No, a chicken will not die if its butt gets wet. Many chickens get wet during the rain and don't die.
"If I Never See You Again" was the first single from Wet Wet Wet's seventh studio album, 10. It was released on 10 March 1997 and reached number 3 on the UK Singles Chart.
Marti Pellow recorded his own version of the song for inclusion on his 2002 album Marti Pellow Sings the Hits of Wet Wet Wet & Smile.
"Juice" is a single by New Zealand rock band Headless Chickens released in 1992. The single was originally titled "Dreamchild", having been written and performed by Fiona McDonald for the Strawpeople. When McDonald later joined the Headless Chickens, the song was reworked and renamed "Juice". The song peaked at #7 on the New Zealand Singles Chart.
Chicken : Cock or Rooster (m), Hen (f)
The chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is a domesticated fowl, a subspecies of the Red Junglefowl. As one of the most common and widespread domestic animals with a population of more than 24 billion in 2003, there are more chickens in the world than any other species of bird][. Humans keep chickens primarily as a source of food, consuming both their meat and their eggs.
The traditional poultry farming view of the domestication of the chicken is stated in Encyclopædia Britannica (2007): "Humans first domesticated chickens of Indian origin for the purpose of cockfighting in Asia, Africa, and Europe. Very little formal attention was given to egg or meat production... " Recent genetic studies have pointed to multiple maternal origins in Southeast, East, and South Asia, but with the clade found in the Americas, Europe, the Middle East and Africa originating in the Indian subcontinent. From India the domesticated fowl made its way to the Persianized kingdom of Lydia in western Asia Minor, and domestic fowl were imported to Greece by the fifth century BC. Fowl had been known in Egypt since the 18th Dynasty, with the "bird that gives birth every day" having come to Egypt from the land between Syria and Shinar, Babylonia, according to the annals of Tutmose III.
In the UK and Ireland adult male chickens over the age of 12 months are primarily known as cocks, whereas in America, Australia and Canada they are more commonly called roosters. Males less than 1 year old are cockerels. Castrated roosters are called capons (surgical and chemical castration are now illegal in some parts of the world). Females over a year old are known as hens and younger females as pullets although in the egg-laying industry, a pullet becomes a hen when she begins to lay eggs at 16 to 20 weeks of age. In Australia and New Zealand (also sometimes in Britain), there is a generic term chook to describe all ages and both sexes. The young are called chicks and the meat is called chicken.
"Chicken" originally referred to chicks, not the species itself. The species as a whole was then called domestic fowl, or just fowl. This use of "chicken" survives in the phrase "Hen and Chickens", sometimes used as a British public house or theatre name, and to name groups of one large and many small rocks or islands in the sea (see for example Hen and Chicken Islands).
In the Deep South of the United States chickens are also referred to by the slang term yardbird.
Chickens are omnivores. In the wild, they often scratch at the soil to search for seeds, insects and even larger animals such as lizards or young mice.
Chickens may live for five to ten years, depending on the breed. The world's oldest chicken, a hen, died of heart failure at the age of 16 according to the Guinness Book of World Records.
Roosters can usually be differentiated from hens by their striking plumage of long flowing tails and shiny, pointed feathers on their necks (hackles) and backs (saddle) which are typically of brighter, bolder colours than those of females of the same breed. However, in some breeds, such as the Sebright, the rooster has only slightly pointed neck feathers, the same colour as the hen's. The identification can be made by looking at the comb, or eventually from the development of spurs on the male's legs (in a few breeds and in certain hybrids, the male and female chicks may be differentiated by colour). Adult chickens have a fleshy crest on their heads called a comb, or cockscomb, and hanging flaps of skin either side under their beaks called wattles. Collectively, these and other fleshy protuberances on the head and throat are called caruncles. Both the adult male and female have wattles and combs, but in most breeds these are more prominent in males. A muff or beard is a mutation found in several chicken breeds which causes extra feathering under the chicken's face, giving the appearance of a beard.
Domestic chickens are not capable of long distance flight, although lighter birds are generally capable of flying for short distances, such as over fences or into trees (where they would naturally roost). Chickens may occasionally fly briefly to explore their surroundings, but generally do so only to flee perceived danger.
Chickens are gregarious birds and live together in flocks. They have a communal approach to the incubation of eggs and raising of young. Individual chickens in a flock will dominate others, establishing a "pecking order", with dominant individuals having priority for food access and nesting locations. Removing hens or roosters from a flock causes a temporary disruption to this social order until a new pecking order is established. Adding hens, especially younger birds, to an existing flock can lead to fighting and injury. When a rooster finds food, he may call other chickens to eat first. He does this by clucking in a high pitch as well as picking up and dropping the food. This behaviour may also be observed in mother hens to call their chicks and encourage them to eat.
Roosters crowing (a loud and sometimes shrill call) is a territorial signal to other roosters. However, crowing may also result from sudden disturbances within their surroundings. Hens cluck loudly after laying an egg, and also to call their chicks. Chickens also give a low "warning call" when they think they see a predator approaching.
To initiate courting, some roosters may dance in a circle around or near a hen ("a circle dance"), often lowering his wing which is closest to the hen. The dance triggers a response in the hen and when she responds to his "call", the rooster may mount the hen and proceed with the mating.
Hens will often try to lay in nests that already contain eggs and have been known to move eggs from neighbouring nests into their own. The result of this behaviour is that a flock will use only a few preferred locations, rather than having a different nest for every bird. Hens will often express a preference to lay in the same location. It is not unknown for two (or more) hens to try to share the same nest at the same time. If the nest is small, or one of the hens is particularly determined, this may result in chickens trying to lay on top of each other. There is evidence that individual hens prefer to be either solitary or gregarious nesters. Some farmers use fake eggs made from plastic or stone (or golf balls) to encourage hens to lay in a particular location.
In 2006, scientists researching the ancestry of birds "turned on" a chicken recessive gene, talpid2, and found that the embryo jaws initiated formation of teeth, like those found in ancient bird fossils. John Fallon, the overseer of the project, stated that chickens have "...retained the ability to make teeth, under certain conditions... ."
The domestic chicken is descended primarily from the Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus) and is scientifically classified as the same species. As such it can and does freely interbreed with populations of red jungle fowl. Recent genetic analysis has revealed that at least the gene for yellow skin was incorporated into domestic birds through hybridization with the Grey Junglefowl (G. sonneratii). The traditional poultry farming view is stated in Encyclopædia Britannica (2007): "Humans first domesticated chickens of Indian origin for the purpose of cockfighting in Asia, Africa, and Europe. Very little formal attention was given to egg or meat production... " In the last decade there have been a number of genetic studies. According to one study, a single domestication event occurring in the region of modern Thailand created the modern chicken with minor transitions separating the modern breeds. However, that study was later found to be based on incomplete data, and recent studies point to multiple maternal origins, with the clade found in the Americas, Europe, Middle East, and Africa, originating from the Indian subcontinent, where a large number of unique haplotypes occur.
It has been claimed (based on paleoclimatic assumptions) that chickens were domesticated in Southern China in 6000 BC. However, according to a recent study, "it is not known whether these birds made much contribution to the modern domestic fowl. Chickens from the Harappan culture of the Indus Valley (2500-2100 BC), in what today is Pakistan, may have been the main source of diffusion throughout the world." A northern road spread chicken to the Tarim basin of central Asia. The chicken reached Europe (Romania, Turkey, Greece, Ukraine) about 3000 BC. Introduction into Western Europe came far later, about the 1st millennium BC. Phoenicians spread chickens along the Mediterranean coasts, to Iberia. Breeding increased under the Roman Empire, and was reduced in the Middle Ages. Middle East traces of chicken go back to a little earlier than 2000 BC, in Syria; chicken went southward only in the 1st millennium BC. The chicken reached Egypt for purposes of cock fighting about 1400 BC, and became widely bred only in Ptolemaic Egypt (about 300 BC). Little is known about the chicken's introduction into Africa. Three possible ways of introduction in about the early first millennium AD could have been through the Egyptian Nile Valley, the East Africa Roman-Greek or Indian trade, or from Carthage and the Berbers, across the Sahara. The earliest known remains are from Mali, Nubia, East Coast, and South Africa and date back to the middle of the first millennium AD. Domestic chicken in the Americas before Western conquest is still an ongoing discussion, but blue-egged chicken, found only in the Americas and Asia, suggest an Asian origin for early American chickens.
