dessert salads rarely include leafy greens and are often sweet. Common variants are made with gelatin or whipped cream; e.g. jello salad, pistachio salad, and ambrosia. Other forms of dessert salads include snickers salad, glorified rice, and cookie salad popular in parts of the Midwestern United States. The following is a list of additional salads: Sauces for salads are often called "dressings". The concept of salad dressing varies across cultures. In Western culture, there are three basic types of salad dressing: Vinaigrette is a mixture (emulsion) of salad oil and vinegar, often flavored with herbs, spices, salt, pepper, sugar, and other ingredients. It is used most commonly as a salad dressing, but also as a sauce or marinade. In North America, mayonnaise-based Ranch dressing is most popular, with vinaigrettes and Caesar-style dressing following close behind. Traditional dressings in France are vinaigrettes, typically mustard-based, while mayonnaise is predominant in eastern European countries and Russia. In Denmark, dressings are often based on crème fraîche. In southern Europe, salad is generally dressed by the diner with oil and vinegar. In Asia, it is common to add sesame oil, fish sauce, citrus juice, or soy sauce to salad dressings.][ The following are examples of common salad dressings: Popular salad garnishes are nuts, croutons, anchovies, bacon bits (real or imitation), garden beet, bell peppers, shredded carrots, diced celery, watercress, sliced cucumber, parsley, sliced mushrooms, sliced red onion, radish, french fries, sunflower seeds (shelled), real or artificial crab meat (surimi) and cherry tomatoes. Various cheeses, berries, seeds and other ingredients can also be added to green salads. Cheeses, in the form of cubes, crumbles, or grated, are often used, including blue cheese, Parmesan cheese, and feta cheese. Color considerations are sometimes addressed by using edible flowers, red radishes, carrots, various colors of peppers, and other colorful ingredients. The moshav (agricultural village) of Sde Warburg, Israel, holds the Guinness World Record for the largest lettuce salad, weighing 10,260 kg. The event, held on 10 November 2007, was part of the 70th anniversary celebration of the founding of the moshav. The salad was sold to participants and onlookers alike for 10 NIS per bowl, raising 100,000 NIS (over $25,000) to benefit Aleh Negev, a rehabilitative village for young adults suffering from severe physical and cognitive disabilities. Major General (Res.) Doron Almog, Chairman of Aleh Negev was present to accept the donation and commended the residents, who had grown the lettuce and prepared the salad on the moshav. The volunteer effort to prepare the salad itself took all day and most of the residents, ranging from many of the original founders of the moshav to young children, participated.

