Candidiasis or thrush is a fungal infection (mycosis) of any species from the genus Candida (one genus of yeasts). Candida albicans is the most common agent of Candidiasis in humans. Also commonly referred to as a yeast infection, candidiasis is also technically known as candidosis, moniliasis, and oidiomycosis.
Candidiasis encompasses infections that range from superficial, such as oral thrush and vaginitis, to systemic and potentially life-threatening diseases. Candida infections of the latter category are also referred to as candidemia or invasive candidiasis, and are usually confined to severely immunocompromised persons, such as cancer, transplant, and AIDS patients, as well as nontrauma emergency surgery patients.
Pathogenic fungi are fungi that cause disease in humans or other organisms. The study of pathogenic fungi is referred to as "medical mycology." Although fungi are eukaryotic organisms, many pathogenic fungi are also microorganisms.
Baker's yeast is the common name for the strains of yeast commonly used as a leavening agent in baking bread and bakery products, where it converts the fermentable sugars present in the dough into carbon dioxide and ethanol. Baker's yeast is of the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is the same species (but a different strain) commonly used in alcoholic fermentation which is called brewer's yeast. Baker's yeast is also a single-celled microorganism found on and around the human body.
The use of steamed or boiled potatoes, water from potato boiling, or sugar in a bread dough provides food for the growth of yeasts; however, too much sugar will dehydrate them. Yeast growth is inhibited by both salt and sugar, but more so with salt than sugar. Fats such as butter or eggs slow down yeast growth; however, others say the effect of fat on dough remains unclear, presenting evidence that small amounts of fat are beneficial for baked bread volume.
A stuck fermentation occurs in brewing beer or winemaking when the yeast become dormant before the fermentation has completed. Unlike an "arrested fermentation" where the winemaker intentionally stops fermentation (such as in the production of fortified wines), a stuck fermentation is an unintentional and unwanted occurrence that can lead to the wine being spoiled by bacteria and oxidation. There are several potential causes of a stuck fermentation-the most common are excessive temperatures killing off the yeast or a must deficient in the nitrogen food source needed for the yeast to the thrive. Once the fermentation is stuck, it is very difficult to restart due to a chemical compound released by dying yeast cells that inhibit the future growth of yeast cells in the batch. At the winery winemakers take several steps to limit the possibility of a stuck fermentation occurring, such as adding nitrogen to the must in the form diammonium phosphate or using cultured yeast with a high temperature and alcohol tolerance. These steps that winemakers may take to prevent a stuck fermentation will each have their own subtle or dramatic effect on the resulting flavors and quality of the wine.
There are several potential instigators of a stuck fermentation. One of the most common found in winemaking is a nitrogen deficient must. Nitrogen is a vital nutrient in the growth and development of yeasts and is usually provided from the wine grapes themselves. Grapes grown in vineyards with soils lacking in nitrogen or grape varieties, such as Chardonnay and Riesling, which are naturally prone to have low nitrogen to sugar ratios will be at greater risk for having a stuck fermentation. Another cause rooted in the vineyard is from overripe grapes. Grapes that are overripe will have high levels of sugars that translates into higher alcohol content. Yeast are unable to reproduce in an environment with 16-18% ABV but in an environment with multiple stressors the fermentation could get stuck even before the alcohol level reaches that point.
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals. The substance is ingested by an organism and assimilated by the organism's cells in an effort to produce energy, maintain life, or stimulate growth.
Historically, people secured food through two methods: hunting and gathering, and agriculture. Today, most of the food energy consumed by the world population is supplied by the food industry.