Yes, Callaway Gardens is open tonight. In addition to their regular activities they will be serving a Thanksgiving dinner too.
Fuller Earle Callaway
Georgia gubernatorial election, 1966
Fuller Earle Callaway, Sr. (1870-1928) was an American textile manufacturer who was regarded as one of the leading industrial magnates of the Southern United States during the first decades of the 20th Century.
Fuller E. Callaway was born in the town of LaGrange in Troup County, Georgia, in July 1870, the son of a second generation Baptist minister. Callaway's mother, the former Sarah Jane Howard, died when Fuller was just 8 years old.
Entrepreneurial in spirit from his youth, at age 18 Callaway made use of $500 he had saved in addition to borrowed starting capital and launched a dime store in his native LaGrange, following the business model established by F.W. Woolworth & Co. Callaway's venture proved successful and after expansion the Callaway Department Store became the largest such firm in LaGrange and the flagship of a small regional chain.
Callaway's success as a dry goods merchant provided him with capital of his own and in 1895 he invested in LaGrange's first modern textile manufacturing facility, Dixie Mills. Callaway later recalled:
"“It was like the measles in the South in those days. Every town wanted to build a cotton mill.... We did not have much of anything, but we got up a cotton mill; and auctioned off the directorships. Anybody that would take $5,000 worth of stock, we would make a director; and if a widow with a son had $2,000, we would make the son a bookkeeper.... A good many of the laborers took stock in it. We had a great many poor white people with the highest type of morality and religion. They could not produce cotton at five cents a pound against the negro; and these men began to move to town as cotton mill operatives."
Although originally run with managers brought to the South from New England, investors soon prevailed upon Callaway to take over the active management of the facility himself. The operation was put onto a sound footing and Callaway cashed out his stock in the operation, determined to leave the textile business.
This decision proved to be short-lived, however, and in 1901 Callaway was a leading investor in a new facility, Unity Mills. Callaway worked as secretary-treasurer of the company, later known as Kex Plant, and continued to reinvest his profits over the subsequent two decades, opening several other mills within a 100 mile radius of LaGrange.
Callaway subsequently expanded his regional empire into other businesses, helping to launch such firms as the LaGrange National Bank, the LaGrange Savings Bank, Security Warehouse Company, the Callaway Development Company, and the Manchester Development Company.
Callaway served as Railroad Commissioner of Georgia from 1907 to 1909 and was for a time the president of the American Cotton Manufacturers Association.
In 1919 Callaway was named by President Woodrow Wilson as one of 22 members of a blue ribbon Industrial Relations Committee that met in October of that year in a failed attempt to negotiate broad agreement on wages and prices in the rapidly evolving post-World War I American economy.
Fuller E. Callaway, Sr. died in 1928.
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The Georgia gubernatorial election of 1966 was held on November 8. After an election that exposed divisions within the Georgia Democratic Party (giving the Georgia Republican Party a shot at the Governor's Mansion for the first time in the twentieth century), segregationist Democrat Lester Maddox was elected Governor of Georgia by the Georgia General Assembly. The race also brought future President Jimmy Carter to statewide prominence for the first time.
Former Governor Ernest Vandiver was considered the favorite to return to his former job (although governors could not then succeed themselves, they could run again after leaving office), but he dropped out of the race because of health problems. That opened the door for former Governor Ellis Arnall, former Lieutenant Governor Garland T. Byrd, state Senator Jimmy Carter, and two segregationist businessmen, Lester Maddox and James H. Gray, Sr., to run for the Democratic nomination.
James Gray, a Massachusetts native and a newspaper publisher, was a former Georgia Democratic state chairman who defended segregation in his northern accent before the 1960 Democratic National Convention in Los Angeles, California. In the primary race, Maddox had often called upon Gray to leave the race, having said that his opponent was "going down like the Titanic". Gray remained in the race and finished fourth in the primary. He stayed neutral in the Maddox-Arnall runoff election. However, Gray's associate, Roy V. Harris of Augusta, a member of the Georgia State Board of Regents, supported Maddox over Arnall. Gray supporters attempted to entice Maddox to leave the race for a $100,000 payment. Gray denied involvement in the scheme but would not on Maddox's request take a lie detector test.
Arnall won the first primary, but because no candidate received a majority, he and Maddox were forced into a runoff.
Primary (Sept. 13, 1966):
Runoff (Sept. 27, 1966):
State House Speaker George T. Smith was the Democratic nominee for Lieutenant Governor of Georgia, after he defeated incumbent Peter Zack Geer in the primary. He went on to win the general election.
Howard Callaway, also known as "Bo," the first Republican to be elected to the U.S. House of Representatives from Georgia since Reconstruction, was the Republican nominee.
No other Republicans sought down-ballot constitutional offices. State Senator Holden Eugene "Gene" Sanders of DeKalb County, a moderate Republican, sought to run for lieutenant governor, but Callaway said that Sanders did not follow the proper procedures. The GOP strategy was to shun all other statewide races for fear that a full ticket would unify the Democrats. The Atlanta Journal, which ultimately endorsed Callaway, claimed that key Republicans were a clique who hoped to build the party from the governor's office. The Athens Daily News depicted traditional Georgia Republican leaders as "would-be politicians [who viewed the party as] personal property and who made no real effort to expand into a broad-based and effective political organization."
Some people, unhappy with both major nominees, took the "Go Bo" of Callaway's campaign and expanded it to "Go Bo, and take Lester with you". A write-in campaign for Arnall prevented any candidate from winning the majority. Georgia law at the time allowed the Georgia General Assembly to select the governor if no candidate received more than 50 percent of the popular vote. The legislature, dominated by Democrats, selected Maddox, although Callaway received more popular votes.