Egg (food)
Eggs are laid by females of many different species, including birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish, and have been eaten by mankind for thousands of years. Bird and reptile eggs consist of a protective eggshell, albumen (egg white), and vitellus (egg yolk), contained within various thin membranes. Popular choices for egg consumption are chicken, duck, quail, roe, and caviar, but the egg most often consumed by humans is the chicken egg, by a wide margin. Egg yolks and whole eggs store significant amounts of protein and choline, and are widely used in cookery. Due to their protein content, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) categorizes eggs as Meats within the Food Guide Pyramid. Despite the nutritional value of eggs, there are some potential health issues arising from egg quality, storage, and individual allergies. Chickens and other egg-laying creatures are widely kept throughout the world, and mass production of chicken eggs is a global industry. In 2009, an estimated 62.1 million metric tons of eggs were produced worldwide from a total laying flock of approximately 6.4 billion hens. There are issues of regional variation in demand and expectation, as well as current debates concerning methods of mass production, with the European Union's ban on battery farming of chickens. Bird eggs have been valuable foodstuffs since prehistory, in both hunting societies and more recent cultures where birds were domesticated. The chicken was probably domesticated for its eggs from jungle fowl native to tropical and subtropical Southeast Asia and India before 7500 BCE. Chickens were brought to Sumer and Egypt by 1500 BCE, and arrived in Greece around 800 BCE, where the quail had been the primary source of eggs. In Thebes, Egypt, the tomb of Haremhab, built about 1420 BCE, shows a depiction of a man carrying bowls of ostrich eggs and other large eggs, presumably those of the pelican, as offerings. In ancient Rome, eggs were preserved using a number of methods, and meals often started with an egg course. The Romans crushed the shells in their plates to prevent evil spirits from hiding there. In the Middle Ages, eggs were forbidden during Lent because of their richness. The word mayonnaise possibly was derived from moyeu, the medieval French word for the yolk, meaning center or hub. Egg scrambled with acidic fruit juices were popular in France in the 17th century; this may have been the origin of lemon curd. The dried egg industry developed in the 19th century, before the rise of the frozen egg industry. In 1878, a company in St. Louis, Missouri started to transform egg yolk and white into a light-brown, meal-like substance by using a drying process. The production of dried eggs significantly expanded during World War II, for use by the United States Armed Forces and its allies. In 1911, the egg carton was invented by Joseph Coyle in Smithers, British Columbia, to solve a dispute about broken eggs between a farmer in Bulkley Valley and the owner of the Aldermere Hotel. Early egg cartons were made of paper. Bird eggs are a common food and one of the most versatile ingredients used in cooking. They are important in many branches of the modern food industry. The most commonly used bird eggs are those from the chicken. Duck and goose eggs, and smaller eggs, such as quail eggs, are occasionally used as a gourmet ingredient, as are the largest bird eggs, from ostriches. Gull eggs are considered a delicacy in England, as well as in some Scandinavian countries, particularly in Norway. In some African countries, guineafowl eggs are commonly seen in marketplaces, especially in the spring of each year. Pheasant eggs and emu eggs are perfectly edible, but less widely available. Sometimes they are obtainable from farmers, poulterers, or luxury grocery stores. Most wild birds’ eggs are protected by laws in many countries, which prohibit collecting or selling them, or permit these only during specific periods of the year. See also fish eggs. Egg yolk coagulates, or solidifies, when it reaches temperatures between 150 and 158°F (65 and 70°C). Egg white coagulates at slightly higher temperatures, between 145 and 165°F (63 and 73°C). Salmonella is killed instantly at , but is also killed at somewhat lower temperatures if held there for sufficiently long time periods. If a boiled egg is overcooked, a greenish ring sometimes appears around egg yolk due to the iron and sulfur compounds in the egg. It can also occur with an abundance of iron in the cooking water.][ The green ring does not affect the egg's taste; overcooking, however, harms the quality of the protein.][ Chilling the egg for a few minutes in cold water until it is completely cooled may prevent the greenish ring from forming on the surface of the yolk. Cooking also increases the risk of atherosclerosis due to increased oxidization of the cholesterol contained in the egg yolk. Chicken eggs are widely used in many types of dishes, both sweet and savory, including many baked goods. Some of the most common preparation methods include scrambled, fried, hard-boiled, soft-boiled, omelettes and pickled. They can also be eaten raw, though this is not recommended for people who may be especially susceptible to salmonellosis, such as the elderly, the infirm, or pregnant women. In addition, the protein in raw eggs is only 51% bioavailable, whereas that of a cooked egg is nearer 91% bioavailable, meaning the protein of cooked eggs is nearly twice as absorbable as the protein from raw eggs. As an ingredient, egg yolks are an important emulsifier in the kitchen, and the proteins in egg white allow it to form foams and aerated dishes. The albumen, or egg white, contains protein, but little or no fat, and can be used in cooking separately from the yolk. Egg whites may be aerated or whipped to a light, fluffy consistency, and are often used in desserts such as meringues and mousse. Ground egg shells are sometimes used as a food additive to deliver calcium. Every part of an egg is edible,][ although the eggshell is generally discarded. Some recipes call for immature or unlaid eggs, which are harvested after the hen is slaughtered or cooked while still inside the chicken. Although the age of the egg and the conditions of its storage have a greater influence, the bird's diet does affect the flavor of the egg. For example, when a brown-egg chicken breed eats rapeseed or soy meals, its intestinal microbes metabolize them into fishy-smelling triethylamine, which ends up in the egg. The unpredictable diet of free-range hens will produce unpredictable eggs. Duck eggs tend to have a flavor distinct from, but still resembling, chicken eggs. Eggs can also be soaked in mixtures to absorb flavor. Tea eggs are steeped in a brew from a mixture of various spices, soy sauce, and black tea leaves to give flavor. Careful storage of edible eggs is extremely important, as an improperly handled egg can contain elevated levels of Salmonella bacteria that can cause severe food poisoning. In the US, eggs are washed, and this cleans the shell, but erodes the cuticle. The USDA thus recommends refrigerating eggs to prevent the growth of Salmonella. Refrigeration also preserves the taste and texture. However, uncracked eggs can be left unrefrigerated for several months without spoiling. In Europe, eggs are not usually washed, and the shells are dirtier, however the cuticle is undamaged, and they do not require refrigeration. In the UK in particular, hens are immunised against salmonella, and the eggs are generally safe for 21 days. The simplest method to preserve an egg is to treat it with salt. Salt draws water out of bacteria and molds, which prevents their growth. The Chinese salted duck egg is made by immersing duck eggs in brine, or coating them individually with a paste of salt and mud or clay. The eggs stop absorbing salt after about a month, having reached osmotic equilibrium. Their yolks take on an orange-red color and solidify, but the white remains liquid. They are boiled before consumption, and are often served with rice congee. Another method is to make pickled eggs, by boiling them first and immersing them in a mixture of vinegar, salt, and spices, such as ginger or allspice. Frequently, beetroot juice is added to impart a red color to the eggs. If the eggs are immersed in it for a few hours, the distinct red, white, and yellow colors can be seen when the eggs are sliced. If marinated for several days or more, the red color will reach the yolk. If the eggs are marinated in the mixture for several weeks or more, the vinegar will dissolve much of the shell's calcium carbonate and penetrate the egg, making it acidic enough to inhibit the growth of bacteria and molds. Pickled eggs made this way will generally keep for a year or more without refrigeration. A century egg or hundred-year-old egg is preserved by coating an egg in a mixture of clay, wood ash, salt, lime, and rice straw for several weeks to several months, depending on the method of processing. After the process is completed, the yolk becomes a dark green, cream-like substance with a strong odor of sulfur and ammonia, while the white becomes a dark brown, transparent jelly with a comparatively mild, distinct flavor. The transforming agent in a century egg is its alkaline material, which gradually raises the pH of the egg from around 9 to 12 or more. This chemical process breaks down some of the complex, flavorless proteins and fats of the yolk into simpler, flavorful ones, which in some way may be thought of as an "inorganic" version of fermentation. For those who do not consume eggs, alternatives used in baking include other rising agents or binding materials, such as ground flax seeds or potato starch flour. Tofu can also act as a partial binding agent, since it is high in lecithin due to its soy content. Applesauce can be used, as well as arrowroot and banana. Extracted soybean lecithin, in turn, is often used in packaged foods as an inexpensive substitute for egg-derived lecithin. Other egg substitutes are made from just the white of the egg for those who worry about the high cholesterol and fat content in eggs. These products usually have added vitamins and minerals, as well as vegetable-based emulsifiers and thickeners such as xanthan gum or guar gum. These allow the product to maintain the nutrition and several culinary properties of real eggs, making possible foods such as Hollandaise sauce, custard, mayonnaise, and most baked goods with these substitutes. Eggs add protein to a person's diet, as well as various other nutrients. Chicken eggs are the most commonly eaten eggs. They supply all essential amino acids for humans (a source of 'complete protein'), and provide several vitamins and minerals, including retinol (vitamin A), riboflavin (vitamin B2), folic acid (vitamin B9), 6vitamin B, 12vitamin B, choline, iron, calcium, phosphorus and potassium. Although not as abundant as red meats, eggs are a source of CoQ10 depending on how they are prepared. All of the egg's vitamins A, D, and E are in the egg yolk. The egg is one of the few foods to naturally contain vitamin D. A large egg yolk contains approximately 60 Calories (250 kilojoules); the egg white contains about 15 Calories (60 kilojoules). A large yolk contains more than two-thirds of the recommended daily intake of 300 mg of cholesterol (although one study indicates the human body may not absorb much cholesterol from eggs). The yolk makes up about 33% of the liquid weight of the egg. It contains all of the fat, slightly less than half of the protein, and most of the other nutrients. It also contains all of the choline, and one yolk contains approximately half of the recommended daily intake. Choline is an important nutrient for development of the brain, and is said to be important for pregnant and nursing women to ensure healthy fetal brain development. The diet of the laying hens can greatly affect the nutritional quality of the eggs. For instance, chicken eggs that are especially high in omega 3 fatty acids are produced by feeding laying hens a diet containing polyunsaturated fats and kelp meal. Pasture-raised free-range hens which forage largely for their own food also tend to produce eggs with higher nutritional quality in having less cholesterol and fats while being several times higher in vitamins and omega 3 fatty acids than standard factory eggs. Focusing on the protein and crude fat content, a 2010 USDA study determined there were no significant differences of these two macronutrients in consumer chicken eggs. Cooked eggs are easier to digest, as well as having a lower risk of salmonellosis. The shape of an egg resembles a prolate spheroid with one end larger than the other, with cylindrical symmetry along the long axis. An egg is surrounded by a thin, hard shell. Inside, the egg yolk is suspended in the egg white by one or two spiral bands of tissue called the chalazae (from the Greek word χάλαζα, meaning hailstone or hard lump). The larger end of the egg contains the air cell that forms when the contents of the egg cool down and contract after it is laid. Chicken eggs are graded according to the size of this air cell, measured during candling. A very fresh egg has a small air cell and receives a grade of AA. As the size of the air cell increases, and the quality of the egg decreases, the grade moves from AA to A to B. This provides a way of testing the age of an egg: as the air cell increases in size, the egg becomes less dense and the larger end of the egg will rise to increasingly shallower depths when the egg is placed in a bowl of water. A very old egg will actually float in the water and should not be eaten. Egg shell color is caused by pigment deposition during egg formation in the oviduct and can vary according to species and breed, from the more common white or brown to pink or speckled blue-green. In general, chicken breeds with white ear lobes lay white eggs, whereas chickens with red ear lobes lay brown eggs. Although there is no significant link between shell color and nutritional value, there is often a cultural preference for one color over another (see 'Production issues', below). White is the common name for the clear liquid (also called the albumen or the glair/glaire) contained within an egg. In chickens it is formed from the layers of secretions of the anterior section of the hen's oviduct during the passage of the egg. It forms around either fertilized or unfertilized yolks. The primary natural purpose of egg white is to protect the yolk and provide additional nutrition for the growth of the embryo. Egg white consists primarily of about 90% water into which is dissolved 10% proteins (including albumins, mucoproteins, and globulins). Unlike the yolk, which is high in lipids (fats), egg white contains almost no fat, and the carbohydrate content is less than 1%. Egg white has many uses in food, and many others, including the preparation of vaccines such as those for influenza. The yolk in a newly laid egg is round and firm. As the yolk ages, it absorbs water from the albumen, which increases its size and causes it to stretch and weaken the vitelline membrane (the clear casing enclosing the yolk). The resulting effect is a flattened and enlarged yolk shape. Yolk color is dependent on the diet of the