The term musical form (or musical architecture) refers to the overall structure or plan of a piece of music, and it describes the layout of a composition as divided into sections. In the tenth edition of The Oxford Companion to Music, Percy Scholes defines musical form as "a series of strategies designed to find a successful mean between the opposite extremes of unrelieved repetition and unrelieved alteration."
Musicologist Richard Middleton describes form through repetition and difference: difference is the distance moved from a repeat; a repeat being the smallest difference. Difference is quantitative and qualitative; how far different and what type of difference. According to Middleton, musical form is "the shape or structure of the work." In many cases, form depends on statement and restatement, unity and variety, contrast and connection.
Music notation or musical notation is any system used in sheet music in order to represent aurally perceived music through the use of written ancient or modern musical symbols.
Zeltnera muehlenbergii is a species of annual herb commonly known as Muhlenberg's centaury. It is native to western North America from British Columbia to California and Nevada, where it commonly grows in forests and other moist places. This is an annual herb growing thin, erect, branching stems to heights anywhere between 10 centimeters and one meter. Oval-shaped leaves are arranged oppositely on the stem and are up to 2 or 3 centimeters long. The branching inflorescence bears many flowers, each with small bracts at its base. The flower has five oval-shaped petallike lobes each a few millimeters long.
Hackelia micrantha is a species of flowering plant in the borage family known by the common name Jessica sticktight. It is native to western North America from Alaska to northern Mexico, where it often grows in forested areas and meadows. This is a lush perennial herb growing to heights of 30 centimeters to over one meter. Its erect stems are surrounded at the base by many oval-shaped to lance-shaped leaves, the longest over 20 centimeters long. The upper stems are generally leafless and hold cyme inflorescences of bright blue flowers. Each petite flower has five rounded lobes with a smaller petallike appendage at the base of each. The fruit is a nutlet with pointed prickles.
A disaster is a natural or man-made (or technological) hazard resulting in an event of substantial extent causing significant physical damage or destruction, loss of life, or drastic change to the environment. A disaster can be ostensively defined as any tragic event stemming from events such as earthquakes, floods, catastrophic accidents, fires, or explosions. It is a phenomenon that can cause damage to life and property and destroy the economic, social and cultural life of people.
In contemporary academia, disasters are seen as the consequence of inappropriately managed risk. These risks are the product of a combination of both hazard/s and vulnerability. Hazards that strike in areas with low vulnerability will never become disasters, as is the case in uninhabited regions.