A lack of data from Thailand, Russia, the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa makes it difficult to lay out a clear map of the spread of chickens in these areas; better description and genetic analysis of local breeds threatened by extinction may also help with research into this area.
Under natural conditions, most birds lay only until a clutch is complete, and they will then incubate all the eggs. Many domestic hens will also do this–and are then said to "go broody". The broody hen will stop laying and instead will focus on the incubation of the eggs (a full clutch is usually about 12 eggs). She will "sit" or "set" on the nest, protesting or pecking in defense if disturbed or removed, and she will rarely leave the nest to eat, drink, or dust-bathe. While brooding, the hen maintains the nest at a constant temperature and humidity, as well as turning the eggs regularly during the first part of the incubation. To stimulate broodiness, an owner may place many artificial eggs in the nest, or to stop it they may place the hen in an elevated cage with an open wire floor.
At the end of the incubation period (about 21 days), the eggs, if fertile, will hatch. Development of the egg starts only when incubation begins, so they all hatch within a day or two of each other, despite perhaps being laid over a period of two weeks or so. Before hatching, the hen can hear the chicks peeping inside the eggs, and will gently cluck to stimulate them to break out of their shells. The chick begins by "pipping"; pecking a breathing hole with its egg tooth towards the blunt end of the egg, usually on the upper side. The chick will then rest for some hours, absorbing the remaining egg yolk and withdrawing the blood supply from the membrane beneath the shell (used earlier for breathing through the shell). It then enlarges the hole, gradually turning round as it goes, and eventually severing the blunt end of the shell completely to make a lid. It crawls out of the remaining shell, and its wet down dries out in the warmth of the nest.
The hen will usually stay on the nest for about two days after the first egg hatches, and during this time the newly hatched chicks live off the egg yolk they absorb just before hatching. Any eggs not fertilized by a rooster will not hatch, and the hen eventually loses interest in these and leaves the nest. After hatching, the hen fiercely guards the chicks, and will brood them when necessary to keep them warm, at first often returning to the nest at night. She leads them to food and water; she will call them to edible items, but seldom feeds them directly. She continues to care for them until they are several weeks old, when she will gradually lose interest and eventually start to lay again.
Modern egg-laying breeds rarely go broody, and those that do often stop part-way through the incubation. However, some "utility" (general purpose) breeds, such as the Cochin, Cornish and Silkie, do regularly go broody, and they make excellent mothers, not only for chicken eggs but also for those of other species—even those with much smaller or larger eggs and different incubation periods, such as quail, pheasants, turkeys or geese. Chicken eggs can also be hatched under a broody duck, with varied success.
More than 50 billion chickens are reared annually as a source of food, for both their meat and their eggs.
The vast majority of poultry are raised using intensive farming techniques. According to the Worldwatch Institute, 74 percent of the world's poultry meat, and 68 percent of eggs are produced this way. One alternative to intensive poultry farming is free range farming.
Friction between these two main methods has led to long term issues of ethical consumerism. Opponents of intensive farming argue that it harms the environment, creates human health risks and is inhumane. Advocates of intensive farming say that their highly efficient systems save land and food resources due to increased productivity, stating that the animals are looked after in state-of-the-art environmentally controlled facilities.
In part due to the conditions on intensive poultry farms and recent recalls of large quantities of eggs, there is a growing movement for small scale micro-flocks or 'backyard chickens'. This involves keeping small numbers of hens (usually no more than a dozen), in suburban or urban residential areas to control bugs, utilize chicken waste as fertilizer in small gardens, and of course for the high-quality eggs and meat that are produced.
Chickens farmed for meat are called broiler chickens. Chickens will naturally live for 6 or more years, but broiler chickens typically take less than 6 weeks to reach slaughter size. A free range or organic meat chicken will usually be slaughtered at about 14 weeks of age.
Chickens farmed for eggs are called egg-laying hens. In total, the UK alone consumes over 29 million eggs per day. Some hen breeds can produce over 300 eggs per year, with "the highest authenticated rate of egg laying being 371 eggs in 364 days". After 12 months of laying, the commercial hen's egg-laying ability starts to decline to the point where the flock is unviable. Hens, particularly from battery cage systems, are sometimes infirm, have lost a significant amount of their feathers, and their life expectancy has been reduced from around 7 years to less than 2 years. In the UK and Europe, laying hens are then slaughtered and used in processed foods, or sold as "soup hens". In some other countries, flocks are sometimes force moulted, rather than being slaughtered, to reinvigorate egg-laying. This involves complete withdrawal of food (and sometimes water) for 7–14 days or sufficiently long to cause a body weight loss of 25 to 35%, or up to 28 days under experimental conditions which presumably reflect farming practice][. This stimulates the hen to lose her feathers, but also reinvigorates egg-production. Some flocks may be force moulted several times. In 2003, more than 75% of all flocks were moulted in the US.
Incubation can successfully occur artificially in machines that provide the correct, controlled environment for the developing chick. The average incubation period for chickens is 21 days but may depend on the temperature and humidity in the incubator. Temperature regulation is the most critical factor for a successful hatch. Variations of more than 1 °C (1.8 °F) from the optimum temperature of will reduce hatch rates. Humidity is also important because the rate at which eggs lose water by evaporation depends on the ambient relative humidity. Evaporation can be assessed by candling, to view the size of the air sac, or by measuring weight loss. Relative humidity should be increased to around 70% in the last three days of incubation to keep the membrane around the hatching chick from drying out after the chick cracks the shell. Lower humidity is usual in the first 18 days to ensure adequate evaporation. The position of the eggs in the incubator can also influence hatch rates. For best results, eggs should be placed with the pointed ends down and turned regularly (at least three times per day) until one to three days before hatching. If the eggs aren't turned, the embryo inside may stick to the shell and may hatch with physical defects. Adequate ventilation is necessary to provide the embryo with oxygen. Older eggs require increased ventilation.
Many commercial incubators are industrial-sized with shelves holding tens of thousands of eggs at a time, with rotation of the eggs a fully automated process. Home incubators are boxes holding from 6 to 75 eggs; they are usually electrically powered, but in the past some were heated with an oil or paraffin lamp.
The meat of the chicken, also called "chicken", is a type of poultry meat. Because of its relatively low cost, chicken is one of the most used meats in the world. Nearly all parts of the bird can be used for food, and the meat can be cooked in many different ways. Popular chicken dishes include roasted chicken, fried chicken, chicken soup, Buffalo wings, tandoori chicken, butter chicken, and chicken rice. Chicken is also a staple of many fast food restaurants.
In 2000, there were 50.4 million tons of eggs produced in the world (Executive guide to world poultry trends, 2001) and an estimated 53.4 million tons of table eggs were produced during 2002. In 2009, an estimated 62.1 million metric tons of eggs were produced worldwide from a total laying flock of approximately 6.4 billion hens.
Chicken eggs are widely used in many types of dishes, both sweet and savory, including many baked goods. Eggs can be scrambled, fried, hard-boiled, soft-boiled, pickled, and poached. The albumen, or egg white, contains protein but little or no fat, and can be used in cooking separately from the yolk. Egg whites may be aerated or whipped to a light, fluffy consistency and are often used in desserts such as meringues and mousse. Ground egg shells are sometimes used as a food additive to deliver calcium. Hens do not need a male to produce eggs, only to fertilize them. A flock containing only females will still produce eggs, however the eggs will all be infertile.
Chickens are sometimes kept as pets and can be tamed by hand feeding, but roosters can sometimes become aggressive and noisy, although aggression can be curbed with proper handling. Some have advised against keeping them around very young children. Certain breeds, however, such as silkies and many bantam varieties are generally docile and are often recommended as good pets around children with disabilities. Some people find chickens' behaviour entertaining and educational.