hen; if the diet contains yellow/orange plant pigments known as xanthophylls, then they are deposited in the yolk, coloring it. Lutein is the most abundant pigment in egg yolk. A colorless diet can produce an almost colorless yolk. Yolk color is, for example, enhanced if the diet includes products such as yellow corn and marigold petals. In the US, the use of artificial color additives is forbidden. Egg yolk oil or egg oil is used for cosmetics and dermatology. See Double-yolk eggs and Yolkless eggs. More than half the calories found in eggs come from the fat in the yolk; a large (50 gram) chicken egg contains approximately 5 grams of fat. People on a low-cholesterol diet may need to reduce egg consumption; however, only 27% of the fat in egg is saturated fat (palmitic, stearic and myristic acids) that contains LDL cholesterol. The egg white consists primarily of water (87%) and protein (13%) and contains no cholesterol and little, if any, fat. There is debate over whether egg yolk presents a health risk. Some research suggests dietary cholesterol increases the ratio of total to HDL cholesterol and, therefore, adversely affects the body's cholesterol profile; whereas other studies show that moderate consumption of eggs, up to one a day, does not appear to increase heart disease risk in healthy individuals. Harold McGee argues that the cholesterol in the yolk is not what causes a problem, because fat (in particular, saturated) is much more likely to raise cholesterol levels than the actual consumption of cholesterol. A 2007 study of nearly 10,000 adults demonstrated no correlation between moderate (six per week) egg consumption and cardiovascular disease or strokes, except in the subpopulation of diabetic patients who presented an increased risk of coronary heart disease. One potential alternative explanation for the null finding is that background dietary cholesterol may be so high in the usual Western diet that adding somewhat more has little further effect on blood cholesterol. In a randomized trial, Sacks et al. found that adding one egg per day to the usual diet of 17 lactovegetarians whose habitual cholesterol intake was very low (97 mg/day) significantly increased LDL cholesterol level by 12%. Other research supports the idea that a high egg intake increases cardiovascular risk in diabetic patients. A 2009 prospective cohort study of over 21,000 individuals suggests that "egg consumption up to 6/week has no major effect on the risk of CVD and mortality and that consumption of 7+/week is associated with a modest increased risk of total mortality" in males, whereas among males with diabetes, "any egg consumption is associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality and there was suggestive evidence for an increased risk of MI and stroke". A meta-analysis published in the British Medical Journal in 2013 found no association between egg consumption and heart disease or stroke. Studies have shown conflicting results about a possible connection between egg consumption and type two diabetes. A 1999 prospective study of over 117,000 people by the Harvard School of Public Health concluded, in part, that "The apparent increased risk of CHD associated with higher egg consumption among diabetic participants warrants further research." A 2008 study by the Physicians' Health Study I (1982–2007) and the Women's Health Study (1992–2007) determined the “data suggest that high levels of egg consumption (daily) are associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes.” However, a study published in 2010 found no link between egg consumption and type 2 diabetes. Eggs are one of the largest sources of phosphatidylcholine (lecithin) in the human diet. A study published in the scientific journal Nature showed that dietary phosphatidylcholine is digested by bacteria in the gut and eventually converted into the compound TMAO, a compound linked with increased heart disease. The 1999 Harvard School of Public Health study of 37,851 men and 80,082 women concluded that its "findings suggest that consumption of up to 1 egg per day is unlikely to have substantial overall impact on the risk of CHD or stroke among healthy men and women." However, in a study of 4,000 people published in the New England Journal of Medicine, scientists found that eating eggs lead to significantly increased levels of TMAO in the blood of study participants and that this in turn led to significantly higher risk of heart attack and stroke after three years of follow-up. A health issue associated with eggs is contamination by pathogenic bacteria, such as Salmonella enteritidis. Contamination of eggs exiting a female bird via the cloaca may also occur with other members of the Salmonella genus, so care must be taken to prevent the egg shell from becoming contaminated with fecal matter. In commercial practice in the US, eggs are quickly washed with a sanitizing solution within minutes of being laid. The risk of infection from raw or undercooked eggs is dependent in part upon the sanitary conditions under which the hens are kept. Health experts advise people to refrigerate washed eggs, use them within two weeks, cook them thoroughly, and never consume raw eggs. As with meat, containers and surfaces that have been used to process raw eggs should not come in contact with ready-to-eat food. A study by the U.S. Department of Agriculture in 2002 (Risk Analysis April 2002 22(2):203-18) suggests the problem is not as prevalent as once thought. It showed that of the 69 billion eggs produced annually, only 2.3 million are contaminated with Salmonella—equivalent to just one in every 30,000 eggs—thus showing Salmonella infection is quite rarely induced by eggs. However, this has not been the case in other countries, where Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium infections due to egg consumptions are major concerns. Egg shells act as hermetic seals that guard against bacteria entering, but this seal can be broken through improper handling or if laid by unhealthy chickens. Most forms of contamination enter through such weaknesses in the shell. In the UK, the British Egg Industry Council award the lions stamp to eggs that, among other things, come from hens that have been vaccinated against Salmonella. One of the most common food allergies in infants is eggs. Infants usually have the opportunity to grow out of this allergy during childhood, if exposure is minimized. Allergic reactions against egg white are more common than reactions against egg yolks. In addition to true allergic reactions, some people experience a food intolerance to egg whites. Food labeling practices in most developed countries now include eggs, egg products and the processing of foods on equipment that also process foods containing eggs in a special allergen alert section of the ingredients on the labels. Most commercially farmed chicken eggs intended for human consumption are unfertilized, since the laying hens are kept without roosters. Fertile eggs can be eaten, with little nutritional difference to the unfertilized. Fertile eggs will not contain a developed embryo, as refrigeration temperatures inhibit cellular growth for an extended time. Sometimes an embryo is allowed to develop but eaten before hatching as with balut. The US Department of Agriculture grades eggs by the interior quality of the egg (see Haugh unit) and the appearance and condition of the egg shell. Eggs of any quality grade may differ in weight (size). In Australia and the European Union, eggs are graded by the hen farming method, free range, battery caged, etc. Chicken eggs are also graded by size for the purpose of sales. Although egg color is a largely cosmetic issue, with no effect on egg quality or taste, it is a major issue in production due to regional and national preferences for specific colors, and the results of such preferences on demand. For example, in most regions of the United States, chicken eggs are generally white. In some parts of the northeast of that country, particularly New England, where a television jingle for years proclaimed "brown eggs are local eggs, and local eggs are fresh!", brown eggs are more common. Local chicken breeds, including the Rhode Island Red, lay brown eggs. Brown eggs are also preferred in Costa Rica, Ireland, France, and the United Kingdom. In Brazil and Poland, white chicken eggs are generally regarded as industrial, and brown or reddish ones are preferred. Small farms and smallholdings, particularly in economically advanced nations, may sell eggs of widely varying colors and sizes, with combinations of white, brown, speckled (red), green, and blue eggs in the same box or carton, while the supermarkets at the same time sell mostly eggs from the larger producers, of the color preferred in that nation or region. These cultural trends have been observed for many years. The New York Times reported during the Second World War that housewives in Boston preferred brown eggs and those in New York preferred white eggs. In February 1976, the British New Scientist magazine, in discussing issues of chicken egg color, stated "Housewives are particularly fussy about the colour of their eggs, preferring even to pay more for brown eggs although white eggs are just as good". As a result of these trends, brown eggs are usually more expensive to purchase in regions where white eggs are considered 'normal', due to lower production. In France and the United Kingdom it is very difficult to buy white eggs, with most supermarkets supplying only the more popular brown eggs. By direct contrast, in Egypt it is very hard to source brown eggs, as demand is almost entirely for white ones, with the country's largest supplier describing white eggs as "table eggs" and packaging brown eggs for export. Research conducted in France in the 1970s demonstrated blue chicken eggs (as laid by certain breeds, including araucanas, heritage skyline, and cream legbar) can be stronger and more resilient to breakage, yet an article in New Scientist magazine (contemporary with that research) stated there was little to no demand for blue-colored eggs from housewives, despite the clear advantages. Research at Nihon University, Japan in 1990 revealed a number of different issues were important to Japanese housewives when deciding which eggs to buy; however, color was a distinct factor, with most Japanese housewives preferring the white color. Egg producers carefully consider cultural issues, as well as commercial ones, when selecting the breed or breeds of chicken used for production, as egg color varies between breeds. Among producers and breeders, brown eggs are often referred to as "tinted", while the speckled eggs preferred by some consumers are often referred to as being "red" in color. Commercial factory farming operations often involve raising the hens in small, crowded cages, preventing the chickens from engaging in natural behaviors, such as wing-flapping, dust-bathing, scratching, pecking, perching and nest-building. Such restrictions can lead to pacing and escape behavior. Many hens confined to battery cages, and some raised in cage-free conditions, are debeaked to prevent harming each other and cannibalism. According to critics of the practice, this can cause hens severe pain to the point where some may refuse to eat and starve to death. Some hens may be force molted to increase egg quality and production level after the molting. Molting can be induced by extended feed withdrawal, water withdrawal or controlled lighting programs. Laying hens are often slaughtered between 100 and 130 weeks of age, when their egg productivity starts to decline. Due to modern selective breeding, laying hen strains differ from meat production strains. As male birds of the laying strain do not lay eggs and are not suitable for meat production, they are generally killed soon after they hatch. Free-range eggs are considered by some advocates to be an acceptable substitute to factory-farmed eggs. Free-range laying hens are given outdoor access instead of being contained in crowded cages. Questions on the actual living conditions of free-range hens have been raised in the United States of America, as there is no legal definition or regulations for eggs labeled as free-range in that country. In the United States, increased public concern for animal welfare has pushed various egg producers to promote eggs under a variety of standards. The most widespread standard in use is determined by United Egg Producers through their voluntary program of certification. The United Egg Producers program includes guidelines regarding housing, food, water, air, living space, beak trimming, molting, handling, and transportation, however, opponents such as The Humane Society have alleged UEP Certification is misleading and allows a significant amount of unchecked animal cruelty. Other standards include "Cage Free", "Natural", "Certified Humane", and "Certified Organic". Of these standards, "Certified Humane", which carries requirements for stocking density and cage-free keeping and so on, and "Certified Organic", which requires hens to have outdoor access and be fed only organic vegetarian feed and so on, are the most stringent. Effective 1 January 2012, the European Union banned conventional battery cages for egg-laying hens, as outlined in EU Directive 1999/74/EC. The EU permits the use of "enriched" furnished cages that must meet certain space and amenity requirements. Egg producers in many member states have objected to the new quality standards while in some countries even furnished cages and family cages are subject to be banned as well. The production standard of the eggs is visible on the mandatory egg marking where the EU egg code begins with 3 for caged chicken to 1 for free-range eggs and 0 for organic egg production. In battery cage and free-range egg production, unwanted male chicks are killed at birth during the process of securing a further generation of egg-laying hens. A popular Easter tradition in some parts of the world is the decoration of hard-boiled eggs (usually by dyeing, but often by spray-painting). Adults often hide the eggs for children to find, an activity known as an Easter egg hunt. A similar tradition of egg painting exists in areas of the world influenced by the culture of Persia. Before the spring equinox in the Persian New Year tradition (called Norouz), each family member decorates a hard-boiled egg and sets them together in a bowl. The tradition of a dancing egg is held during the feast of Corpus Christi in Barcelona and other Catalan cities since the 16th century. It consists of an emptied egg, positioned over the water jet from a fountain, which starts turning without falling. Although a food item, eggs are sometimes thrown at houses, cars, or people. This act, known commonly as "egging" in the various English-speaking countries, is a minor form of vandalism and, therefore, usually a criminal offense and is capable of damaging property (egg whites can degrade certain types of vehicle paint) as well as causing serious eye injury. On Halloween, for example, trick or treaters have been known to throw eggs (and sometimes flour) at property or people from whom they received nothing. Eggs are also often thrown in protests, as they are inexpensive and nonlethal, yet very messy when broken.