Howard Hollis Callaway, known as Bo Callaway (born April 2, 1927), is an American businessman and former politician from the states of Georgia and Colorado.
Callaway was born in LaGrange, southwest of the capital city of Atlanta, Georgia, a son of Cason Jewell Callaway, Sr., and grandson of Fuller Earle Callaway. He attended Georgia Tech in Atlanta and graduated from the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York. After his term in the Army ended, Callaway returned to Georgia to help his father develop and run Callaway Gardens in western Georgia near Franklin D. Roosevelt's Warm Springs retreat.
Like most southerners at the time, Callaway grew up as a supporter of the Democratic Party. In 1964, however, he ran as a "Goldwater Republican" for a seat in the House of Representatives from Georgia's 3rd congressional district. He won, having defeated the former lieutenant governor, Garland T. Byrd, 57-43 percent. Callaway thus became the first Republican elected to the U.S. House from Georgia since the Reconstruction era.
Jimmy Carter, the future U.S. President who was then a member of the Georgia State Senate, planned to oppose Callaway for reelection to the U.S. House. However, when Callaway decided to leave the House after a single term to run for governor in 1966, Carter switched races and himself sought the Democratic gubernatorial nomination. Callaway's House colleague, James D. Martin of Alabama, also gave up his seat after a single term to run unsuccessfully for his state's governorship. Martin was defeated by Lurleen Burns Wallace, the stand-in candidate of her husband, George C. Wallace, who sought the U.S. presidency on four occasions.
Callaway and Carter had clashed in 1961 over the location of a four-year state college. Carter wanted the school in Americus; Callaway, a University of Georgia regent preferred Columbus, the site of the Army base Fort Benning. Both cities now have four-year institutions. Callaway and Carter graduated from separate military academies, Callaway at West Point and Carter from the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis, Maryland. Though he had criticized Callaway's use of "God, Country, and Motherhood" as a campaign theme, Carter himself adopted similar platitudes in future races. Carter complained to Eugene Patterson, then editor of the Atlanta Constitution, that the state's largest newspaper was partial to Callaway despite its primary preference for Democratic former Governor Ellis Arnall, rather than Carter, and its then neutrality in the general election. In his memoirs, Carter does not mention Callaway, an associate of U.S. President Gerald R. Ford, Jr., whom Carter unseated in 1976. However, Rosalynn Smith Carter, termed Callaway a "favorite" of the John Birch Society even though Callaway had repudiated the anti-communist group founded by Robert Welch after Welch alleged that former President Dwight D. Eisenhower had been a "conscious agent of the communist conspiracy." Mrs. Carter further recalled in obvious distaste that a tobacco-chewing Callaway backer in Washington, Georgia, had spat upon her. Years later, Callaway recalled Carter as "a very sincere man trying to do his best who was simply over his head in the White House and was not able to be the decisive leader that the country needed."
Callaway was the first Republican even to seek the Georgia governorship since 1876.Because Republicans held no primary at the time in Georgia, Callaway was required to obtain 87,000 signatures, or 5 percent of the then registered voters, to guarantee ballot access. He secured 150,765 names, which were hand-delivered to the Georgia Secretary of State. Ellis Arnall, who said that he relished a showdown with Callaway, even signed the Republican's petition.
The media continually speculated that Callaway would wage a formidable campaign against either Arnall or Lester Maddox, the segregationist businessman who finished in second place in the first primary election. National figures, Gerald Ford and U.S. Senator George Murphy of California campaigned in Georgia for Callaway.
Callaway formally launched his campaign on September 30, 1966, with a thirty-unit motorcade along Peachtree Street in Atlanta. Few African Americans or blue collar workers were visible in the white collar crowd numbering 25,000. He discussed such consensus priorities as education, integrity and efficiency in government, protection of life and property, mental health issues, industrial development, tourism, highways, and natural resources. Callaway promised if elected to alleviate overcrowded classrooms and to augment teacher salaries by $1,200 per year, but he had criticized a similar plan by Maddox as too costly. Both major party nominees opposed federal enforcement of desegregation guidelines. Callaway had sponsored a resolution in the U.S. House which would have barred United States Education Commissioner Harold Howe, II, from equating "racial imbalance" with "segregation" in the determination of the disposition of federal funds. Maddox frequently claimed that the wealthy Callaway was insensitive to the needy.
U.S. News and World Report forecast a Callaway victory because of the Republican's business support. Republican optimism had soared in the 1966 municipal elections, when their candidates won the offices of mayor and all six city council seats in Savannah, the state's second largest city. Arnall compiled a dossier on Callaway which he claimed would guarantee a Democratic victory in the fall, with him as the head of the ticket. He denounced the tax-exempt status of the Callaway Foundation. Time proclaimed Arnall "the odds on favorite"; Newsweek predicted that Maddox was "certain to lose." The Athens Daily News claimed that Maddox lacked "a Chinaman's chance". The Macon Telegraph said that Maddox's "anger, hate, and vengeance ... has from earliest biblical times ... divided and destroyed."
The Macon Telegraph warned Callaway that he "must rise early and work late" to overcome the "little Pickrick warrior", a reference to Maddox's former Pickrick Restaurant in Atlanta. The newspaper urged Callaway to seek moderate Democratic backing because he could never outfox Maddox in the "seemingly popular sport of LBJ cussin'". The Marietta Daily Journal depicted Callaway as a "responsible conservative whose weapons are logic and reason in contrast to the irresponsible racist Maddox whose weapons are ax handles and intemperate epithets." The Atlanta Constitution called upon Callaway to offer specifics shared by "reasonable Georgians in good conscience." Thought it held Callaway "better qualified" than Maddox, the liberal Constitution withheld any endorsement of either candidate. Callaway remained conservative and shunned the labels "segregationist" or "integrationist" but said he stood for "freedom of choice" desegregation plans. Both candidates ran afoul of the Atlanta Roman Catholic Archbishop Paul H. Halliman, who proclaimed that no "honest Catholic" could support a segregationist.