Chickens are susceptible to several parasites, including lice, mites, ticks, fleas, and intestinal worms, as well as other diseases. Despite the name, they are not affected by chickenpox, which is generally restricted to humans.
Some of the common diseases that affect chickens are shown below:
Since antiquity chickens have been, and still are, a sacred animal in some cultures and deeply embedded within various belief systems and religious worship. The term "Persian bird" for the cock would appear to been given by the Greeks after Persian contact "because of his great importance and his religious use among the Persians".
In Indonesia the chicken has great significance during the Hindu cremation ceremony. A chicken is considered a channel for evil spirits which may be present during the ceremony. A chicken is tethered by the leg and kept present at the ceremony for its duration to ensure that any evil spirits present during the ceremony go into the chicken and not the family members present. The chicken is then taken home and returns to its normal life.
In ancient Greece, the chicken was not normally used for sacrifices, perhaps because it was still considered an exotic animal. Because of its valor, the cock is found as an attribute of Ares, Heracles, and Athena. The alleged last words of Socrates as he died from hemlock poisoning, as recounted by Plato, were "Crito, I owe a cock to Asclepius; will you remember to pay the debt?", signifying that death was a cure for the illness of life.
The Greeks believed that even lions were afraid of cocks. Several of Aesop's Fables reference this belief.
In the New Testament, Jesus prophesied the betrayal by Peter: "Jesus answered, 'I tell you, Peter, before the rooster crows today, you will deny three times that you know me.'" (Luke 22:34) Thus it happened (Luke 22:61), and Peter cried bitterly. This made the cock a symbol for both vigilance and betrayal. The rooster(cock) serves as a tangible vessel of Christ for some as in the gospel of Matthew, Mark and Luke in the New Testament with Christ speaking through the cock. In the sixth century, Pope Gregory I declared the cock the emblem of Christianity and another Papal enactment of the ninth century by Pope Nicholas I ordered the figure of the cock to be placed on every church steeple.
Earlier, Jesus compares himself to a mother hen when talking about Jerusalem: "O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, you who kill the prophets and stone those sent to you, how often I have longed to gather your children together, as a hen gathers her chicks under her wings, but you were not willing." (Matthew 23:37; also Luke 13:34).
In many Central European folk tales, the devil is believed to flee at the first crowing of a cock.
In traditional Jewish practice, a kosher animal is swung around the head and then slaughtered on the afternoon before Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement, in a ritual called kapparos; it is now common practice to cradle the bird and move it around the head. A chicken or fish is typically used because it is commonly available (and small enough to hold). The sacrifice of the animal is to receive atonement, for the animal symbolically takes on all the person's sins in kapparos. The meat is then donated to the poor. A woman brings a hen for the ceremony, while a man brings a rooster. Although not actually a sacrifice in the biblical sense, the death of the animal reminds the penitent sinner that his or her life is in God's hands.
The Talmud speaks of learning "courtesy toward one's mate" from the rooster (Eruvin 100b). This might refer to the fact that when a rooster finds something good to eat, he calls his hens to eat first. The Talmud likewise provides us with the statement "Had the Torah not been given to us, we would have learned modesty from cats, honest toil from ants, chastity from doves and gallantry from cocks" - (Jonathan ben Nappaha. Talmud: Erubin 100b), which may be further understood as to that of the gallantry of cocks being taken in the context of a religious instilling vessel of "a girt one of the loins"(Young's Literal Translation) that which is "stately in his stride" and "move with stately bearing" within the Book of Proverbs 30:29-31 as referenced by Michael V. Fox in his book Proverbs 10-31 where Saʻadiah ben Yosef Gaon(Saadia Gaon) identifies the definitive trait of "A cock girded about the loins" within Proverbs 30:31(Douay–Rheims Bible) as "the honesty of their behavior and their success", identifying a spiritual purpose of a religious vessel within that religious instilling schema of purpose and use.
The chicken is one of the Zodiac symbols of the Chinese calendar. Also in Chinese religion, a cooked chicken as a religious offering is usually limited to ancestor veneration and worship of village deities. Vegetarian deities such as the Buddha are not one of the recipients of such offerings. Under some observations, an offering of chicken is presented with "serious" prayer (while roasted pork is offered during a joyous celebration). In Confucian Chinese Weddings, a chicken can be used as a substitute for one who is seriously ill or not available (e.g. sudden death) to attend the ceremony. A red silk scarf is placed on the chicken's head and a close relative of the absent bride/groom holds the chicken so the ceremony may proceed. However, this practice is rare today.
A cockatrice was supposed to have been born from an egg laid by a rooster, as well as killed by a Rooster's call.
An early domestication of chickens in Southeast Asia is probable, since the word for domestic chicken (*manuk) is part of the reconstructed Proto-Austronesian language (see Austronesian languages). Chickens, together with dogs and pigs, were the domestic animals of the Lapita culture, the first Neolithic culture of Oceania.
The first pictures of chickens in Europe are found on Corinthian pottery of the 7th century BC. The poet Cratinus (mid-5th century BC, according to the later Greek author Athenaeus) calls the chicken "the Persian alarm". In Aristophanes's comedy The Birds (414 BC) a chicken is called "the Median bird", which points to an introduction from the East. Pictures of chickens are found on Greek red figure and black-figure pottery.
In ancient Greece, chickens were still rare and were a rather prestigious food for symposia. Delos seems to have been a center of chicken breeding.
The Romans used chickens for oracles, both when flying ("ex avibus", Augury) and when feeding ("auspicium ex tripudiis", Alectryomancy). The hen ("gallina") gave a favourable omen ("auspicium ratum"), when appearing from the left (Cic.,de Div. ii.26), like the crow and the owl.
For the oracle "ex tripudiis" according to Cicero (Cic. de Div. ii.34), any bird could be used in auspice, and shows at one point that any bird could perform the tripudium but normally only chickens ("pulli") were consulted. The chickens were cared for by the pullarius, who opened their cage and fed them pulses or a special kind of soft cake when an augury was needed. If the chickens stayed in their cage, made noises ("occinerent"), beat their wings or flew away, the omen was bad; if they ate greedily, the omen was good.
In 249 BC, the Roman general Publius Claudius Pulcher had his "sacred chickens" " thrown overboard when they refused to feed before the battle of Drepana, saying "If they won't eat, perhaps they will drink." He promptly lost the battle against the Carthaginians and 93 Roman ships were sunk. Back in Rome, he was tried for impiety and heavily fined.
In 162 BC, the Lex Faunia forbade fattening hens to conserve grain rations. To get around this, the Romans castrated roosters(capon), which resulted in a doubling of size despite the law that was passed in Rome that forbade the consumption of fattened chickens. It was renewed a number of times, but does not seem to have been successful. Fattening chickens with bread soaked in milk was thought to give especially delicious results. The Roman gourmet Apicius offers 17 recipes for chicken, mainly boiled chicken with a sauce. All parts of the animal are used: the recipes include the stomach, liver, testicles and even the pygostyle (the fatty "tail" of the chicken where the tail feathers attach).
The Roman author Columella gives advice on chicken breeding in his eighth book of his treatise on agriculture. He identifies Tanagrian, Rhodic, Chalkidic and Median (commonly misidentified as Melian) breeds, which have an impressive appearance, a quarrelsome nature and were used for cockfighting by the Greeks. For farming, native (Roman) chickens are to be preferred, or a cross between native hens and Greek cocks. Dwarf chickens are nice to watch because of their size but have no other advantages.
Per Columella, the ideal flock consists of 200 birds, which can be supervised by one person if someone is watching for stray animals. White chickens should be avoided as they are not very fertile and are easily caught by eagles or goshawks. One cock should be kept for five hens. In the case of Rhodian and Median cocks that are very heavy and therefore not much inclined to sex, only three hens are kept per cock. The hens of heavy fowls are not much inclined to brood; therefore their eggs are best hatched by normal hens. A hen can hatch no more than 15-23 eggs, depending on the time of year, and supervise no more than 30 hatchlings. Eggs that are long and pointed give more male, rounded eggs mainly female hatchlings.
