Programmable calculators are calculators that can automatically carry out a sequence of operations under control of a stored program, much like a computer. The first programmable calculators such as the IBM CPC used punched cards or other media for program storage. Hand-held electronic calculators store programs on magnetic strips, removable read-only memory cartridges, or in battery-backed read/write memory.
Since the early 1990s, most of these flexible handheld units belong to the class of graphing calculators. Before the mass-manufacture of inexpensive dot-matrix LCD displays, however, programmable calculators usually featured a one-line numeric or alphanumeric display.
In numerical analysis, a branch of mathematics, there are several square root algorithms or methods for calculating the principal square root of a nonnegative real number. For the square roots of a negative or complex number, see below.
Finding is the same as solving the equation . Therefore, any general numerical root-finding algorithm can be used. Newton's method, for example, reduces in this case to the so-called Babylonian method:
An order of magnitude is a scale of numbers with a fixed ratio, often rounded to the nearest ten.
For example: The United States has the world's highest incarceration rate. It has an order of magnitude more imprisoned human beings per 100,000 population than Norway.