A steak (from Old Norse steik, "roast") is generally a cut of beef sliced perpendicular to the muscle fibers, or of fish cut perpendicular to the spine. Meat steaks are usually grilled, pan-fried, or broiled, while fish steaks may also be baked. Steak can also be meat cooked in sauce, such as steak and kidney pie, or minced meat formed into a steak shape, such as Salisbury steak and hamburger steak. Without qualification, the word "steak" generally refers to beefsteak. Steaks from other animals are usually qualified as, e.g., 'swordfish steak' or 'venison steak'. The more tender cuts of beef, from the loin and rib, are cooked quickly, using dry heat, and served whole. Less tender cuts from the chuck or round are cooked with moist heat or are mechanically tenderized (e.g. cube steak). Steak can be cooked to a level of very rare (bleu, a cold raw center), rare, medium rare, medium, medium well done, or well done. Beef, unlike certain other meats, does not need to be cooked through. Food-borne human illnesses are not normally found within a beef steak, though surfaces can potentially be contaminated from handling, and thus, very rare steak (seared on the outside and raw within) is generally accepted as safe. A rib steak is a beef steak sliced from the rib primal of a beef animal, with rib bone attached. In the United States, the term rib eye steak is used for a rib steak with the bone removed; however in some areas, and outside the U.S., the terms are often used interchangeably. The rib eye or "ribeye" was originally, as the name implies, the center best portion of the rib steak, without the bone. For fish, steaks are cut perpendicular to the spine and include bones. In North America, fish usually cooked as steaks include swordfish, halibut, and tuna. Other fish often cooked as steaks include salmon and mahi-mahi, though they are also frequently cooked as fillets or whole. Unlike beefsteaks, fish steaks are often baked in sauce.