Callaway's Cadillac bore the bumper sticker: "I fight poverty - I work!" Callaway once joked that he had "looked all over Washington, for a money tree that supports these programs, and I have yet to find it."Benjamin B. Blackburn, a suburban Atlanta Republican congressman from 1967 to 1975 said that Callaway was not "racist" but abhorred the high costs of such federal social programs at the expense of taxpayers.
Time magazine carried a report of some voters with Callaway stickers on their cars voting in the Democratic runoff, presumably for Maddox on the theory that he would be a weaker opponent for Callaway than would have been Arnall. Maddox received 443,055 votes to Arnall's 373,004; one Arnall aide attributed the entire Maddox margin to the Republican crossovers. However, the Marietta Daily Journal dismissed the crossovers and speculated that supporters of Jimmy Carter largely backed Maddox. Callaway denied having urged any Republicans to support Maddox: "the losers always blame the other party."
After he surprisingly defeated Arnall in the runoff election, Maddox borrowed from a nursery verse: "Little Bo Callaway has lost lots of his sheep ... and he can't get them back." He ridiculed his opponent as a "baby in his crib reaching for his rattler." Maddox declared reports of Democratic decline in Georgia as unfounded: "The party is not dead, it's not even sick. It has a new shot in the arm -- it has a new breath of life." Maddox said that Callaway should have sought reelection to Congress, rather than making the groundbreaking race for governor.
As a Democrat in 1962, Callaway had supported former Governor Marvin Griffin, who lost the primary to Carl Sanders. Then the publisher of the Post Searchlight in Bainbridge, Griffin at first indicated that he would repay Callaway, but he instead held firm for Maddox. "I consider Bo Callaway one of my best friends, but I can't go with him in the governor's race," Griffin said. Conversely, former Governor Ernest Vandiver, who as lieutenant governor from 1955 to 1959 had quarreled with Governor Griffin, dismissed Maddox as "a pipsqueak" and endorsed Callaway.
"Go Bo" was the persistent Callaway campaign slogan. Some liberals, disgruntled with both party nominees, proclaimed, "Go Bo, and take Lester with you". Some of these individuals organized a write-in campaign on behalf of Ellis Arnall, who said that he neither encouraged nor discouraged their undertaking. Maddox likened the write-in to an attempt to "slip into the back door like a thief in the night" and called upon Arnall to renounce the drive. Several celebrities endorsed the Arnall write-in, including television personality Hugh Downs and singers Peter, Paul, and Mary, Frank Sinatra, and Sammy Davis, Jr. The Georgia civil rights activist Hosea Williams challenged Callaway on a myriad of issues important to liberals and claimed that the Republican nominee had purchased the endorsement of the Atlanta Journal.
Enthusiastic crowds and promising opinion polls falsely buoyed Callaway in late October. An Oliver Quayle tabulation for NBC News showed Callaway leading Maddox, 42 to 27 percent, but with 22 percent undecided and 7 percent for the Arnall write-in. Atlanta bookies gave Maddox a 50-50 chance of victory. Callaway performed well in stump speaking but was less effective in one-on-one exchanges because his adherence to a strict schedule exuded impatience. Maddox supporters insisted that a Republican governor would clash with the heavily Democratic Georgia legislature, but Callaway called upon Republican Governor Henry Bellmon of Oklahoma, who had worked there with a Democratic legislature, to refute such claims. Callaway told students in Albany, Georgia, that he would promote industrial development whereas Maddox, he charged, would undermine their employment possibilities.
Jimmy Carter, who had sat out the Democratic runoff election between Arnall and Maddox much to Arnall's outrage, finally endorsed Maddox, having described the Democratic state platform excluding racial matters as "more progressive and more liberal" than the Republican alternative. The Macon Telegraph found nothing "liberal" in Maddox, whom it dismissed as "a grave threat to peace, dignity, and progress." The publication denounced "inept and erratic leadership" which could thrust the state into a "tailspin, poison race relations, stagnate the growth of jobs and payrolls, ruin the accreditation of schools, and make Georgia a laughingstock of the nation."
Callaway won a plurality over Maddox in the general election, but the Arnall write-in effort denied the Republican a majority of votes. Using rural returns, the national television networks forecast a Maddox victory, but the projections failed to gauge Callaway's strength in urban areas. Three days later on November 11, 1966, Callaway held a slim lead, 453,665 to Maddox's 450,626. Arnall obtainced 52,831 write-in votes. Maddox led in 128 counties; Callaway, in 30; Arnall, only in Liberty County in the southeast. Callaway overall led by 121,000 votes in urban areas but trailed by 118,000 in rural precincts. In Atlanta, a correlation existed between Callaway voters and racial and income factors. Callaway took 79.5 percent among affluent whites but only 43.9 percent from working-class whites. Among the middle class, he received 51.7 percent. Lower-income whites gave 72.2 percent of their ballots to Lester Maddox. Poor black voters split evenly between Callaway and Arnall. Middle-class blacks voted 53.5 percent for Callaway, 43.2 percent for Arnall, and 3.4 percent for Maddox. In Macon, Callaway polled 87.4 percent among blacks; poor whites there gave Maddox 47.4 percent, nearly 25 percent points lower than in Atlanta. The Callaway plurality hence resulted from anti-Maddox blacks. The vote further fragmented along religious and educational lines. Maddox polled 53 percent from his fellow Baptists but only 20 percent from his opponent's Episcopalian denomination. Maddox also drew 20 percent from Methodists, Presbyterians, and Lutherans, and 5 percent from Jews. Sixty percent of whites with less than a high-school education chose Maddox, while only 13 percent of college graduates supported the Democratic nominee. Maddox led among voters who felt underpaid and with those lacking social or civic club memberships.