Per Columella, chicken coops should face southeast and lie adjacent to the kitchen, as smoke is beneficial for the animals and "poultry never thrive so well as in warmth and smoke". Coops should consist of three rooms and possess a hearth. Dry dust or ash should be provided for dust-baths.
According to Columella, chicken should be fed on barley groats, small chick-peas, millet and wheat bran, if they are cheap. Wheat itself should be avoided as it is harmful to the birds. Boiled ryegrass (Lolium sp.) and the leaves and seeds of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) can be used as well. Grape marc can be used, but only when the hens stop laying eggs, that is, about the middle of November; otherwise eggs are small and few. When feeding grape marc, it should be supplemented with some bran. Hens start to lay eggs after the winter solstice, in warm places around the first of January, in colder areas in the middle of February. Parboiled barley increases their fertility; this should be mixed with alfalfa leaves and seeds, or vetches or millet if alfalfa is not at hand. Free-ranging chickens should receive two cups of barley daily.
Columella advises farmers to slaughter hens that are older than three years, because they no longer produce sufficient eggs.
According to Aldrovandi: Capons were produced by burning "the hind part of the bowels, or loins or spurs" with a hot iron. The wound was treated with potter's chalk.
For the use of poultry and eggs in the kitchens of ancient Rome see Roman eating and drinking.
Chickens were spread by Polynesian seafarers and reached Easter Island in the 12th century AD, where they were the only domestic animal, with the possible exception of the Polynesian Rat (Rattus exulans). They were housed in extremely solid chicken coops built from stone, which was first reported as such to Linton Palmer in 1868, who also "expressed his doubts about this".
An unusual variety of chicken that has its origins in South America is the araucana, bred in southern Chile by Mapuche people. Araucanas, some of which are tailless and some of which have tufts of feathers around their ears, lay blue-green eggs. It has long been suggested that they pre-date the arrival of European chickens brought by the Spanish and are evidence of pre-Columbian trans-Pacific contacts between Asian or Pacific Oceanic peoples, particularly the Polynesians and South America. In 2007, an international team of researchers reported the results of analysis of chicken bones found on the Arauco Peninsula in south-central Chile. Radiocarbon dating suggested that the chickens were Pre-Columbian, and DNA analysis showed that they were related to prehistoric populations of chickens in Polynesia. These results appeared to confirm that the chickens came from Polynesia and that there were transpacific contacts between Polynesia and South America before Columbus's arrival in the Americas.
However, a later report looking at the same specimens concluded:
A published, apparently pre-Columbian, Chilean specimen and six pre-European Polynesian specimens also cluster with the same European/Indian subcontinental/Southeast Asian sequences, providing no support for a Polynesian introduction of chickens to South America. In contrast, sequences from two archaeological sites on Easter Island group with an uncommon haplogroup from Indonesia, Japan, and China and may represent a genetic signature of an early Polynesian dispersal. Modeling of the potential marine carbon contribution to the Chilean archaeological specimen casts further doubt on claims for pre-Columbian chickens, and definitive proof will require further analyses of ancient DNA sequences and radiocarbon and stable isotope data from archaeological excavations within both Chile and Polynesia.
"Medicinal Fried Chicken" is the third episode of the fourteenth season of the American animated television series South Park, and the 198th episode of the series overall. It originally aired on Comedy Central in the United States on March 31, 2010. In the episode, the South Park KFC is replaced by a medicinal marijuana dispensary, and Cartman gets involved in black market selling the KFC chicken. Meanwhile, Randy Marsh gets a medical referral for marijuana by giving himself testicular cancer, which makes his testicles grow to grotesquely huge proportions.
The episode was written and directed by series co-creator Trey Parker, and was rated TV-MA in the United States. "Medicinal Fried Chicken" was first broadcast when Colorado was considering revising state medicinal marijuana laws and restricting fast food eateries. The episode provided social commentary against both types of laws, and suggested legislating lifestyle choices is ineffective and inevitably leads to black markets.
The Cartman drug market subplot was heavily influenced by the 1983 crime film Scarface, with Cartman resembling fictional drug lord Tony Montana and KFC founder Colonel Sanders as antagonist Alejandro Sosa. The episode also included several jokes about Pope Benedict XVI and the child sexual abuse scandals that had been surrounding the Catholic Church at the time. The concept of a former KFC restaurant becoming a medicinal marijuana store mirrors that of a real life dispensary in Palms, Los Angeles, designed to resemble a KFC.
"Medicinal Fried Chicken" received generally positive reviews, with many commentators praising the social commentary and sophomoric testicle jokes alike. According to Nielsen Media Research, the episode was seen by 2.99 million viewers, making it one of the most successful cable programs of the week. Although a KFC spokesman had a lukewarm response to "Medicinal Fried Chicken", officials from the KFC hometown of Corbin, Kentucky were pleased the city was featured in the episode.
New state laws prohibiting fast food restaurants in low-income neighborhoods result in the closure of all KFC eateries in Colorado, much to the dismay of Cartman, who is addicted to the food. When Randy learns that South Park's KFC outlet is now a medicinal marijuana dispensary, he attempts to give himself cancer so he can get a doctor's referral for marijuana (after first gaining a clean bill of health from his doctor since he had assumed permits are given to the healthy). By irradiating his groin with a microwave oven, Randy successfully gives himself testicular cancer, making his testicles so large that he has to use a wheelbarrow to carry them. Randy obtains his medical referral and starts smoking marijuana regularly. Meanwhile, his testicles continue to grow to the point that he uses them as a space hopper for movement. Randy finds that larger testicles are attractive to women, so he encourages his friends to also get testicular cancer. The local doctor, unaware of the men's self-irradiation, becomes convinced that a recent change in South Park is responsible for the cancer outbreak.
Meanwhile, Cartman seeks KFC chicken on the black market by working for Billy Miller, a local boy who runs a small KFC cartel from his home. After Cartman demonstrates his ruthlessness against a cheating street dealer as well as paying his turf to Billy as promised, Billy sends him to Corbin to buy chicken directly from Colonel Sanders. Another boy named Tommy accompanies Cartman, but he is revealed to be an informant for healthy foods advocate Jamie Oliver and executed by the Colonel's men by hanging him from a helicopter exactly like the scene from Scarface. Cartman wins over the Colonel's trust, but is warned to never betray him: "Just remember, I only tell you one time. Don't fuck me, Eric. Don't you ever try to fuck me." Cartman eventually betrays Billy by telling Billy's mother that he got an F on his social studies test, and takes over the cartel after Billy is grounded. The Colonel assigns Cartman the task of assassinating Oliver to prevent him from giving a speech in the United Nations. However, Cartman immediately disregards the Colonel's order and starts eating much of the chicken supplied to him for distribution, putting the operation in danger. The Colonel, furious at Cartman's betrayal, sends a squad of gunmen to kill him in retaliation. A firefight between the gunmen and police then breaks out at the cartel headquarters, and Billy's mother is killed in the crossfire, but Cartman escapes unscathed.
Randy's testicles grow so large that he is unable to fit through the doors of the marijuana dispensary. Prohibited by law from purchasing marijuana outside the premises, Randy and the other self-irradiated men begin protesting for larger dispensary doors. As some politicians present start to discuss ways to get around the problem, the dispensary owner simply suggests that marijuana be legalized, arguing that "people are just abusing this medicinal system anyway." The doctor interrupts by claiming the recent ban on KFC had led to the rise in testicular cancer because the chicken somehow prevented the illness. Colorado bans marijuana once again and reopens KFC, which has now been re-branded as "Medicinal Fried Chicken." Randy has his cancerous testicles removed and replaced with prosthetic ones, and has the skin from his removed enlarged scrotum made into a new coat for Sharon.
"Medicinal Fried Chicken" was written by series co-founders Trey Parker and Matt Stone, was directed by Parker, and was rated TV-MA in the United States. It originally aired on Comedy Central in the United States on March 31, 2010. The episode was first broadcast around the same time a great deal of discussion regarding marijuana laws had been generated in Colorado, where South Park is set and where Parker and fellow series co-creator Matt Stone are from. The state had a medicinal marijuana law that allowed patients to obtain cards to purchase marijuana legally, but as of March 2010, an average of 1,000 people were applying for the cards each day, and many of the applications were of questionable validity and intent. As a result, state officials had been considering whether to revise the medicinal marijuana law, and "Medicinal Fried Chicken" was likely influenced by those discussions. The episode was also based on new Colorado health care laws that threatened to put restrictions on fast food restaurants in the state.