Beef is the culinary name for meat from bovines, especially cattle. Beef can be harvested from cows, bulls, heifers or steers. Beef muscle meat can be cut into steak, roasts or short ribs. Some cuts are processed (corned beef or beef jerky), and trimmings, usually mixed with meat from older, leaner cattle, are ground, minced or used in sausages. The blood is used in some varieties of blood sausage. Other parts that are eaten include the oxtail, liver, tongue, tripe from the reticulum or rumen, glands (particularly the pancreas and thymus, referred to as sweetbread), the heart, the brain (although forbidden where there is a danger of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, BSE), the liver, the kidneys, and the tender testicles of the bull (known in the US as calf fries, prairie oysters, or Rocky Mountain oysters). Some intestines are cooked and eaten as-is, but are more often cleaned and used as natural sausage casings. The bones are used for making beef stock. Beef from steers and heifers is very similar, (all treatments being equal), except steers have slightly less fat and more muscle. Depending on economics, the number of heifers kept for breeding varies. Older animals are used for beef when they are past their reproductive prime. The meat from older cows and bulls is usually tougher, so it is frequently used for mince (UK)/ground beef (US). Cattle raised for beef may be allowed to roam free on grasslands, or may be confined at some stage in pens as part of a large feeding operation called a feedlot (or concentrated animal feeding operation), where they are usually fed a ration of grain, protein, roughage and a vitamin/mineral preblend. Beef is the third most widely consumed meat in the world, accounting for about 25% of meat production worldwide, after pork and poultry at 38% and 30% respectively. In absolute numbers, the United States, Brazil, and the People's Republic of China are the world's three largest consumers of beef. On a per capita basis in 2009, Argentines ate the most beef at 64.6 kg per person; people in the US ate 40.2 kg, while those in the EU ate 16.9 kg. The world's largest exporters of beef are India, Brazil, Australia and the United States. Beef production is also important to the economies of Paraguay, Argentina, Ireland, Mexico, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Russia, and Uruguay. The word beef is from the Latin bōs, in contrast to cow, which is from Middle English "cou" (both words have the same Indo-European root ). After the Norman Conquest, the French-speaking nobles who ruled England naturally used French words to refer to the meats they were served. Thus various Anglo-Saxon words were used for the animal (such as nēat, or cu for adult females) by the peasants, but the meat was called boef (ox) (Modern French bœuf) by the French nobles —who did not often deal with the live animal— when it was served to them. This is one example of the common English dichotomy between the words for animals (with largely Germanic origins) and their meat (with Romanic origins) that is also found in such English word-pairs as pig/pork, sheep/mutton and chicken/poultry. Beef is cognate with bovine through the Late Latin bovīnus. People have eaten the flesh of bovines from prehistoric times; some of the earliest known cave paintings, such as those of Lascaux show aurochs in hunting scenes. People domesticated cattle around 8000 BC to provide ready access to beef, milk, and leather. Most cattle originated in the Old World, with the exception of bison hybrids. Examples include the Wagyū from Japan, Ankole-Watusi from Egypt, and longhorn Zebu from the Indian subcontinent. It is unknown exactly when people started cooking beef. Cattle were widely used across the Old World as draft animals (oxen), for milk, or specifically for meat. With mechanization of farming, some breeds were specifically bred to increase meat yield, resulting in Chianina and Charolais, or to improve texture, as the Murray Grey, Angus or Wagyū. Some breeds have been selected for both meat and milk production, e.g. Brown Swiss (Braunvieh). Beef is first divided into primal cuts, pieces of meat initially separated from the carcass during butchering. These are basic sections from which steaks and other subdivisions are cut. The term "primal cut" is quite different from "prime cut", used to characterise cuts considered to be of higher quality. Since the animal's legs and neck muscles do the most work, they are the toughest; the meat becomes more tender as distance from hoof and horn increases. Different countries and cuisines have different cuts and names, and sometimes use the same name for a different cut; e.g., the cut described as "brisket" in the US is from a significantly different part of the carcass than British brisket. In the United States, the USDA Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) operates a voluntary beef grading program. The meat processor pays for a trained AMS meat grader to grade whole carcasses at the abattoir. Users are required to comply with Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) grade labeling procedures. The official USDA grade designation can appear in one or any combination of the following ways: container markings, individual bags, legible roller brand appearing on the meat itself, or by a USDA shield stamp that incorporates the quality and/or yield grade. There are eight beef quality grades. The grades are based on two main criteria: the degree of marbling (intramuscular fat) in the beef, and the maturity (estimated age of the animal at slaughter). Some meat scientists][ object to the current scheme of USDA grading since it is not based on direct measurement of tenderness, although marbling and maturity are indicators of tenderness. Most other countries' beef grading systems mirror the US model. Most beef offered for sale in supermarkets is graded US Choice or Select. US Prime beef is sold to hotels and upscale restaurants, and usually marketed as such. Beef that would rate as US Standard or less is almost never offered for grading. Utility, Cutter, and Canner grade are rarely used in foodservice operations and primarily used by processors and canners. Beef grading service began in 1917 as a way to determine both the quality and the quantity of beef that would come from each carcass. Stamping the grades began in May 1927. Each carcass can be stamped with a yield or quality stamp, or a combination of both. The standards have been revised many times since the original standards were formulated. A few notable changes include combining Prime and choice grades into Prime, and changing the Good grade to choice, this change occurred in 1950. In 1980 conditions were set forth to establish guidance on grading protocol. This included a 10 minute bloom time before the grader evaluates the carcass. Most beef plants will allow a longer time for bloom depending on the speed of the grading chain. In 1997, the official standards were revised to restrict the Select grade to A maturity carcasses, and to raise the minimum marbling score to qualify for Choice to modest for B maturity cattle. These changes were implemented to improve the uniformity and consistency of the grading system. Yield grades are intended to estimate the pounds of boneless closely trimmed retail cuts from the carcass. Closely trimmed refers to approximately ¼ inch of external fat. The yield grade is determined by considering 4 carcass characteristics: external fat, Kidney Pelvic and heart fat, Ribeye area, and Hot carcass weight. The amount of external fat is measured at the ribbed surface between the 12th-13th ribs. The ribbing of carcasses is described in the US standards for beef grading. External fat is measured at a distance of ¾ the length of the ribeye from the chine bone end. This initial number can be adjusted up or down depending on any abnormal fat deposits. As the amount of external fat increases, the percent of retail cuts decreases. Kidney fat is measured subjectively and is expressed as a percentage of the carcass weight. As the percentage of KPH increases, the percent of retail cuts decreases. The ribeye area is measured at the ribbed surface, it can be estimated subjectively or measured with a device approved by the AMS. As ribeye area increase, percent retail cuts increases. Hot carcass weight is used to determine yield grade. As carcass weight increases, percent retail cuts decrease. The following equation is used to determine yield grade: There are five grades, 1-5. Yield grade one carcasses are of the highest cutability, while yield grade 5 yields the lowest cutability. Beef sold in US restaurants and supermarkets is usually described by its USDA grade; however, in the early twentyfirst century many restaurants and retailers began selling beef on the strength of brand names and the reputation of a specific breed of cattle, such as black Angus. To improve tenderness of beef, it often is aged (i.e., stored refrigerated) to allow endogenous proteolytic enzymes to weaken structural and myofibrillar proteins. Wet aging is accomplished using vacuum packaging to reduce spoilage and yield loss. Dry aging involves hanging primals (usually ribs or loins) in humidity-controlled coolers. Outer surfaces dry out and can support growth of molds (and spoilage bacteria, if too humid), resulting in trim and evaporative losses. Evaporation concentrates the remaining proteins and increases flavor intensity; the molds can contribute a nut-like flavor. After two to three days there are significant effects. The majority of the tenderizing effect occurs in the first 10 days. Boxed beef, stored and distributed in vacuum packaging, is, in effect, wet aged during distribution. Premium steakhouses dry age for 21 to 28 days or wet age up to 45 days for maximum effect on flavor and tenderness. Meat from less tender cuts or older cattle can be mechanically tenderized by forcing small, sharp blades through the cuts to disrupt the proteins. Also, solutions of exogenous proteolytic enzymes (papain, bromelin or ficin) can be injected to augment the endogenous enzymes. Similarly, solutions of salt and sodium phosphates can be injected to soften and swell the myofibrillar proteins. This improves juiciness and tenderness. Salt can improve the flavor, but phosphate can contribute a soapy flavor. These methods are applicable to all types of meat and some other foodstuffs. Beef can be cooked to various degrees, from very rare to well done. The degree of cooking corresponds to the temperature in the approximate center of the meat, which can be measured with a meat thermometer. Beef can be cooked using the sous vide method, which cooks the entire steak to the same temperature, but when cooked using a method such as broiling or roasting it is typically cooked such that it has a "bulls eye" of doneness, with the least done (coolest) at the center and the most done (warmest) at the outside. While searing and the Maillard Reaction are important to the final flavor of a piece of beef, the degree of doneness is also important. A chef can judge the degree of doneness of steak using the finger touch test, without a meat thermometer. Temperature ranges can be found at Temperature (meat). Meat can be cooked in boiling oil, typically by shallow frying, although deep frying may be used, often for meat enrobed with breadcrumbs as in milanesas. Larger pieces such as steaks may be cooked this way, or meat may be cut smaller as in stir frying, typically an Asian way of cooking: cooking oil with flavourings such as garlic, ginger and onions is put in a very hot wok. Then small pieces of meat are added, followed by ingredients which cook more quickly, such as mixed vegetables. The dish is ready when the ingredients are 'just cooked'. Moist heat cooking methods include braising, pot roasting, stewing and sous vide. These techniques are often used for cuts of beef that are tougher, as these longer, lower-temperature cooking methods have time to dissolve connecting tissue which otherwise makes meat remain tough after cooking. Meat has usually been cooked in water which is just simmering, such as in stewing; higher temperatures make meat tougher by causing the proteins to contract. Since thermostatic temperature control became available, cooking at temperatures well below boiling, (sous-vide) to (slow cooking), for prolonged periods has become possible; this is just hot enough to convert the tough collagen in connective tissue into gelatin through hydrolysis, with minimal toughening. With the adequate combination of temperature and cooking time, pathogens, such as bacteria will be killed, and Pasteurization can be achieved. Because browning (Maillard reactions) can only occur at higher temperatures (above the boiling point of water), these moist techniques do not develop the flavors associated with browning. Meat will often undergo searing in a very hot pan, grilling or browning with a torch before moist cooking (though sometimes after). Thermostatically controlled methods, such as sous-vide, can also prevent overcooking by bringing the meat to the exact degree of doneness desired, and holding it at that temperature indefinitely. The combination of precise temperature control and long cooking duration makes it possible to be assured that Pasteurization has been achieved, both on the surface and the interior of even very thick cuts of meat, which can not be assured with most other cooking techniques. (Although extremely long-duration cooking can break down the texture of the meat to an undesirable degree.) Beef can be cooked quickly at the table through several techniques. In hot pot cooking, such as shabu-shabu, very thinly sliced meat is cooked by the diners at the table by immersing it in a heated pot of water or stock with vegetables. In fondue bourguignonne, diners dip small pieces of beef into a pot of hot oil at the table. Both techniques typically feature accompanying flavorful sauces to complement the meat. Steak tartare is a French dish made from finely chopped or ground (minced) raw meat (often beef). More accurately, it is scraped so as not to let even the slightest of the sinew fat get into the scraped meat. It is often served with onions, capers, seasonings such as fresh ground pepper and Worcestershire sauce, and sometimes raw egg yolk. The Belgian dish filet américain is also made of finely chopped ground beef, though it is seasoned differently, and either eaten as a main dish or can be used as a dressing for a sandwich. Kibbeh nayyeh is a similar Lebanese dish. And in Ethiopia, a ground raw meat dish called tire siga or kitfo is eaten (upon availability). Carpaccio of beef is a thin slice of raw beef dressed with olive oil, lemon juice and seasoning. Often, the beef is partially frozen before slicing to allow very thin slices to be cut. Yukhoe is a variety of hoe, raw dishes in Korean cuisine which is usually made from raw ground beef seasoned with various spices or sauces. The beef part used for yukhoe is tender rump steak. For the seasoning, soy sauce, sugar, salt, sesame oil, green onion, and ground garlic, sesame seed, black pepper and juice of bae (Korean pear) are used. The beef is mostly topped with the yolk of a raw egg. Bresaola is an air-dried, salted beef that has been aged about two to three months until it becomes hard and a dark red, almost purple, colour. It is lean, has a sweet, musty smell and is tender. It originated in Valtellina, a valley in the Alps of northern Italy's Lombardy region. Bündnerfleisch is a similar product from neighbouring Switzerland. Beef jerky is dried, salted, smoked beef popular in the United States. Biltong is a cured, salted, air dried beef popular in South Africa. Pastrami is often made from beef; raw beef is salted, then partly dried and seasoned with various herbs and spices, and smoked. Corned beef is a cut of beef cured or pickled in a seasoned brine. The corn in corned beef refers to the grains of coarse salts (known as corns) used to cure it. The term corned beef can denote different styles of brine-cured beef, depending on the region. Some, like American-style corned beef, are highly seasoned and often considered delicatessen fare. Spiced beef is a cured and salted joint of round, topside, or silverside, traditionally served at Christmas in Ireland. It is a form of salt beef, cured with spices and saltpetre, intended to be boiled or broiled in Guinness or a similar stout, and then optionally roasted for a period after. There are various other recipes for pickled beef. Sauerbraten is a German variant. Hindus consider killing cattle and eating beef a sin, and Jains are forbidden to eat any kind of meat. Similarly, Vaishnavism considers eating meat to be an act against the virtue of mercy and compassion towards animals, and hence strictly prohibits eating meat of any kind. Killing of cows and bulls (including calves) is considered to be an extremely great sin by Vaishnavism. Bovines have been highly revered as sacred to mankind in Indian culture][ due to the critical role of cattle, especially cows, as a source of milk, and dairy products, and their relative importance to the pastoral Vedic people allowed this special status; and this rose to prominence with the advent of the Jain tradition and Hindu Golden-age during the Gupta period. The slaughter of cattle has been likened to the matricide in these cultures, due to the idealisation of the cow providing milk and sustenance for society. Cow slaughter is currently banned in many states - Gujarat passed the Animal Preservation Act in October 2011 that prohibits killing of cows along with buying, selling and transport of beef. Orissa and Andhra Pradesh states allow butchering of cattle other than cows if the animal carries a "fit-for-slaughter" certificate. But in West Bengal, Kerala, Goa etc. consumption of beef is not deemed an offence. Kerala and Goa have a considerable number of Christians who consume beef. In Kerala, beef is either curried or made as a stir fry called beef fry. During the season of Lent, Catholics traditionally give up all meat and poultry as a religious act. Observant Jews and Muslims may not eat any meat or poultry which has not been slaughtered and treated in conformance with religious laws. Beef is an excellent source of complete protein and minerals such as zinc, selenium, phosphorus and iron, and B vitamins. Red meat is the most significant dietary source of carnitine and, like any other meat (pork, fish, veal, lamb etc.), is a source of creatine. Cancer A study released in 2007 by the World Cancer Research Fund reported "strong evidence that red meat [defined as 'beef, pork, lamb, and goat from domesticated animals'] and processed meats are causes of bowel cancer" and recommended that people eat less than 500 grams (18 oz) of cooked red meat weekly, and as little processed meat as possible. The report also recommended that average consumption in populations should not exceed 300 grams (11 oz) per week, stating this goal "corresponds to the level of consumption of red meat at which the risk of colorectal cancer can clearly be seen to rise." Cardiovascular disease and coronary heart disease The Harvard School of Public Health also recommends consumers eat red meat sparingly as it has high levels of undesirable saturated fat. This recommendation is not without controversy, though. Another study from The Harvard School of Public Health appearing in Circulation (journal) found "Consumption of processed meats, but not red meats, is associated with higher incidence of coronary heart disease and diabetes mellitus." This finding tended to confirm an earlier meta-analysis of the nutritional effects of saturated fat in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition which found "[P]rospective epidemiologic studies showed that there is no significant evidence for concluding that dietary saturated fat is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease or cardiovascular disease. More data are needed to elucidate whether cardiovascular disease risks are likely to be influenced by the specific nutrients used to replace saturated fat." Dioxins Some cattle raised in the United States feed on pastures fertilized with sewage sludge. Elevated dioxins may be present in meat from these cattle. Ground beef has been subject to recalls in the United States, due to E. coli contamination: In 1984, the use of meat and bone meal in cattle feed resulted in the world's first outbreak of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or, colloquially, mad cow disease) in the United Kingdom. Since then, other countries have had outbreaks of BSE: In 2010, more than 20 years after the disease emerged, the EU tentatively decided to relax a ban on feeding meat to animals, introduced to prevent the transmission of BSE by that route. Top 10 cattle and beef producing countries Beef production (1000 MT CWE) National cattle herds (1000 Head)

