Polynesian culture refers to the indigenous peoples' culture of Polynesia who share common traits in language, customs and society. Chronologically, the development of Polynesian culture can be divided into four different historical eras:
Recent maternal mitochondrial DNA analysis suggests that Polynesians, including Samoans, Tongans, Niueans, Cook Islanders, Tahitians, Hawaiians, Marquesans and Māori, are genetically linked to indigenous peoples of parts of Southeast Asia including those of Taiwanese aborigines. This DNA evidence is supported by linguistic and archaeological evidence. Recent studies into paternal Y chromosome analysis shows that Polynesians are also genetically linked to peoples of Melanesia. However the "out of Taiwan model" has been recently challenged by a study from Leeds University and published in Molecular Biology and Evolution. Examination of mitochondrial DNA lineages shows that they have been evolving within Island Southeast Asia (ISEA) for a longer period than previously believed. Polynesians arrived in the Bismarck Archipelago of Papua New Guinea at least 6,000 to 8,000 years ago and modern Polynesians are the result of a few Austronesian seafarers mixing with Melanesians. The population migrations were most likely to have been driven by climate change — the effects of the drowning of a huge ancient peninsula called ‘Sundaland’ (that extended the Asian landmass as far as Borneo and Java). This happened during the period 15,000 to 7,000 years ago following the last Ice Age. Oppenheimer outlines how rising sea levels in three massive pulses caused flooding and the submergence of the Sunda Peninsula, creating the Java and South China Seas and the thousands of islands that make up Indonesia and the Philippines today.
The Taumafa Kava Ceremony, in Tonga is form of kava ceremony held for a royal death or marriage, bestowing of a noble title or a royal coronation, and always includes the attendance of the King of Tonga. Kava's first use as a drink in Tonga dates back to the reign of the 10th Tuʻi Tonga and to the island of ʻEueiki, near Tongatapu but is now very common in the kingdom, particularly on ceremonial occasions.
This form of installation (fakanofo) prevailed from the Tu'i Tonga down to the lowest Matapule. No chief was to sit in a Kava circle without an attendant matapule. The King, when presiding in the Kava circle is flanked by two matapule. The president of the circle seems always to be the person with the highest rank.
Kava cultures are the religious and cultural traditions of western Oceania which consume kava. There are similarities in the use of kava between the different cultures, but each one also has its own traditions.
In Fiji, kava (also called "grog" or "yaqona") is part of the fabric of life, drunk day or night, at home or in the village hall. The consumption of the drink is a form of welcome and figures in important socio-political events. Both sexes drink kava, with women consuming the beverage more than men. The importance of kava in Fiji is not so much in the physical as it is psychological, serving as a forum where stories are told and jokes exchanged. Part of this communal aspect is its role in conflict resolution, functioning as a peace pipe between quarrelling groups.
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are chemicals which inhibit the activity of the monoamine oxidase enzyme family. They have a long history of use as medications prescribed for the treatment of depression. They are particularly effective in treating atypical depression.]citation needed[ They are also used in the treatment of Parkinson's Disease and several other disorders.
Because of potentially lethal dietary and drug interactions, monoamine oxidase inhibitors have historically been reserved as a last line of treatment, used only when other classes of antidepressant drugs (for example selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and tricyclic antidepressants) have failed. New research into MAOIs indicate that much of the concern over their dangerous dietary side effects stems from misconceptions and misinformation, and that despite proven effectiveness of this class of drugs, it is underutilized and misunderstood in the medical profession. New research also questions the validity of the perceived severity of dietary reactions, which has historically been based on outdated research.