"Medicinal Fried Chicken" provides social commentary regarding laws against both fast food and marijuana, and suggests legislating lifestyle choices is ineffective and nonsensical. The episode seems to advocate the legalization of marijuana. By demonstrating the exaggeratedly absurd lengths that Randy goes to in order to obtain medicinal marijuana, the episode suggests it would be easier and more sensible to simply make cannabis legal. However, the extremely unhealthy measures Randy takes in obtaining testicular cancer to get marijuana can also be seen as a warning that people should not resort to fraudulent medical excuses to get medicinal marijuana. "Medicinal Fried Chicken" also suggests marijuana is less harmful than fast food and, by extension, other legal substances such as alcohol and cigarettes, which further demonstrates the folly of laws regulating lifestyles. However, on the commentary track to this episode, it is said that they notice the hyprocrisy of certain groups who say how bad KFC, McDonalds, Taco Bell, and other fast food restaurants are, and they should be banned, but fight so hard to get marijuana legal. Additionally, Cartman's involvement with organized crime following the prohibition of fast food suggests that black markets are the inevitable outcome when an addictive substance is made illegal, and that people will go to extreme measures to satisfy their addictions no matter how many strict laws are passed.
The fried chicken fast food restaurant KFC is featured prominently in "Medicinal Fried Chicken". The concept of a former KFC restaurant becoming a medicinal marijuana store mirrors that of a real life dispensary in the Palms community of Los Angeles, California. The store, called Kind for Cures, is abbreviated to be called K.F.C. on its exterior signs and resembles the KFC fast food eateries in appearance, which has drawn national media attention to the dispensary. Colonel Harland Sanders, the founder of KFC who died in 1980 but is still used heavily in the chain's advertisements, is portrayed as a living character in "Medicinal Fried Chicken", although he is portrayed as a drug dealer rather than an entrepreneur. Corbin, Kentucky, the home town of the first Kentucky Fried Chicken, is featured in the episode, though here it is portrayed as resembling a South American hacienda.
"Medicinal Fried Chicken" includes several jokes about Pope Benedict XVI and the child sexual abuse scandals that surrounded the Catholic Church when the episode first aired. On three occasions, Cartman uses expanded and modified versions of idiomatic phrases, such as "is the Pope Catholic?", "does a bear shit in the woods?", and their combination, "does the Pope shit in the woods?", which are rhetorical questions used in response to a question where the answer is an emphatic yes. Thus, Cartman implies an affirmative response to questions such as: "Does the pope help pedophiles get away with their crimes?" and "Is the Pope Catholic? And making the world safe for pedophiles?" These are references to allegations that Pope Benedict XVI ignored warnings and concealed evidence that Rev. Peter Hullermann engaged in several acts of child sexual abuse under the future Pope's watch as Archbishop of Munich and Freising in the 1980s. During another scene, Cartman says, "Does a bear crap in the woods? And does the Pope crap on the broken lives and dreams of 200 deaf boys?" This is a reference to reports that Pope Benedict XVI failed to act to reports that Father Lawrence C. Murphy molested up to 200 deaf boys during his time at the St John's Catholic School for the Deaf.
Cartman's involvement with the fried chicken black market closely mirrors the plot of Scarface, the 1983 crime film about the fictional drug lord Tony Montana. Cartman takes on the role of Montana, and Colonel Sanders resembles the drug kingpin antagonist, Alejandro Sosa.
In "Medicinal Fried Chicken", Cartman travels to a foreign land to meet a dealer, usurps the illegal operation from his local boss, and is ultimately brought down because he becomes addicted to his own product. All of these plot points mirror the developments in Scarface and Montana's rise and fall as a cocaine dealer. The episode includes several scenes that mirror scenes from Scarface, including one in which Cartman watches a boy get murdered on a helicopter, and the final scene in which Cartman's compound is attacked by gunmen. The episode also includes references to the 1991 crime film New Jack City.
Colonel Sanders orders Cartman to stop Jamie Oliver, a British celebrity chef known for his campaign against fast food, as shown in his show Jamie Oliver's Food Revolution. On March 23, 2010, Jamie Oliver made an appearance on the Late Show with David Letterman, just 8 days before the episode aired, in which Letterman argued against Oliver's protest of fast food. Throughout the episode, Cartman is critical of fast food fried chicken eateries that compete with KFC. This includes Church's Chicken, which he said "tastes like cat shit", and Boston Market, when a dealer unsuccessfully tries to pass Boston Market gravy off as KFC gravy to Cartman. Randy says he wants to induce cancer and get medicinal marijuana in time to attend a concert by reggae singer Ziggy Marley. The song playing whilst the group of men bounce around on their enlarged testicles is "Chicken on the Rocks", by Jean Jacques Perrey and Dana Countryman. After buying marijuana, Randy remarks he has to rush home to watch Caprica, the science fiction drama series from the network SyFy.
Whilst transporting his enlarged cancerous scrotum and testicles in a wheelbarrow Randy Marsh appears very similar to the popular Viz character Buster Gonad, a character introduced in 1989 and famous for his "unfeasibly large testicles" which he always karted around in a wheelbarrow much like Randy in this episode.
In its original American broadcast on March 31, 2010, "Medicinal Fried Chicken" was watched by 2.99 million viewers, according to Nielsen Media Research, making it the most watched cable television show of the night, and one of the top performing cable programs of the week. Although a slight drop from the 3.24 million viewers of the previous week's episode, "The Tale of Scrotie McBoogerballs", the viewership for "Medicinal Fried Chicken" was considered a strong showing. The episode received an overall 1.9 rating/3 share, meaning that it was seen by 1.9% of the population, and 3% of people watching television at the time of the broadcast. Among viewers between ages 18 and 49, it received a 1.7 rating/5 share, and among male viewers between 18 and 34, it received a 3.1 rating/11 share.
It's silliness to the max. That's what South Park does: takes our initial assumptions, pushes them to the limits, and shows us how ludicrous [they] really can be.
The A.V. Club writer Josh Modell said "Medicinal Fried Chicken" served as a good social satire without becoming too preachy. Modell particularly enjoyed that the other South Park men joined Randy in his absurd testicular cancer scheme, but said the Cartman subplot and drug film parody "fell a little flat". Ramsley Isler of IGN said the giant testes jokes were "brilliantly ludicrous", and did not grow old despite running throughout the length of the episode. Isler praised the ending scene with the scrotum skin coat, and said when Cartman snorted chicken skin like cocaine, "the episode reached a whole new level hilarity". TV Fanatic declared the episode "perfection" and felt it was an improvement over the previous fourteenth season episodes "Sexual Healing" and "The Tale of Scrotie McBoogerballs". The site also praised the episode for use gross-out comedy like enlarged testicles for social satire as well as humor. Carlos Delgado of iF Magazine praised the humor, the references to Scarface and the social commentary, of which he said: "The points were smart, articulate, and, in true South Park style, completely off the wall".
When asked how KFC felt about their portrayal in "Medicinal Fried Chicken", company spokesman Ricky Maynard said only: "As you might expect, KFC Corporation was not contacted by Comedy Central for permission to use our brand in South Park. We had absolutely no say in the show's content." However, officials from Corbin, Kentucky, said they were pleased the city was featured in "Medicinal Fried Chicken", even though it was portrayed as a drug slum. The city has been conducting a campaign to capitalize on its connections to KFC and Colonel Sanders, and Sharae Myers, the city's Main Street manager, said of the episode: "One thing I think is great is that Corbin got the recognition: that the mecca for KFC is in Corbin."
"Medicinal Fried Chicken", along with the thirteen other episodes from South Park's fourteenth season, were released on a three-disc DVD set and two-disc Blu-ray set in the United States on April 26, 2011.
Timeless is the eighth studio album from Wet Wet Wet, and their first in ten years. The album was released on 12 November 2007.