Mayonnaise ( or , French:  ( listen), Quebec French:  ( listen)), often abbreviated as mayo, is a thick, creamy sauce often used as a condiment. Its origin is disputed, but it has the same structure as the "beurre de Provence", published as early as 1642 in La Suite des Dons de Comus, being a kind of aioli. Some authors say that the name originates from Mahon (Spain); in Spanish Mahonesa or Mayonesa, in Catalan Maionesa. It is a stable emulsion of oil, egg yolk and either vinegar or lemon juice, with many options for embellishment with other herbs and spices. Lecithin in the egg yolk is the emulsifier. Mayonnaise varies in color but is often white, cream, or pale yellow. It may range in texture from that of light cream to thick. In countries influenced by French culture, mustard is also a common ingredient, but the addition of mustard turns the sauce into a remoulade with a different flavor and the mustard acts as an additional emulsifier. In Spain and Italy, olive oil is used as the oil and mustard is never included. Numerous other sauces can be created from it with addition of various herbs, spices, and finely chopped pickles. Some sources place the origin of mayonnaise as being the town of Mahon in Menorca (Spain), from where it was taken to France after Armand de Vignerot du Plessis's victory over the British at the city's port in 1756. According to this version, the sauce was originally known as salsa mahonesa in Spanish and maonesa (later maionesa) in Catalan (as it is still known in Menorca), later becoming mayonnaise as it was popularized by the French. The Larousse Gastronomique suggests: "Mayonnaise, in our view, is a popular corruption of moyeunaise, derived from the very old French word moyeu, which means yolk of egg." The sauce may have been christened mayennaise after Charles de Lorraine, duke of Mayenne, because he took the time to finish his meal of chicken with cold sauce before being defeated in the Battle of Arques. Nineteenth-century culinary writer Pierre Lacam suggested that in 1459, a London woman named Annamarie Turcauht stumbled upon this condiment after trying to create a custard of some sort. According to Trutter et al.: "It is highly probable that wherever olive oil existed, a simple preparation of oil and egg came about – particularly in the Mediterranean region, where aioli (oil and garlic) is made." According to the Oxford English Dictionary, mayonnaise was in use in English as early as 1823 in the journal of Lady Blessington. Mayonnaise can be made by hand with a mortar and pestle, whisk or fork, or with the aid of an electric mixer or blender. Mayonnaise is made by slowly adding oil to an egg yolk, while whisking vigorously to disperse the oil. The oil and the water in yolks form a base of the emulsion, while lecithin and protein from the yolks are the emulsifiers that stabilize it. Additionally, a bit of a mustard may also be added to sharpen its taste, and further stabilize the emulsion. Mustard contains small amounts of lecithin. If water is added to the yolk it can emulsify more oil, thus making more mayonnaise. Homemade mayonnaise can approach 85% fat before the emulsion breaks down; commercial mayonnaise is more typically 70-80% fat. "Low fat" mayonnaise products contain starches, cellulose gel, or other ingredients to simulate the texture of real mayonnaise. Commercial producers either pasteurize the yolks, freeze them and substitute water for most of their liquid, or use other emulsifiers. They also typically use soybean oil, for its lower cost, instead of olive oil.][ Some recipes, both commercial and homemade, use the whole egg, including the white. There is no direct translation for the word "mayonnaise" in China. Although readily available in most super-markets, the English label will show the word mayonnaise, but the Chinese label translates as "Thick Yolk Condiment" or "Egg Yolk Sauce" or a variation of that. It is often flavored. In some European countries, especially Belgium and the Netherlands, mayonnaise is often served with , French fries or chipspommes frites. It is also served with cold chicken or hard-boiled eggs in France, Poland, the UK, Benelux, Hungary, Austria, the Baltic States and Eastern Europe. Guidelines issued in September 1991 by Europe's Federation of the Condiment Sauce Industries recommend that oil and liquid egg yolk levels in mayonnaise should be at least 70% and 5% respectively, although this is not legislated. Most available brands easily exceed this target. Commercial mayonnaise sold in jars originated in Philadelphia in 1907 when Amelia Schlorer decided to start selling her own mayonnaise recipe originally used in salads sold in the family grocery store. Mrs. Schlorer's Mayonnaise was an instant success with local customers and eventually grew into the Schlorer Delicatessen Company. Around the same time in New York City, a family from Vetschau, Germany, at Richard Hellmann's delicatessen on Columbus Avenue, featured his wife's homemade recipe in salads sold in their deli. The condiment quickly became so popular that Hellmann began selling it in "wooden boats" that were used for weighing butter. In 1912, Mrs. Hellmann's mayonnaise was mass marketed and later was trademarked in 1926 as Hellmann's Blue Ribbon Mayonnaise. At about the same time that Mrs. Schlorer's and Hellmann's Mayonnaise were thriving on the East Coast of the United States, a California company, Best Foods, introduced their own mayonnaise, which turned out to be very popular in the western United States. In 1932, Best Foods bought the Hellmann's brand. By then, both mayonnaises had such commanding market shares in their own half of the country that it was decided that both brands be preserved. The company is now owned by Unilever. In the Southeastern part of the United States, Mrs. Eugenia Duke of Greenville, South Carolina, founded the Duke Sandwich Company in 1917 to sell sandwiches to soldiers training at nearby Fort Sevier. Her homemade mayonnaise became so popular that her company began to focus exclusively on producing and selling the mayonnaise, eventually selling out to the C.F. Sauer Company of Richmond, Virginia, in 1929. Duke's Mayonnaise remains a popular brand of mayonnaise in the Southeast, although it is not generally available in other markets. In addition to an almost ubiquitous presence in American sandwiches, mayonnaise forms the basis of Northern Alabama's signature White Barbecue sauce. It is also used to add stability to American-style buttercream and occasionally in cakes as well. Japanese mayonnaise is typically made with apple cider vinegar or rice vinegar and a small amount of MSG, which gives it a different flavor from mayonnaise made from distilled vinegar.][ It is most often sold in soft plastic squeeze bottles. Its texture is thinner than most Western commercial mayonnaise.][ Apart from salads, it is popular with dishes such as okonomiyaki, takoyaki and yakisoba and may also accompany katsu and karaage.][ It is sometimes served with cooked vegetables, dabbed on sushi or mixed with soy sauce or wasabi and used as dips. In the Tōkai region, it is a frequent condiment on hiyashi chūka (cold noodle salad). Many fried seafood dishes are served with a side of mayonnaise for dipping. It is also common in Japan to use mayonnaise on pizza. Mayonnaise is also often used for cooking where it can replace butter or oil when frying vegetables or meat.][ Kewpie (Q.P.) is the most popular brand of Japanese mayonnaise,][ advertised with a Kewpie doll logo. It is made with egg yolks instead of whole eggs, and the vinegar is a proprietary blend containing apple and malt vinegars. Mayonnaise is very popular in Russia where it is made with sunflower seed oil which gives it a very distinctive flavor. A 2004 study showed that Russia is the only market in Europe where mayonnaise is sold more than ketchup by volume. It is used as a sauce in the most popular salads in Russia such as Russian Salad [oliv'e] and Dressed Herring and also many others. Leading brands are Calve (marketed by Unilever) and Sloboda (marketed by Efko). Furthermore, in many Eastern European countries (Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, etc.), one can find different commercial flavors of mayonnaise, such as olive, quail-egg, and lemon. Chile is the world's third major per capita consumer of mayonnaise and first in Latin America. Since mayonnaise became widely accessible in the 1980s Chileans have used it on locos, completos, French fries, and on boiled chopped potatoes, a salad commonly known as "papas mayo". Mayonnaise is the base for many other chilled sauces and salad dressings. For example: Commercially made mayonnaise may contain sucrose, high fructose corn syrup, citric acid, thickeners, emulsifiers, EDTA, flavor enhancers, and water. Such mixtures allow for the production of products which are low in fats and/or sugars. Commercial mayonnaise is also readily available without these additional ingredients.][ There are several ways to prepare mayonnaise, but on average mayo is approximately 700 calories (2,900 kJ) per 100 grams of product. This makes mayonnaise a calorically dense food. For people with serious health conditions, where cholesterol is of big concern, or egg allergies, but also for vegans and religious vegetarians, who abstain from egg consumption there are growing numbers of egg-free, mayonnaise-like spreads available. Some egg-free mayonnaise alternatives are also soy-free. A popular substitute for mayonnaise is a mashed avocado with a squeeze of lemon. For example, tuna salads and egg salads are often made using avocado instead of mayonnaise. Notes