Under Georgia's election law then in effect, the state legislature was required to select a governor from the two candidates with the most votes. Dominated overwhelmingly by Democrats, the legislature selected Maddox. After certification of the election returns, a three-judge federal panel, including future Attorney General of the United States Griffin Bell, a Democrat, and Judge Elbert Tuttle, a Republican, struck down the constitutional provision permitting the legislature to elect the governor. The judges said that a malapportioned legislature might "dilute" the votes of the candidate with a plurality of the ballots. Bell equated legislative election to the county-unit principle already struck down by the courts. The judges granted a 10-day suspension of their ruling to permit appeal to the United States Supreme Court and stipulated that the state could resolve the impasse so long as an alternative to legislative election was reached. The American Civil Liberties Union, critical of Republican crossover votes in the Maddox-Arnall Democratic runoff election, opposed legislative intervention or a new general election without write-ins being permitted. Instead, the ACLU sought to reopen the primary process. Other citizen groups proposed a special election. The Democratic state chairman insisted that anything other than election by the legislature would be "a sad commentary on the decline of constitutional government."
In the state's appeal, Attorney General Arthur K. Bolton emphasized that state law permits write-ins in all elections. A general election runoff, which then had no precedent but was later adopted in Georgia, could lead to another deadlock because of the write-ins, Bolton reasoned. Therefore, Bolton argued that the legislature should choose the governor despite malapportionment. A special election could not be called prior to the tabulation of returns on January 10, 1967.
In a five-to-two decision, the U.S. Supreme Court upheld Bolton's reasoning and cleared the path for the legislature to elect Lester Maddox. Justice Hugo Black, a former Democratic U.S. senator from Alabama, took the strict constructionist line by emphasizing that the Constitution does not dictate how a state must elect its governor. "Our business is not to write laws to fit the day. Our task is to interpret the Constitution," Black explained. The two liberal dissenters, Abe Fortas and William O. Douglas, ironically supported Callaway's position. Fortas contended that the 1824 provision for the legislature choosing the governor "belittled the equal protection clause", which did not become operational until 1868. "If the voting right is to mean anything, it certainly must be protected against the possibility that victory will go to the loser," said Fortas.
In light of the ruling, Callaway supported a resolution by State Representative A. Mac Pickard of Columbus for a special runoff election without write-ins. Lawmakers tabled Pickard's motion, 148 to 110. When Callaway sought a meeting with Maddox to discuss the issue, he was told to contact Maddox on January 11, 1967, in the governor's office.
The combined Georgia House and Senate chose Maddox, 182 to 66. More than thirty Democrats defected to Callaway either because he held a slim statewide plurality or had carried their districts. Elliott Levitas, Arnall's law partner from Atlanta, backed Callaway. In 1974, in a heavily Democratic year, he unseated the Republican U.S. Representative Benjamin B. Blackburn. Also in 1974, George Busbee, another Callaway supporter, defeated Maddox for the Democratic gubernatorial nomination and then trounced the Republican nominee, Ronnie Thompson, the former mayor of Macon. Under a change in the law, Busbee became the first Georgia governor to serve two consecutive terms.
Another group appealed to the Supreme Court of Georgia, which ruled five-to-two in favor of having the legislature break the impasse. Chief Justice William Henry Duckworth, a Democrat partial to the Pickard resolution, questioned allowing the candidate with the lower vote tabulation to become governor. "Strip the citizen of his right to voe, and you render him a helpless victim of a dictator," Duckworth dissented.
The Atlanta Constitution concluded that "flabbergasting circumstances" had turned the gubernatorial campaign into "a page from Ripley's. In defeat, Callaway said that the GOP had "a long way to go to achieve a competitive force. Let us pledge to work twice as hard to make Georgia a shining example of opportunity." Callaway promised the Republican faithful that they would "meet again on another day in another race," lending incorrectly to speculation that he might challenge U.S. Senator Herman Talmadge in 1968. The Atlanta Constitution described Callaway as a "lonesome, sad figure."
A week after the Maddox inauguration, Callaway replaced former President Eisenhower as director of Freedoms Foundation, a nonpartisan group dedicated to patriotic causes located in Valley Forge, Pennsylvania. A few months later, he became the Georgia Republican nationcal committeeman and Richard M. Nixon's 1968 "southern coordinator." In 1973, he began a stint as Secretary of the Army under Presidents Nixon and Ford. After managing the first phase of the Ford election campaign, Callaway resigned in 1976, when NBC News alleged his involvement in a conflict-of-interest case relating to the United States Forest Service in Colorado. A congressional investigation found "no positive evidence of impropriety." In 1977, Harper's Magazine concluded that Callaway had been a scapegoat in the matter.
In 1976, Callaway and his family subsequently moved to Colorado, where he acquired the Crested Butte Mountain Resort. In 1980, he was an unsuccessful candidate for the Republican nomination for the U.S. Senate in Colorado, having been defeated by an intraparty moderate challenger, Mary Estill Buchanan. Buchanan then lost to the incumbent Democrat Gary Hart, despite the victory in Colorado of the Reagan/Bush ticket. From 1981 to 1987, Callaway served as the chairman of the Colorado Republican Party and as head of the political action committee GOPAC.