The sleeve artwork is designed by Klaus Voorman, who also designed the artwork for The Beatles album Revolver.
Broilers are chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) bred and raised specifically for meat production. Chickens are one of the most common and widespread domestic animals, and although the global population has decreased from more than 24 billion in 2003 to 19 billion in 2011, there are more chickens in the world than any other species of bird. Typical broilers have white feathers and yellowish skin. Most commercial broilers bred for meat reach slaughter weight at between 5 to 7 weeks of age, although slower growing strains reach slaughter weight at approximately 14 weeks of age. Because of this young age, much of their behaviour and physiology is that of an immature bird. Broilers and egg laying hen are the same species and share many characteristics, however, due to the rapid growth and selection for enlarged breast muscles, broilers are suceptible to different welfare concerns, particularly skeletal. Broilers are usually grown as mixed-sex flocks in large sheds under intensive conditions, but some strains can be grown as free-range flocks.
The traditional poultry farming view of the domestication of the chicken is stated in Encyclopædia Britannica (2007): "Humans first domesticated chickens of Indian origin for the purpose of cockfighting in Asia, Africa, and Europe. Very little formal attention was given to egg or meat production... "
Before the development of modern commercial meat breeds (cows, chickens, etc.) broilers consisted mostly of young male chickens (cockerels) which were culled from farm flocks. Pedigree breeding began around 1916. Magazines for the poultry industry existed at this time. A hybrid variety of chicken was produced from a cross of a male of a naturally double-breasted Cornish strain and a female of a tall, large-boned strain of white Plymouth Rocks. This first attempt at a hybrid meat breed was introduced in the 1930s and became dominant in the 1960s. The original cross was plagued by problems of low fertility, slow growth, and disease susceptibility, and modern broilers have gradually become very different from the Cornish/Rock hybrid.
Modern commercial broilers, for example, Cornish crosses or Cornish-Rocks, are specially bred for large scale, efficient meat production and although they are the same species, grow much faster than egg laying hens or traditional dual purpose breeds. They are noted for having very fast growth rates, a high feed conversion ratio, and low levels of activity. Broilers often reach a slaughter weight of four to five pounds (dressed) in only five weeks, (another source indicates six to seven weeks as typical) although more slow growing free-range and organic strains reach slaughter weight at 12 to 16 weeks of age. As a consequence, their behaviour and physiology are those of immature birds rather than adults. Typical broilers have white feathers and yellowish skin. Recent genetic analysis has revealed that at least the gene for yellow skin was incorporated into domestic birds through hybridization with the Grey Junglefowl (G. sonneratii). Modern crosses are also favorable for meat production because they lack the typical "hair" which many breeds have that necessitates singeing after plucking. Both male and female broilers are reared for their meat.
Because broiler chickens are the same species as egg laying hens, their behavioural repertoires are initially similar, and also similar to those of other gallinaceous birds. However, broiler behaviour is modified by the environment and alters as the broilers’ age and bodyweight rapidly increase. For example, the activity of broilers reared outdoors is initially greater than broilers reared indoors, but from six weeks of age, decreases to comparable levels in all groups. The same study shows that in the outdoors group, surprisingly little use is made of the extra space and facilities such as perches – it was proposed that the main reason for this was leg weakness as 80 per cent of the birds had a detectable gait abnormality at seven weeks of age. There is no evidence of reduced motivation to extend the behavioural repertoire, as, for example, ground pecking remained at significantly higher levels in the outdoor groups because this behaviour could also be performed from a lying posture rather than standing.
Broiler breeders, i.e. males and females reared to fertilise and lay the eggs of the offspring reared for food, perform similar mating behaviour to other chicken types. They exhibit male-male aggression, male-hen aggression, hen-hen aggression, male waltzes, hen crouches, attempted hen mounts, completed hen mounts, attempted hen matings, and completed hen matings. These behaviours are seen less often and may not be exhibited as vigorously as observed in other chicken types. Examining the frequency of all sexual behaviour shows a large decrease with age, suggestive of a decline in libido. The decline in libido is not enough to account for reduced fertility in heavy cocks at 58 weeks and is probably a consequence of the large bulk or the conformation of the males at this age interfering in some way with the transfer of semen during copulations which otherwise look normal.
Nociceptors which respond to noxious stimulation have been identified and physiologically characterised in many different part of the body of the chicken including the beak, mouth, nose, joint capsule and scaly skin. Stimulation of these nociceptors produces cardiovascular and behavioural changes consistent with those seen in mammals and are indicative of pain perception. Physiological and behavioural experiments have identified the problem of acute pain following beak trimming in chicks, shackling, and feather pecking and environmental pollution.
Chickens are omnivores and modern broilers are given access to a special diet of high protein feed, usually delivered via an automated feeding system. This is combined with artificial lighting conditions to stimulate growth and thus the desired body weight is achieved in four to eight weeks, depending on the approximate body weight required by the processing plant.
In the U.S. in 2011, the average feed conversion efficiency of a broiler was 1.91 pounds of feed per pound of liveweight. In 1925 the figure was 4.70.
In 2003, approximately 42 billion broilers were produced, of which 80% were descended from primary stock produced by three companies: Aviagen, Cobb-Vantress, and Hubbard Farms.][. More recent data indicate that 82.9 million metric tonnes of broiler meat will be produced in 2012 
Broilers are sometimes reared on a grass range using a method called pastured poultry, as developed by Joel Salatin and promoted by the American Pastured Poultry Producers Association. Commercial free-range broiler flocks are now common-place in Europe.][
The broiler production process is very much an industrial one. There are several distinct components of the broiler supply chain.
The "primary breeding sector" consists of companies that breed pedigree stock. Pedigree stock ("pure line") is kept on high level biosecure farms. Their eggs are hatched in a special pedigree hatchery and their progeny then goes on to the great grandparent (GGP) and grandparent (GP) generations. These eggs would then go to a special GP hatchery to produce Parent Stock (PS) which passes to the production sector.
In 2006, out of an estimated world population of 18 billion poultry, about 3% are breeding stock. The US supplied about 1/4 of world GP stock.
Worldwide, the primary sector produced 417 million parent stock (PS) per year.
Numerous techniques are used to assess the pedigree stock. For example, birds might be examined with ultrasound or x-rays to study the shape of muscles and bones. The blood oxygen level is measured to determine cardiovascular health. The walking ability of pedigree candidates is observed and scored.
The need for high levels of R&D spending prompted consolidation within the primary breeder industry. By the late 2000s only three sizable breeding groups remained:
In the UK, 2 international firms supply about 90% of the parent stock.
Due to the high levels of variation in the chicken genome, the industry has not yet reached biological limits to improved performance.
The full chicken genome was published in Nature, in December 2004. Today, all primary breeding groups are investing heavily in genomics research. This research mostly focuses on understanding the function and effect of genes already present in the breeding population. Research into transgenics — removing genes or artificially moving genes from one individual or species to another — has fewer prospects of gaining favor among consumers.
Broiler breeder farms raise parent stock which produce fertilized eggs. A broiler hatching egg is never sold at stores and is not meant for human consumption. The males and females are separate genetic lines or breeds. The chicks they produce will therefore be hybrids. Since the birds are bred mainly for efficient meat production, producing eggs can be a challenge. In Canada, the average producer houses 15,000 birds that begin laying hatching eggs at 26 weeks of age. Each bird will lay about 150 hatching eggs for the next 34 to 36 weeks. This cycle is then repeated when the producer puts another flock of 26 week-old birds into his barns to begin the process again. As a general rule, each farmer produces enough broiler hatching egg to supply chicks for 8 chicken producers. (Other sources indicate a parent hen will lay about 180 eggs in 40 week production period.)
Generally, parent flocks are either owned by integrated broiler companies or hatcheries or are contracted to them on a long-term basis.
Broiler breeder growing is typically a two-stage process. Parent stock purchased from a primary breeder is delivered as day old. Most are first placed with on specialist rearing houses or starter farms until approximately 18 weeks of age. The starter farm has the specialized brooding equipment to raise the chicks.