Manuel Uribe
Manuel Uribe (born June 11, 1965) is a man from Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico, notable for suffering from morbid obesity to one of the greatest extents known in recorded history. After reaching a peak weight of around 597 kg (1,320 lb) and having been unable to leave his bed since 2001, Uribe lost approximately 181 kg (400 lb) (one third of his body weight) with the help of doctors and nutritionists, and by following the Zone diet. Uribe drew worldwide attention when he appeared on the Televisa television network in January 2006, but turned down offers for gastric bypass surgery in Italy. Uribe has also been featured on The World's Heaviest Man, a television documentary about his bedridden life and attempts to overcome his obesity. By October 26, 2008, Uribe had reduced his weight to 360 kg (790 lb). His efforts to overcome his morbid obesity continue. As of February 2012, he weighs 200 kg (440 lb). Manuel currently resides in San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon. He claims that when he was growing up he was slightly obese but not to a significant extent. It wasn't until his 20s that his obesity sharply increased. In 1987 he got married and moved to the United States for employment opportunities. Manuel started selling tacos on the corner street to support his family. Instead of selling the tacos that his wife made, Manuel ate them. Manuel and his wife settled in Dallas, where he was employed fixing typewriters. The nature of this profession required Manuel to spend his day sitting at a desk. He said, "Life in the U.S. is like that. You just go from your desk to your car. I used to drive my car to and from work, so I didn't get any exercise". Manuel Uribe's weight-loss diet consists of 2,000 daily calories, with six meals (egg-white omelets, fresh salads, chicken fajitas, fish fillet in a bed of spring greens). Dr. Barry Sears, who made the diet said: "Manuel's ability to lose more than 800 pounds without resorting to weight loss surgery is a remarkable accomplishment." Uribe, on October 3, 2008, gave diet advice to a fellow Mexican, critically obese and bedridden José Luis Garza, who weighed 450 kg (990 lb). A former chef at a bowling alley, Garza, who was unable to get out of his bed for four months, said: "Manuel inspires me with courage and the will to live. I understand that this is a matter of life and death and that I have to follow the instructions that are given to me." Uribe sent girlfriend Claudia Solís to Garza's home with kiwifruit, grapefruit, pears, and protein supplements, and promised to help Garza get a wheel-equipped iron bed; however, Garza died five days later on the 8th of October, 2008. Manuel has announced plans to launch the Manuel Uribe Foundation to educate Mexican people about nutrition, to combat obesity problems. He reportedly asked Guinness World Records in July 2008 to certify his second title: "The World's Greatest Loser of Weight," although this title would be held by American Jon Brower Minnoch. After four years together, Uribe — who weighed in at 318 kg (700 lb) after shedding 269 kg (590 lb) — on October 26, 2008, married his second wife Claudia from his bed. He said: "I am proof you can find love in any circumstances. It's all a question of faith. I have a wife and will form a new family and live a happy life." He was transported to the civil wedding on his specially-reinforced four-poster bed, draped with cream and gold and adorned in bright sunflowers, on the back of a truck. Donning a white silk shirt with a sheet around his legs, he waited to greet Claudia as she walked down a flight of stairs wearing a strapless ivory dress and a tiara in front of over 400 guests. History TV 18's The World's Heaviest Man Gets Married documentary will be the third TV show featuring Uribe.
Manuel Uribe