Callaway's son-in-law, Terry Considine, also a Republican, ran unsuccessfully for the U.S. Senate from Colorado in 1992, losing to Democratic (later Republican) U.S. Representative Ben Nighthorse Campbell.
The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson
Chicago Tonight is an evening television news program broadcast weeknights on WTTW in Chicago. Chicago Tonight reports primarily on local news and presents features showcasing local artists and events. The show began April 24, 1984 and was hosted by popular Chicago broadcast journalist John Callaway for fifteen years. He continued to contribute to the show until he died in 2009.
Monday through Thursday night the program is hosted primarily by Phil Ponce. On Friday, Joel Weisman hosts Chicago Tonight: The Week in Review a panel discussion with four journalists on the top stories of the week.
John Callaway (journalist)
The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson is a talk show hosted by Johnny Carson under The Tonight Show franchise from 1962 to 1992. It originally aired during late-night.
For its first ten years, Carson's Tonight Show was based in New York City with occasional trips to Burbank, California; in May 1972, the show moved permanently to Burbank, California.
In 2002, The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson was ranked #12 on s 50 Greatest TV Shows of All TimeTV Guide.
Carson's show established the modern format of a late-night talk show: A monologue sprinkled with a rapid-fire series of sixteen to twenty-two one-liners—Carson had a rule of no more than two on the same subject—regular use of sketch comedy, and guest interviews. While his early guests included politicians such as John F. Kennedy, Robert F. Kennedy, and Hubert Humphrey, Carson mainly had as guests people that had a book, movie, television show, or stage performance to promote. Other regulars were selected for their entertainment or information value, in contrast to those who offered more cerebral conversation; it was Carson's preference for access to Hollywood stars that prompted the show's move to the West Coast in 1972. (When asked about intellectual conversation on Tonight, Carson and his staff invariably cited "Carl Sagan, Paul Ehrlich, Margaret Mead, Gore Vidal, Shana Alexander, Madalyn Murray O'Hair" as guests; however, as one television critic once put it, "he always presented them as if they were spinach for your diet when he did (feature such names)." Psychologist Joyce Brothers was also one of Carson's most frequent guests.)
Carson almost never socialized with guests before or after the show; frequent interviewee Orson Welles recalled that Tonight employees were astonished when Carson made a rare visit to Welles's dressing room to say hello before a show. Unlike his avuncular counterparts Merv Griffin, Mike Douglas, and Cavett, Carson was a comparatively "cool" host who only laughed when genuinely amused and abruptly cut short monotonous or embarrassingly inept interviewees. Mort Sahl recalled, "The producer crouches just off camera and holds up a card that says, ‘Go to commercial.’ So Carson goes to a commercial and the whole team rushes up to his desk to discuss what had gone wrong, like a pit stop at Le Mans." Actor Robert Blake once compared being interviewed by Carson to "facing the death squad" or "Broadway on opening night." But the publicity value of appearing on Tonight was so great that most guests were willing to subject themselves to the risk.
The show's announcer and Carson's sidekick was Ed McMahon, who from the very first show would introduce Carson with a drawn-out "Heeeeeeeeere's Johnny!" (something McMahon was inspired to do by the overemphasized way he had introduced reporter Robert Pierpoint on the NBC Radio show Monitor). McMahon, who held the same role in Carson's ABC game show Who Do You Trust? for five years previously, would remain standing to the side as Carson did his monologue, laughing (sometimes obsequiously) at his jokes, then join him at the guest chair when Carson moved to his desk. The two would usually interact in a comic spot for a short while before the first guest was introduced.
McMahon stated in a 1978 profile of Carson in The New Yorker that "the ‘Tonight Show’ is my staple diet, my meat and potatoes—I’m realistic enough to know that everything else stems from that". After a 1965 incident in which he ruined Carson's joke on the air McMahon was careful to, as he said, "never to go where [Carson]'s going". He wrote in his 1998 autobiography:
The Tonight Show had a live band for nearly all of its existence. The NBC Orchestra during Carson's reign was led by Skitch Henderson (who had previously led the band during Tonight Starring Steve Allen), followed briefly by Milton DeLugg. Starting in 1967 and continuing until Jay Leno took over, the band was led by Doc Severinsen, with Tommy Newsom filling in for him when he was absent or filling in for McMahon as the announcer (which usually happened when a guest host substituted for Carson, which usually gave McMahon the night off as well). The show's instrumental theme music, "Johnny's Theme", was a re-arrangement of a Paul Anka composition called "Toot Sweet".
Behind the scenes, Fred de Cordova joined The Tonight Show in 1970 as producer, graduating to executive producer in 1984. Unlike many people of his position, de Cordova often appeared on the show, bantering with Carson from his chair off-camera (though occasionally a camera would be pointed in his direction).
If the laughter fell short for a too-lame pun (as it often did), "Carnac" would face the audience with mock seriousness and bestow a comic curse: "May a diseased yak befriend your sister!" or "May a rabid holy man bless your nether regions with a power tool!"
Jack Paar's last appearance was on March 29, 1962, and due to Carson's previous contracts, Carson did not take over until October 1. His first guests were Rudy Vallée, Tony Bennett, Mel Brooks, and Joan Crawford. Carson inherited from Paar a show that was 1 3/4 hours (105 minutes) long. The show filmed two openings, one starting at 11:15 p.m. and including the monologue, the other that listed the guests and re-announced the host, starting at 11:30. The two openings gave affiliates the option of screening either a fifteen-minute or thirty-minute local newscast preceding Carson. Since 1959, the show had been videotaped earlier the same broadcast day.