A typical rearing house (also called a shed or barn) design for Alabama-like climate (100°F in summer and 20°F in winter):
Chicks require warm air temperatures, which is reduced as the birds mature:
Chicks might be debeaked at 7–10 days age. During rearing, bird weight is carefully monitored, as an over-weight bird will be a poor egg producer. The feed mix will be adjusted to meet nutritional needs at each stage. Feed might be restricted to control body weight, for example with "skip a day" feeding, or feeding 5 days out of 7. A vaccination program is carried out, which ensures the longevity of the parent stock, and the immunity may be passed to the broiler progeny. Males (cockerels) and females (pullets), are usually raised separately.
The birds are then moved to broiler breeder laying houses or production barns. The birds are typically placed into crates example, and transported by truck to a separate facility. Males and females are raised together at this point. Outwardly the laying house will resemble the rearing house. Inside, about one-half of the floor might consist of raised 'slats' (example). During the production run, manure will drop through the slats and accumulate in the pit underneath the slats. The birds are not generally caged, especially since the roosters must mate with the hens to fertilize the eggs. Nests are provided for laying hens. Both automatic and manual (example) nesting systems exist. Manual nests are usually stuffed with straw or shavings and eggs are hand-collected. Automatic systems usually have a plastic carpet lining, with an belt for egg collection. Careful layout and attention to bird behavior is required to avoid 'floor eggs'.
Depending on breed, egg production starts at 24–26 weeks of age. Production percentage (daily eggs per hen) climbs rapidly to a peak of 80–85% at 29–32 weeks, and then gradually declines with age. Hatchability tends to peak (at perhaps 90%) somewhat later than production at 34–36 weeks. Overall flock production will decline as mortality reduces the size of the flock.
When the rooster mates with the hen, sperm enter the hen's oviduct and are stored within sperm storage glands. These glands can store more than half a million sperm, and sperm can remain viable for up to 3 weeks. However, a hen will have maximum fertility for only about 3 to 4 days after one mating. Therefore, the male-to-female ratio in a flock must be enough to ensure mating of every hen every 3 days or so. To maintain fertility, younger roosters may be introduced as the flock ages.
Eggs are collected a minimum of twice a day, and usually more frequently. Cracked or dirty eggs are separated, as they are not suitable for hatching. Undersized, over-sized or double-yolk eggs are also unsuitable. The eggs might be disinfected by fumigation, are packed in 'flats' or trays, placed in wheeled trolleys, and stored in a cool (15-18C) climate-controlled area. The egg packing room and storage rooms are kept segrated to reduce contamination. The trolleys are delivered by truck to a hatchery perhaps twice a week.
At the end of the production cycle, the birds are called "spent fowl". Disposal of spent fowl may be a problem as consumer demand for them is poor.
Hatcheries take the fertilized eggs, incubate them, and produce day old broiler chicks.
Incubation takes about 21 days, and is often a two-step process. Initial incubation is done in machines known as setters. A modern setter is the size of a large room, with a central corridor and racks on either side. Eggs are held relatively tightly (large end up) in trays, which are stored in the racks. Inside the setter, temperature and humidity are closely maintained. Blowers or fans circulate air to ensure uniform temperature, and heating or cooling is applied as needed by automated controls. The racks pivot or tilt from side to side, usually on an hourly basis. As an example, one commercial machine can hold 95,040 eggs and measures about 3.7 metres wide by 6.6 metres deep. Setters often hold more than one hatch, on a staggered hatch-day basis, and operate continuously. The setter phase lasts about 18 days.
On or about day 18, the eggs are removed from the setters and transferred to hatchers. These machines are similar to setters, but have larger flat-bottom trays, so the eggs can rest on their sides, and newly hatched chicks can walk. Having a separate machine helps keep hatching debris out of the setter. The environmental conditions in the hatcher are optimized to help the chicks hatch. As a commercial example, a large hatcher has capacity for 15,840 eggs, and measures about 3.3 metres by 1.8 metres.
Some incubators are single-stage (combining setter and hatcher funcations), and entire trolleys of eggs can be rolled in at one time. One advantage of single-stage machines is that they are thoroughly cleaned after each hatch, whereas a setter is rarely shutdown for cleaning. The single-stage environment can be adjusted for eggs from different producing flocks, and for each step of the hatch cycle. The setter environment is often a compromise as different egg batches are in the machine at one time.][
On hatch day (day 21), the trays are removed ("pulled") from the hatchers, and then the chicks are removed from the trays. Chicks are inspected, with the sickly ones being disposed of humanely. Chicks may be by vaccinated, sorted by sex, counted, and placed in chick boxes.(Example1) (Example2) Stacks of chick boxes are loaded into trucks for transport, and arrive at the broiler farm on the same day. Specialized climate-controlled trucks are typically used, depending on climate and transport distance.
Chick sexing is optionally done to improve uniformity – since males grow faster, the weights are more uniform if males and females are raised separately. The birds are bred so that males and females have unique feather patterns or color differences. Unlike egg-laying poultry, males are not culled.
Typical hatchability rate in Canada in 2011 was 82.2%. (i.e. 82.2% of eggs set for incubation produced a saleable chick). A UK source estimates 90% hatchability.
The chicks are delivered to the actual broiler Grow-Out farms.
In the US, houses may be up to 60' x 600' (36000 sq.ft.). One 2006 magazine survey reported a desired 67 foot wide house, with the average 'standard' new house being 45' x 493', with largest being 60' x 504'. One farm complex may have several houses.
In Mississippi, typical farms now have four to six houses with 25,000 birds per house. One full-time worker might manage three houses. On average, a new broiler house is about 500 feet long by 44 feet wide and costs about $200,000 equipped.
Because of their efficient meat conversion, broiler chickens are also popular in small family farms in rural communities, where a family will raise a small flock of broilers.][
When the birds are large enough, they are shipped to processing plants for slaughter. When chickens arrive at the processor they go through the following sequence:
Further Processing plants carry out operations such as cutting and deboning. Note that the livehang lines have generally run at a maximum of 140 chickens per minute. The maximum speed has been increased to 175 birds/minute. Once the dead birds arrive in the eviseration room (usually dropped down a chute after the feet are removed), they are rehanged on shackles much the same way as they were livehanged.
Today, in the U.S. an individual company called an "integrator" performs all or most production aspects. Integrators generally own breeder flocks, hatcheries, feed mills, and processing plants. The integrators provide the chicks, feed, medication, part of the fuel for brooding, and technical advisers to supervise farm production. Integration reduces costs by coordinating each stage of production.
In the 1920s–1930s, broiler production was initiated in locations such as the Delmarva Peninsula, Georgia, Arkansas, and New England. Mrs. Wilmer Steele of Sussex County, Delaware, is often cited as the pioneer of the commercial broiler industry. In 1923, she raised a flock of 500 chicks intended to be sold for meat. Her business was so profitable that by 1926 she was able to build a 10,000 bird broiler house.
In 1945, A&P organized the first of its “Chicken of Tomorrow” contests. Qualifying trials were conducted in 1946 and 1947 with the national finals held in 1948. Breeders submitted a case of 30 dozen hatching eggs to a hatchery, the eggs were hatched, the offspring raised until they reached market weight and were then slaughtered. Broilers were judged on several factors, including growth rate, feed conversion efficiency, and the amount of meat on breasts and drumsticks. Though held only three times, the contests enabled breeders such as Peterson, Vantress, Cobb, Hubbard, Pilch and Arbor Acres to become established market brands.
During the 1940s – 1960s, feed mills, hatcheries, farms, and processors were all separate entities. Hatcheries were driven to co-ordinate activities to protect their market share and production. Later, feed mills extended credit to farmers to purchase feed to produce the live chickens. Eventually entrepreneurs consolidated feed mill, hatchery and processing operations, resulting in the beginnings of the integrated industry.
Chickens were typically sold “New York dressed,” with only the blood and feathers removed. In 1942, an Illinois plant was the first to win government approval of “on-line” evisceration. Evisceration and ice-packing of ready-to-cook whole carcasses became the norm. In 1949, USDA launched a voluntary program of grading. Federal inspection of broilers became mandatory in 1959.