Manuel Uribe (born June 11, 1965) is a man from Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico, notable for suffering from morbid obesity to one of the greatest extents known in recorded history. After reaching a peak weight of around 597 kg (1,316 lb) and having been unable to leave his bed since 2001, Uribe lost approximately 181 kg (399 lb) (one third of his body weight) with the help of doctors and nutritionists, and by following the Zone diet. Uribe drew worldwide attention when he appeared on the Televisa television network in January 2006, but turned down offers for gastric bypass surgery in Italy.

Uribe has also been featured on The World's Heaviest Man, a television documentary about his bedridden life and attempts to overcome his obesity. By October 26, 2008, Uribe had reduced his weight to 360 kg (790 lb). His efforts to overcome his morbid obesity continue. As of February 2012, he weighs 200 kg (440 lb).

Manuel Uribe (born June 11, 1965) is a man from Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico, notable for suffering from morbid obesity to one of the greatest extents known in recorded history. After reaching a peak weight of around 597 kg (1,316 lb) and having been unable to leave his bed since 2001, Uribe lost approximately 181 kg (399 lb) (one third of his body weight) with the help of doctors and nutritionists, and by following the Zone diet. Uribe drew worldwide attention when he appeared on the Televisa television network in January 2006, but turned down offers for gastric bypass surgery in Italy.

Uribe has also been featured on The World's Heaviest Man, a television documentary about his bedridden life and attempts to overcome his obesity. By October 26, 2008, Uribe had reduced his weight to 360 kg (790 lb). His efforts to overcome his morbid obesity continue. As of February 2012, he weighs 200 kg (440 lb).

Manuel Uribe

Manuel Uribe (born June 11, 1965) is a man from Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico, notable for suffering from morbid obesity to one of the greatest extents known in recorded history. After reaching a peak weight of around 597 kg (1,316 lb) and having been unable to leave his bed since 2001, Uribe lost approximately 181 kg (399 lb) (one third of his body weight) with the help of doctors and nutritionists, and by following the Zone diet. Uribe drew worldwide attention when he appeared on the Televisa television network in January 2006, but turned down offers for gastric bypass surgery in Italy.

Uribe has also been featured on The World's Heaviest Man, a television documentary about his bedridden life and attempts to overcome his obesity. By October 26, 2008, Uribe had reduced his weight to 360 kg (790 lb). His efforts to overcome his morbid obesity continue. As of February 2012, he weighs 200 kg (440 lb).

Food and drink

Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals. The substance is ingested by an organism and assimilated by the organism's cells in an effort to produce energy, maintain life, or stimulate growth.

Historically, people secured food through two methods: hunting and gathering, and agriculture. Today, most of the food energy consumed by the world population is supplied by the food industry.

The Zone diet is a diet popularized in books by biochemist Barry Sears. It advocates consuming calories from carbohydrates, protein, and fat in a balanced ratio.

The diet centers on a "40:30:30" ratio of calories obtained daily from carbohydrates, proteins, and fats, respectively.]citation needed[

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