In physics and engineering, **surface power density** or sometimes simply **specific power** is power per unit area.

**Measurement**

In statistics, **categorical data** is a statistical data type consisting of categorical variables, used for observed data whose value is one of a fixed number of nominal categories, or for data that has been converted into that form, for example as grouped data. More specifically, categorical data may derive from either or both of observations made of qualitative data, where the observations are summarised as counts or cross tabulations, or of quantitative data, where observations might be directly observed counts of events happening or they might counts of values that occur within given intervals. Often, purely categorical data are summarised in the form of a contingency table. However, particularly when considering data analysis, it is common to use the term "categorical data" to apply to data sets that, while containing some categorical variables, may also contain non-categorical variables.

A **statistical hypothesis test** is a method of making decisions using data from a scientific study. In statistics, a result is called statistically significant if it has been predicted as unlikely to have occurred by chance alone, according to a pre-determined threshold probability, the significance level. The phrase "test of significance" was coined by statistician Ronald Fisher. These tests are used in determining what outcomes of a study would lead to a rejection of the null hypothesis for a pre-specified level of significance; this can help to decide whether results contain enough information to cast doubt on conventional wisdom, given that conventional wisdom has been used to establish the null hypothesis. The *critical region* of a hypothesis test is the set of all outcomes which cause the null hypothesis to be rejected in favor of the alternative hypothesis. Statistical hypothesis testing is sometimes called **confirmatory data analysis**, in contrast to exploratory data analysis, which may not have pre-specified hypotheses. Statistical hypothesis testing is a key technique of frequentist inference.

Statistical hypothesis tests define a procedure that controls (fixes) the probability of incorrectly *deciding* that a default position (null hypothesis) is incorrect based on how likely it would be for a set of observations to occur if the null hypothesis were true. Note that this probability of making an incorrect decision is not the probability that the null hypothesis is true, nor whether any specific alternative hypothesis is true. This contrasts with other possible techniques of decision theory in which the null and alternative hypothesis are treated on a more equal basis. One naive Bayesian approach to hypothesis testing is to base decisions on the posterior probability, but this fails when comparing point and continuous hypotheses. Other approaches to decision making, such as Bayesian decision theory, attempt to balance the consequences of incorrect decisions across all possibilities, rather than concentrating on a single null hypothesis. A number of other approaches to reaching a decision based on data are available via decision theory and optimal decisions, some of which have desirable properties, yet hypothesis testing is a dominant approach to data analysis in many fields of science. Extensions to the theory of hypothesis testing include the study of the power of tests, which refers to the probability of correctly rejecting the null hypothesis when a given state of nature exists. Such considerations can be used for the purpose of sample size determination prior to the collection of data.

- What is the patch's area in square kilometers if there is a small hole in the wing of a space shuttle requires a 13.5 cm squared patch?
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- If a rectangle has a perimeter of 44 cm and an area of 105 cm squared, what is its dimensions?
- What is the area when the perimeter of a square is 20 cm?
- If the shaded part of the circle has a perimeter of 28 cm and an area of 49 cm squared, what is the length, in centimeters, of the arc of this sector?

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