By 1952, “broilers” surpassed farm chickens as the number one source of chicken meat in the United States.
By the mid-1960s, ninety percent of broilers produced came from vertical integrated operations, which combined production, processing and marketing.
In the late 1960s and early 1970s, major companies used television and print media to market chickens under brand names. Today, 95 percent of broilers sold at retail grocery stores carry a brand name.
By the early 1980s, consumers preferred cut-up and further-processed chickens to the traditional whole bird.
Chicken passed pork consumption in 1985. Chicken consumption surpassed beef consumption in 1992.
Broiler chickens may develop several health or welfare issues as a result of selective breeding. Broiler chickens are bred to be very large to produce the most meat per animal. Broilers bred for fast growth have a high incidence of leg deformities because the large breast muscles cause distortions of the developing legs and pelvis and the birds cannot support their increased body weight. Therefore, they may become lame or suffer from broken legs. The added weight also puts a strain on their hearts and lungs and can develop. In the UK, up to 19 million broilers die in their sheds from heart failure each year.
Another issue with selective breeding of broilers is that the larger chickens have an increased appetite. The broiler chicks that are reared for meat are not usually feed-restricted as this would lengthen the time taken to reach slaughter weight. However, the parent birds which lay the eggs of the meat-producing birds also have an increased appetite and are feed-restricted to prevent them becoming overweight; this leads to behavioral issues in chronically hungry birds.
If the litter in the pen is not properly managed, it can become highly polluted with ammonia from the feces. This can damage the chickens’ eyes and respiratory systems, and because the heavier birds spend longer times resting, can cause painful burns on their legs (called hock burns) and foot ulcerations. Pastured or free-range birds which are rotated frequently typically do not have these problems.
Some broiler strains develop joint disorders, are very inactive, poor foragers, prone to predation, and are generally not suited to small free-range flocks. However, commercial free-range broiler flocks are now commonplace in Europe.
Broiler mortality in the U.S. in 2011 is estimated as 3.8%. However the 1925 figure was 18%.
Worldwide, from 1985 to 2005, the broiler industry grew by 158%. Major increases were experienced by:
In 2005 world production was 71,851,000 tonnes. Major producers were:
In 2005, world exports of chicken meat $8.3 billion (CAD). Largest exporters were Brazil ($4 billion), the United States ($2.6 billion) and the EU-25 ($0.82 billion). The largest importers of chicken meat were: Japan ($1 billion), Russia ($943.3 million), Germany ($800.6 million) and Hong Kong ($598.8 million).
In 2010, approximately 36.9 billion pounds (16,737,558 tonnes) of broilers were sold, for a retail value of $45 billion, based on retail weight sold multiplied by the retail composite price. In 2010, the US exported 6.8 billion pounds, valued at $3.1 billion, about 18% of production.
In 2009, the US produced 8.6 billion birds. The top 3 states were Georgia, Arkansas and Alabama, each producing over 1 billion birds. Farm receipts were about $22 billion.
There are less than 50 highly specialized, vertically integrated agribusiness firms that dominate the industry. The top 10 integrators produce about 60% of U.S. broilers.
In 2001, there were 323 chicken hatcheries, with an incubator capacity of 862 million eggs. The average capacity per hatchery was 2.7 million eggs.
In 2010 the largest producers were Tyson Foods (161 million ready to cook pounds) and Pilgrim's Pride (126.5 million pounds). The next largest producer, Perdue Farms, is less than half the size of Pilgrims Pride.
Canada has a supply management system where marketing boards govern the broiler and broiler hatching egg industries. For broilers, prices are negotiated at the provincial level. In each province, the minimum price per kg that processors will pay to producers is set periodically through negotiations between processors and the provincial marketing board. From 1992 to 2003, negotiated prices in Ontario are generally used as a benchmark when conducting price negotiations in other provinces. In Ontario, Chicken Farmers of Ontario (CFO) has price-negotiating authority. It negotiates the base price paid by primary processors for live chicken with primary processors. Since 2003, the live chicken price is determined by a “live price formula” established by the Agriculture, Food, and Rural Affairs Appeals Tribunal that includes the price of chicks, feed and producer margin.
Broiler hatching egg production consists of 270 producers generating about $188.3 million dollars in 2005. Canada produced about 675 million hatching eggs, and imported about 121 million.
There were 66 hatcheries in Canada, of which 20 were mixed, producing both broiler and layer chicks. The main companies involved in broiler hatching eggs and chicks are:
The average price per chick was about $0.35. Canada imported about 13 million broiler chicks.
There were 2786 regulated chicken producers, generating farm cash receipts of $1.6 billion in 2005. Compared to other livestock sectors (i.e. beef, dairy, and pork), the poultry and egg industry was the healthiest with regards to total income for the average operator.
In 2005, total chicken slaughters were 973.9 million kilograms. Of this, 35.2 million kg were mature (non-broiler)slaughters, meaning about 96% of chicken consumption was broilers. By revenue, chicken processing is about 1/4 of the meat packing business. The top 8 processors account 66% of the market.
In 2005 there were 175 primary poultry processing plants. The five largest firms are, in order:
There are 376 plants that do further processing, involving canning, boning and cutting.
The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA), is a branch of Health Canada whose role is to enforce the food safety, to ensure animal health, to set standards and carry out enforcement and inspection. Activities range from the inspection of federally registered meat processing facilities to border inspections for foreign pests and diseases, to the enforcement of practices related to fraudulent labelling. The CFIA also verifies the humane transportation of animals, conducts food investigations and recalls, and performs laboratory testing and environmental feeds.
The Canadian On-Farm Food Safety Program (COFFSP) is directed by producers. It is a science-based, credible program consistent with the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP, "hass ap") standards, managed by the Canadian Federation of Agriculture.
Snake bite chicken is a controversial dish served in Guangdong and Chongqing China, though its exact origin is unknown. The dish consist of a venomous snake being forced to bite a chicken. After the chicken is envenomated and dies, it is then served.
The foshan dish cooking method is made by forcing a venomous snake to bite a chicken. The chicken is bitten and poisoned through the head. It may take more than 10 minutes for the chicken to die. A strong chicken may require several bites. After the chicken dies, it can be served in a pan for 98 Chinese yuan. If it is served with both the chicken and the snake, it costs 118 yuan.
A controversial video was made from a Guangdong restaurant. It was then broadcasted and generated a large number of anti-Cantonese comments. When a reporter asked a notable professor from Sun Yat-sen University about the health benefit of the dish, he claimed that it was only his first time of hearing about the dish. Health authorities in Guangdong have already told restaurants to stop serving the dish. Chongqing have also joined in.
The Beavis and Butt-head Experience is a compilation album, released in 1993 by Geffen Records. The name is a reference to Jimi Hendrix's original band, The Jimi Hendrix Experience.
Beavis and Butt-head is an American teen animation series created and designed by Mike Judge. The series originated from "Frog Baseball", a 1992 short film by Judge originally aired on Liquid Television. After seeing the short, MTV signed Judge to develop the concept. The Beavis and Butt-Head television show first ran from March 8, 1993 to November 28, 1997. It was revived in 2011 and new episodes began airing on MTV from October 27, 2011 to December 29, 2011. The series has retained a cult following. Later, reruns aired on other Viacom properties, including MTV2, Comedy Central and UPN. In 1996, the series was adapted into the animated feature film Beavis and Butt-Head Do America.
The show centers on two socially awkward, rock-loving teenage delinquents, Beavis and Butt-Head (both voiced by Judge), who live in the town of Highland. They have no apparent adult supervision at home, and in one episode ("Scientific Stuff") they say that they're not sure if they have the same father or not. They are dim-witted, under-educated, and barely literate, and both lack any empathy or moral scruples, even regarding each other. Their most common shared activity is watching music videos, which they tend to judge by deeming them "cool," or by exclaiming, "This sucks!" They also apply these judgments to other things that they encounter, and will usually deem something "cool" if it is associated with violence, sex or the macabre. Despite having no experience with women, their other signature traits are a shared obsession with sex, and their tendency to chuckle and giggle whenever they hear words or phrases that can even remotely be construed as sexual or scatological. Chicken