As more affiliates introduced thirty minutes of local news, Carson's monologue was being seen by fewer people. To rectify this situation, Ed McMahon and Skitch Henderson co-hosted the first fifteen minutes of the show between February 1965 and December 1966 without Carson, who then took over at 11:30. Finally, because he wanted the show to start when he came on, at the beginning of January 1967 Carson insisted the 11:15 segment be eliminated (which, he claimed in a monologue at the time, "no one actually watched except the Armed Forces and four Native Americans in Gallup, New Mexico").
By the mid-1970s Tonight was the most profitable show on television, making NBC $50 to $60 million ($175,995,000 to $211,194,000 today) each year. Carson influenced the scheduling of reruns (which typically aired under the title The Best of Carson) in the mid-1970s and, in 1980, the length of each evening's broadcast, by threatening NBC with, in the first case, moving to another network, and in the latter, retiring altogether. In order to work fewer days each week Carson began to petition network executives in 1974 that reruns on the weekends be discontinued, in favor of showing them on one or more nights during the week. In response to his demands, NBC began planning a new comedy/variety series to feed to affiliates on Saturday nights that debuted in October 1975 and is still airing today: Saturday Night Live. Five years later, Carson renewed his contract with the stipulation that the show lose its last half hour; Tom Snyder's Tomorrow expanded to 90 minutes in order to fill the resulting schedule gap. Although a year and a half later, Tomorrow gave way to the hour-long Late Night with David Letterman (1982–1993), The Tonight Show remains one hour in length.
The show's start time was delayed by five minutes to allow NBC affiliates to include more commercials during their local newscasts.
In an onscreen eulogy to Carson in 2005, David Letterman said that every talk show host owes his livelihood to Johnny Carson during his Tonight Show run.
In 1979, when Fred Silverman was the head of NBC, Carson took the network to court, claiming that he had been a free-agent since April of that year because his most recent contract had been signed in 1972. Carson cited a California law barring certain contracts from lasting more than seven years. NBC claimed that they had signed three agreements since then, and Carson was therefore bound to the network until April 1981. While the case was settled out of court, the friction between Carson and the network remained. Eventually, Carson reached an agreement to appear four nights a week but cut the show from 90 to 60 minutes. In September 1980, Carson's eponymous production company regained ownership of the show after owning it from 1969 to the early 1970s.
Virtually all of the original pre-1970 video recordings, including Carson's debut as host, are now considered lost because of wiping. Following the standard procedure for most television production companies of that era, NBC reused The Tonight Show videotapes for recording other programs. Carson himself encouraged the erasure of his archives, once humorously quipping that NBC should "make guitar picks" out of them, and did not believe they were of any value. It was rumored that many other episodes were lost in a fire, but NBC has denied this.][ Other surviving material from the era has been found on kinescopes held in the archives of the Armed Forces Radio and Television Service, or in the personal collections of guests of the program, while a few moments such as Tiny Tim's wedding, were preserved. New York meteorologist Dr. Frank Field, an occasional guest during the years he was weather forecaster for WNBC-TV, showed several clips of his appearances with Carson in a 2002 career retrospective on WWOR-TV; Field had maintained the clips in his own personal archives.][
The program archive is virtually complete from 1973 to 1992. The New York Post reported in May 2011 that 250 of Carson's monologues and sketches spanning a 20-year period are on the Memory Lane website. Carson Productions has also made clips available on YouTube.
A large amount of material from Carson's first two decades of The Tonight Show (1962–1982), much of it not seen since it had first aired, appeared in a half hour "clip/compilation" syndicated program known as Carson's Comedy Classics that aired in 1983. Audio clips from the show were featured nightly on WHO-AM in Carson's homtown of Des Moines, Iowa in the mid-2000s. Thirty years later, Turner Classic Movies would begin rerunning select interviews from the program for a new series called "Carson on TCM" presented by Conan O'Brien, who himself hosted The Tonight Show briefly.
Although no footage is known to remain of Carson's first broadcast as host of The Tonight Show on October 1, 1962, photographs taken that night do survive, including Carson being introduced by Groucho Marx, as does an audio recording of Marx's introduction and Carson's first monologue. One of his first jokes upon starting the show (after receiving a few words of encouragement from Marx, one of which was, "Don't go to Hollywood!") was to pretend to panic and say, "I want my nana!". (This recording was played at the start of Carson's final broadcast on May 22, 1992.) The oldest surviving video recording of the show is dated November 1962, while the oldest surviving color recording is from 1963, when Carson interviewed Jake Ehrlich, Sr., as his guest.
Thirty-minute audio recordings of many of the "missing" episodes are contained in the Library of Congress in the Armed Forces Radio collection. Many 1970s-era episodes have been licensed to distributors that advertise mail order offers on late-night TV.][ The later shows are stored in an underground salt mine outside Hutchinson, Kansas.
The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson had guest hosts each Monday for most of the show's run and sometimes for entire weeks during Johnny's frequent vacations. The following is a list of those who guest-hosted at least fifty times during the first 21 years of the show's run. Episodes hosted by the three "permanent guest hosts" are not included: Joan Rivers (1983–1986), Garry Shandling (1986–1987), and Jay Leno (1987–1992).
Jack Paar had often asked Carson to guest-host Tonight in its earliest years and repeatedly claimed he had been responsible for NBC's selection of Carson in 1962 as his replacement.
On April 2, 1979, Kermit the Frog was guest host. In addition, many other Muppets appeared for skits and regular segments: Frank Oz voiced Fozzie Bear and Animal, while Jerry Nelson performed Uncle Deadly, a Vincent Price-inspired Muppet during a segment with the real Price.
