The system of imperial units or the imperial system (also known as British Imperial) is the system of units first defined in the British Weights and Measures Act of 1824, which was later refined and reduced. The system came into official use across the British Empire. By the late 20th century, most nations of the former empire had officially adopted the metric system as their main system of measurement, but some Imperial units are still used in the United Kingdom and Canada.
A fluid ounce (abbreviated fl oz, fl. oz. or oz. fl., old forms ℥, fl ℥, f℥, ƒ ℥) is a unit of liquid capacity equal to 1⁄20 of a pint or 1⁄160 of an Imperial gallon in the imperial system or 1⁄16 of a US liquid pint or 1⁄128 of a US gallon in the US system. The imperial gallon was originally defined as the volume occupied by 10 pounds avoirdupois of water at a temperature of 62 degrees Fahrenheit; the definition was later revised, expressing the same volume as 4.54609 litres, making the imperial fluid ounce 28.4130625 mL. The US gallon is defined as 231 cubic inches, making the US fluid ounce 29.5735295625 mL, or about 4% larger than the imperial unit. The fluid ounce is distinct from the ounce, a unit of mass. However, the fluid ounce is sometimes referred to simply as an "ounce" in the context of liquid capacity.
The fluid ounce was originally the volume occupied by one ounce of some substance such as wine (in England) or water (in Scotland). The ounce in question varied depending on the system of fluid measure, such as that used for wine versus ale. Various ounces were used over the centuries, including the Tower ounce, troy ounce, avoirdupois ounce, and various ounces used in international trade such as Paris troy. The situation is further complicated by the medieval practice of "allowances" whereby a unit of measure was not necessarily equal to the sum of its parts. For example, the 364-pound woolsack had a 14-pound allowance for the weight of the sack and other packaging materials.
Troy weight is a system of units of mass customarily used for precious metals and gemstones. There are 12 troy ounces per troy pound, rather than the 16 ounces per pound found in the more common avoirdupois system. The troy ounce is 480 grains, compared with the avoirdupois ounce, which is 437½ grains. Both systems use the same grain defined by the international yard and pound agreement of 1959 as exactly 0.06479891 gram. Although troy ounces are still used to weigh gold, silver, and gemstones, troy weight is no longer used in most other applications.
In physics, mass (from Greek μᾶζα "barley cake, lump [of dough]") is a property of a physical system or body, giving rise to the phenomena of the body's resistance to being accelerated by a force and the strength of its mutual gravitational attraction with other bodies. Instruments such as mass balances or scales use those phenomena to measure mass. The SI unit of mass is the kilogram (kg).
For everyday objects and energies well-described by Newtonian physics, mass has also been said to represent an amount of matter, but this view breaks down, for example, at very high speeds or for subatomic particles. Holding true more generally, any body having mass has an equivalent amount of energy, and all forms of energy resist acceleration by a force and have gravitational attraction; the term matter has no universally-agreed definition under this modern view.
United States customary units are a system of measurements commonly used in the United States. The U.S. customary system developed from English units which were in use in the British Empire before American independence. Consequently most U.S. units are virtually identical to the British imperial units. However, the British system was overhauled in 1824, changing the definitions of some units used there, so several differences exist between the two systems.
The majority of U.S. customary units were redefined in terms of the meter and the kilogram with the Mendenhall Order of 1893, and in practice, for many years before. These definitions were refined by the international yard and pound agreement of 1959. The U.S. primarily uses customary units in its commercial activities, while science, medicine, government, and many sectors of industry use metric units. The SI metric system, or International System of Units is preferred for many uses by NIST
In journalism, a human interest story is a feature story that discusses a person or people in an emotional way. It presents people and their problems, concerns, or achievements in a way that brings about interest, sympathy or motivation in the reader or viewer.
Human interest stories may be "the story behind the story" about an event, organization, or otherwise faceless historical happening, such as about the life of an individual soldier during wartime, an interview with a survivor of a natural disaster, a random act of kindness or profile of someone known for a career achievement.