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The standard enthalpy of formation or standard heat of formation of a compound is the change of enthalpy that accompanies the formation of 1 mole of a substance in its standard state from its constituent elements in their standard states.

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sodium chloride

Sodium chloride

Common salt


The standard enthalpy of formation or standard heat of formation of a compound is the change of enthalpy from the formation of 1 mole of the compound from its constituent elements, with all substances in their standard states at 101.3 kPa and 298 K. Its symbol is ΔHfO or ΔfHO. The superscript theta (zero) on this symbol indicates that the process has been carried out under standard conditions. Standard States are as follows:

For example, the standard enthalpy of formation of carbon dioxide would be the enthalpy of the following reaction under the conditions above:

The enthalpy of atomization (also atomisation in British spelling) is the enthalpy change that accompanies the total separation of all atoms in a chemical substance (either a chemical element or a chemical compound). This is often represented by the symbol ΔatHo or ΔHato. All bonds in the compound are broken in atomization and none are formed, so enthalpies of atomization are always positive. The associated standard enthalpy is known as the Standard enthalpy of atomization, ΔatHo/(kJ mol−1), at 298.15 K (or 25 degrees celsius) and 101.3 kPa.

Definition: Enthalpy of atomization is the amount of enthalpy change when a compound's bonds are broken and the component atoms are reduced to individual atoms.

The enthalpy of neutralization (ΔHn) is the change in enthalpy that occurs when one equivalent of an acid and one equivalent of a base undergo a neutralization reaction to form water and a salt. It is a special case of the enthalpy of reaction. It is defined as the energy released with the formation of 1 mole of water.

When a reaction is carried out under standard conditions at the temperature of 298 K (25 degrees Celsius) and 1 atm of pressure and one mole of water is formed it is called the standard enthalpy of neutralization (ΔHno).

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