In mathematics, a quotient (from Latin: quotiens) is the result of division. For example, when dividing 6 by 3, the quotient is 2, while 6 is called the dividend, and 3 the divisor. The quotient further is expressed as the number of times the divisor divides into the dividend, e.g. 3 divides 2 times into 6. A quotient can also mean just the integer part of the result of dividing two integers. For example, the quotient of 13 and 5 would be 2 while the remainder would be 3. For more, see the Euclidean division.
In more abstract branches of mathematics, the word quotient is often used to describe sets, spaces, or algebraic structures whose elements are the equivalence classes of some equivalence relation on another set, space, or algebraic structure. See:
In computing, the modulo (sometimes called modulus) operation finds the remainder of division of one number by another.
Given two positive numbers, a (the dividend) and n (the divisor), a modulo n (abbreviated as a mod n) is the remainder of the Euclidean division of a by n. For instance, the expression "5 mod 2" would evaluate to 1 because 5 divided by 2 leaves a quotient of 2 and a remainder of 1, while "9 mod 3" would evaluate to 0 because the division of 9 by 3 has a quotient of 3 and leaves a remainder of 0; there is nothing to subtract from 9 after multiplying 3 times 3. (Notice that doing the division with a calculator won't show you the result referred to here by this operation, the quotient will be expressed as a decimal fraction.) When either a or n is negative, this naive definition breaks down and programming languages differ in how these values are defined. Although typically performed with a and n both being integers, many computing systems allow other types of numeric operands. The range of numbers for an integer modulo of n is 0 to n − 1. (n mod 1 is always 0; n mod 0 is undefined, possibly resulting in a "Division by zero" error in computer programming languages) See modular arithmetic for an older and related convention applied in number theory.
In arithmetic, long division is a standard division algorithm suitable for dividing multidigit numbers that is simple enough to perform by hand. It breaks down a division problem into a series of easier steps. As in all division problems, one number, called the dividend, is divided by another, called the divisor, producing a result called the quotient. It enables computations involving arbitrarily large numbers to be performed by following a series of simple steps. The abbreviated form of long division is called short division, which is almost always used instead of long division when the divisor has only one digit.
Inexpensive calculators and computers have become the most common way to solve division problems, eliminating a traditional mathematical exercise, and decreasing the educational opportunity to show how to do so by paper and pencil techniques. (Internally, those devices use one of a variety of division algorithms). In the United States, long division has been especially targeted for de-emphasis, or even elimination from the school curriculum, by reform mathematics, though traditionally introduced in the 4th or 5th grades.