In September 1983, Joan Rivers was designated Carson's permanent guest host, a role she had been essentially filling for the previous year. In 1986, she left the show for her own show on the then-new Fox Network. According to Carson, Rivers never personally informed him of the existence of her show. Rivers, on the other hand, disagrees. Nevertheless, Rivers's new show was quickly cancelled, and she never again appeared on The Tonight Show with Carson. She also never appeared on The Tonight Show with Jay Leno, a ban instigated by Leno out of respect for Carson. After Carson's death, Rivers told CNN that Carson never forgave her for leaving, and never spoke to her again, even after she wrote him a note following the accidental death of Carson's son Ricky in June of 1991.
The program of July 26, 1984, with guest host Joan Rivers, was the first MTS stereo broadcast in U. S. television history, though not the first television broadcast with stereophonic sound. Only NBC's flagship local station in New York City, WNBC, had stereo broadcast capability at that time. NBC transmitted The Tonight Show in stereo sporadically through 1984, and on a regular basis beginning in 1985.
As his retirement approached, Carson tried to avoid sentimentality but would periodically show clips of some of his favorite moments and again invited some of his favorite guests. He told his crew, "Everything comes to an end; nothing lasts forever. Thirty years is enough. It's time to get out while you're still working on top of your game, while you're still working well."
Carson hosted his penultimate show featuring guests Robin Williams and Bette Midler, on May 21, 1992. Once underway, the atmosphere was electric and Carson was greeted with a sustained, two-minute ovation. Williams was especially uninhibited with his trademark manic energy and stream-of-consciousness lunacy. Midler was more emotional. When the conversation turned to Johnny's favorite songs, "I'll Be Seeing You" and "Here's That Rainy Day", Midler mentioned that she knew a chorus of the latter. She began singing the song, and after the first line, Carson joined in and turned it into an impromptu duet. Midler finished her appearance from center stage, where she slowly sang the pop standard "One for My Baby (and One More for the Road)". Carson became unexpectedly tearful, and a shot of the two of them was captured by a camera angle from across the set that had never been used before. The audience became tearful as well and called the three performers out for a second bow after filming was completed. This show was immediately recognized as a television classic that Midler considered one of the most emotional moments of her life and eventually won an Emmy for her role in it.
Carson had no guests on his final episode of The Tonight Show on May 22, 1992, which was instead a retrospective show taped before an invitation-only studio audience of family, friends, and crew. More than fifty million people tuned in for this finale, which ended with Carson sitting on a stool alone at center stage, similar to Jack Paar's last show. He said these final words in conclusion:
A few weeks after the final show aired, it was announced that NBC and Carson had struck a deal to develop a new series. Ultimately, however, Carson chose not to return to television. He gave only two major interviews after his retirement: one to the Washington Post in 1993, and the other to Esquire magazine in 2002. Carson hinted in his 1993 interview that he did not think he could top what he had already accomplished. He rarely appeared elsewhere after retiring, providing only a guest voice on an episode of The Simpsons, which included him performing feats of strength, and a silent cameo on Late Show with David Letterman where he delivered a Top 10 List and sat in Dave's chair for a minute.
In 2005, after Carson's death, it was revealed that he had made a habit of sending jokes to Dave Letterman which Letterman would then sometimes incorporate into his monologues. The January 31, 2005, episode of the Late Show with David Letterman, which featured a tribute to Carson, began with a monologue by Letterman made up entirely of jokes written by Carson himself after his retirement.
In 2011, the last Carson Tonight show was ranked #10 on the TV Guide Network special, TV's Most Unforgettable Finales.
John Callaway (August 22, 1936 – June 23, 2009) was an American journalist, who appeared on radio and television as a host, interviewer and moderator. He was the original host of Chicago Tonight, a nightly news program broadcast on the Chicago, Illinois television station WTTW, serving in that role from 1984 to 1999.
John Callaway was born and raised in New Martinsville, West Virginia, in 1936. While growing up John's father owned a weekly newspaper. After his father became ill, hospital bills left him unable to help pay for college. Callaway had already accrued $800 in loans and a job as a dishwasher could not cover his expenses. He dropped out of Ohio Wesleyan University after a little more than a year in college, telling the dean that he was dropping out of school temporarily and was hoping to earn enough money at the steel mills in the Chicago area to pay for the remainder of his college studies. The dean gave him $50, almost all of which was spent until he had only 71 cents left. He hitchhiked to Chicago through Ohio and Indiana, and was given a train ticket on the South Shore Line, arriving at Randolph Street Station on February 6, 1956, with the 71 cents in his pocket and immediately fell in love with the city.
He worked in a series of odd jobs, and was told that the steel mill idea wouldn't work out. He took acting classes at night, which lasted until his instructor told him "Callaway, you're the worst actor I've ever had the pleasure of working with." He went on to tell him about a position that would fit with his father's career, where reporters could enjoy the free food available at political dinners.
This led Callaway to his first media job, at Chicago's City News Bureau, where he was employed as a police reporter. He was hired in 1957 by WBBM-TV and its associated radio stations, a CBS affiliate, as a reporter and documentary producer. There he won several national awards for The House Divided, a 13-segment documentary on the civil rights movement in the United States. As WBBM's News Director, he oversaw the station's 1968 conversion to an all-news radio format. He came back to Chicago in 1973 after being employed in New York City as a vice president of CBS Radio, and became the WBBM-TV lead reporter.
Callaway helped create Chicago Tonight in 1984, a program intended to be "the second half of the news," in which the issues of the day could be discussed. The first airing included a half-hour-long interview with then Mayor of Chicago Harold Washington. Over the years, guests of Callaway on the program included Alan Alda, James Baldwin, Tom Brokaw, Aaron Copland, Howard Cosell, Mike Ditka, Helen Hayes, Henry Kissinger, Norman Mailer, Leontyne Price, Andy Rooney, Tim Russert, Jonas Salk, John Updike, Mike Wallace and Oprah Winfrey. He ended his role as the show's host in 1999, but continued as host and senior editor of Chicago Stories and the Friday Night interview series on WTTW, and from 2003, as host of a monthly panel discussion at the Pritzker Military Library in Chicago, Front & Center with John Callaway.
Over the course of his career, Callaway was recognized with the Peabody Award and 16 Emmys.
He received honorary doctorate degrees from ten colleges, including Loyola University Chicago, Northwestern University and the John Marshall School of Law.
Local newspapers called him "Chicago Television's No. 1 Interviewer" (Chicago Tribune) and "Chicago television's conscience", considered by his peers as "the best interviewer on television" (Chicago Sun-Times). He was recognized by The Atlanta Journal-Constitution as "hands down, the best on-air interviewer in the land". Asked by Johnny Carson who he thought was the best interviewer, William F. Buckley cited "That chubby fellow in Chicago".
Callaway died at age 72 after suffering a heart attack in a store in Racine, Wisconsin on June 23, 2009. He is survived by his wife Sandra, and his daughters Ann Hampton Callaway and Liz Callaway; Ann is a cabaret singer, composer and entertainer, and her sister Liz is a Broadway actress and singer.
Callaway was featured in a one-man show in Chicago which included both monologues about current politics, as well as his "Tormesque" singing voice, as well as performances with his talented daughters, Ann and Liz. Callaway wrote and performed two autobiographical one-man shows, Life is...Maintenance and John Callaway Tonight, and published an autobiography in 1994, The Thing of It Is. He frequently sang at Chicago-area events, often accompanied on piano by his long-time colleague, Paul Nebenzahl.
Callaway Gardens is a 6,500 acres (2,630 ha) resort complex located in Pine Mountain, Georgia, just outside of Columbus, Georgia. The destination draws over 750,000 visitors annually.
Callaway Gardens was founded in 1952 by Cason J. and Virginia Hand Callaway to promote and protect native azalea species. His son, Bo Callaway, helped develop and run the garden. Today, Callaway Gardens features a wide variety of recreational attractions including a large enclosed butterfly habitat, the Cecil B. Day Butterfly Center, and the John Sibley Horticultural Center, known for its wide variety of cultivars and native plants. The native palm Sabal minor maintains one of its northernmost populations in the area.
The garden was originally conceived in 1930 after Cason J. Callaway discovered a rare azalea growing in the area. Callaway Gardens opened on May 21, 1952 as the Ida Cason Gardens, with a number of lakes, a golf course, and scenic drives. The gardens were named for the mother of founder Cason J. Callaway. Robin Lake Beach and the Overlook Azalea Garden opened the following year in 1953. In 1955, The gardens were renamed Ida Cason Callaway Gardens. The Masters Water-ski Tournament, now an annual event, held its first competition in 1959.
On April 12, 1961, founder Cason J. Callaway died and was succeeded as Chairman of the Board by his wife, co-founder Virginia Hand Callaway.
The gardens have experienced numerous expansions following Cason Callaway's death. The Cason J. Callaway Memorial Forest opened in 1972, and was designated a National Natural Landmark by the United States Department of the Interior. The John A. Sibley Horticultural Center opened in 1984. Mr. Cason's Vegetable Garden was the location for years of TV shows about growing vegetable gardens, most notably the southern edition of The Victory Garden. The annual Steeplechase at Callaway Gardens ran its first race in 1985. The Cecil B. Day Butterfly Center opened on September 25, 1988. "Fantasy in Lights", a Christmas light display, debuted in 1992. In 1999, the Azalea Bowl opened as well as the premiere of the Sky High Hot Air Balloon Festival. In 2000, the Virginia Hand Callaway Discovery Center was opened.
The garden has several trails both for walking and biking. The Discovery Bike Trail, a 10-mile (16 km) trail that weaves through the wooded gardens, provides guests access to all attractions.
Robin Lake Beach is the world's largest man-made, white sand beach. The beach stretches a mile around 65-acre (260,000 m2) Robin Lake. Robin Lake Beach is opened from Memorial Day weekend through Labor Day Weekend.
The Florida State University Flying High Circus have taken up residence at the beach every summer since 1961. During the summer, the circus conducts a recreation program and performs seven shows weekly under the big top adjacent to the beach.
The Cecil B. Day Butterfly Center, named after the founder of Days Inns of America, Inc., opened to the public on September 25, 1988. Mrs. Deen Day Sanders, Cecil Day's wife, provided the initial funding for the center. In 2004, the center earned a LEED certification. In 2005, the Day Butterfly Center underwent a $2 million renovation to accommodate more visitors.
The conservatory is maintained at approximately 80ºF and 74% relative humidity. The center has 1,000 butterflies representing over 50 species. The butterflies are received in the pupa stage (or chrysalis) from Malaysia, the Philippines and Central and South America. Because the butterflies are considered to be invasive species, an inward blast of air is shot by a machine at the doorway to prevent any butterfly breakouts.
As of 2011, Callaway Gardens has two golf courses in operation. Lake View golf course was opened on May 21, 1952, the same day the gardens opened. The Mountain View golf course, designed in 1965, hosted the Buick Challenge from 1991 to 2002. In 2001, Buick pulled its sponsorship of the tournament because of low attendance and little network coverage. A third golf course, Gardens View golf course, was opened in 1969 but was closed in 2002.
Callaway Gardens hosts several seasonal events. On Memorial weekend, the gardens host the Masters Water Ski & Wakeboard Tournament. The gardens also hosts the Sky High Hot Air Balloon Festival on Labor Day weekend and a steeplechase on the first Saturday of November. "Fantasy in Lights," a Christmas light display, takes place in November and December.