Question:

How thick is bulletproof glass?

Answer:

It can be up to ten times thicker than a single pane of ordinary glass and it's usually very heavy. AnswerParty on!

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bulletproof glass

Bulletproof glass (also known as ballistic glass, transparent armor or bullet-resistant glass) is a type of strong but optically transparent material that is particularly resistant to being penetrated when struck. Like any material, however, they are not completely impenetrable. It is usually made from a combination of two or more types of glass, one hard and one soft. The softer layer makes the glass more elastic, so it can flex instead of shatter. The index of refraction for both of the glasses used in the bulletproof layers must be almost the same to keep the glass transparent and allow a clear, undistorted view through the glass. Bulletproof glass varies in thickness from three-quarter inch to three inches (19mm to 76mm).

Bullet-resistant glass is usually constructed using polycarbonate, thermoplastic, and layers of laminated glass. The aim is to make a material with the appearance and clarity of standard glass but with effective protection from small arms. Polycarbonate designs usually consist of products such as Armormax, Makroclear, Cyrolon, Lexan or Tuffak, which are often sandwiched between layers of regular glass. The ability of a glass itself to withstand shock is improved by the process of tempering. When treated with heating and cooling or with chemical processes, the glass becomes much stronger. The polycarbonate usually has one of two types of coating to resist abrasion: a soft coating that heals after being scratched (such as elastomeric carbon-based polymers) or a hard coating that prevents scratching (such as silicon-based polymers). The plastic in laminate designs also provides resistance to impact from physical assault from hammers, axes, clubs, crowbars and so forth. The plastic provides little in the way of bullet-resistance. The glass, which is much harder than plastic, flattens the bullet, and the plastic deforms, (hopefully) absorbing the rest of the energy and preventing penetration. The ability of the polycarbonate layer to stop projectiles with varying energy is directly proportional to its thickness, and bulletproof glass of this design may be up to three inches thick.


Bulletproof glass

Bulletproof glass (also known as ballistic glass, transparent armor or bullet-resistant glass) is a type of strong but optically transparent material that is particularly resistant to being penetrated when struck. Like any material, however, they are not completely impenetrable. It is usually made from a combination of two or more types of glass, one hard and one soft. The softer layer makes the glass more elastic, so it can flex instead of shatter. The index of refraction for both of the glasses used in the bulletproof layers must be almost the same to keep the glass transparent and allow a clear, undistorted view through the glass. Bulletproof glass varies in thickness from three-quarter inch to three inches (19mm to 76mm).

Bullet-resistant glass is usually constructed using polycarbonate, thermoplastic, and layers of laminated glass. The aim is to make a material with the appearance and clarity of standard glass but with effective protection from small arms. Polycarbonate designs usually consist of products such as Armormax, Makroclear, Cyrolon, Lexan or Tuffak, which are often sandwiched between layers of regular glass. The ability of a glass itself to withstand shock is improved by the process of tempering. When treated with heating and cooling or with chemical processes, the glass becomes much stronger. The polycarbonate usually has one of two types of coating to resist abrasion: a soft coating that heals after being scratched (such as elastomeric carbon-based polymers) or a hard coating that prevents scratching (such as silicon-based polymers). The plastic in laminate designs also provides resistance to impact from physical assault from hammers, axes, clubs, crowbars and so forth. The plastic provides little in the way of bullet-resistance. The glass, which is much harder than plastic, flattens the bullet, and the plastic deforms, (hopefully) absorbing the rest of the energy and preventing penetration. The ability of the polycarbonate layer to stop projectiles with varying energy is directly proportional to its thickness, and bulletproof glass of this design may be up to three inches thick.


Toughened glass

Toughened or tempered glass is a type of safety glass processed by controlled thermal or chemical treatments to increase its strength compared with normal glass. Tempering puts the outer surfaces into compression and the inner part is in tension. Such stresses cause the glass, when broken, to crumble into small granular chunks instead of splintering into jagged shards. The granular chunks are less likely to cause injury.

As a result of its safety and strength, toughened glass is used in a variety of demanding applications, including passenger vehicle windows, shower doors, architectural glass doors and tables, refrigerator trays, as a component of bulletproof glass, for diving masks, and various types of plates and cookware.

A civilian armored car is a security vehicle which made by replacing the windows of a standard vehicle (typically a limousine or SUV) with bulletproof glass and inserting layers of armor plate into the body panels. Unlike a military armored car, which has armor plate mounted on the outside of the vehicle, a civilian armored car typically looks no different from a standard vehicle.

Civilian armored cars are either (in only a few cases) factory produced, such as the Audi A6 and A8, Lincoln Town Car BPS, the Hyundai Equus, the BMW High Security series, or (in the majority of cases) retrofitted versions of series cars. A security vehicle is made by replacing the windows with bulletproof glass and inserting layers of armor plate under the outer skin of the car, a labor-intensive process that generally takes a few weeks and most often costs upward of $100,000 USD. The makers usually leave the external appearance of the car unchanged, in order that it look as inconspicuous as possible. In most cases materials like Aramid (e.g. Kevlar), HMPE (e.g. Dyneema), composites or ballistic stainless steel plates are used, and the increased mass is offset by a more powerful engine and brakes and stronger shock absorbers. The increased weight means that the mechanical parts of an armored car are subjected to higher forces than normal, which in turn reduces the service life of the car.


Armor-piercing shot and shell

An armor-piercing (AP) shell is a type of ammunition designed to penetrate armor. From the 1860s to 1950s, a major application of armor-piercing projectiles was to defeat the thick armor carried on many warships. From the 1920s onwards, armor-piercing weapons were required for anti-tank missions. Furthermore it is used to defeat concrete, ballistic vests, bulletproof glass, and other defenses.]citation needed[

An armor-piercing shell must withstand the shock of punching through armor plating. Shells designed for this purpose have a greatly strengthened case with a specially hardened and shaped nose, and a much smaller bursting charge. Some smaller-caliber AP shells have an inert filling, or incendiary charge in place of the HE bursting charge. The AP shell is now little used in naval warfare, as modern warships have little or no armor protection,]citation needed[ but it remains the preferred round in anti-tank warfare, as it has a greater "first-hit kill" probability than a high explosive anti-tank (HEAT) round, especially against a target with composite armor, and because of higher muzzle velocity, is also more accurate than a HEAT round.


Popemobile

Popemobile (Italian: Papamobile) is an informal name for the specially designed motor vehicles used by the Catholic Pope during outdoor public appearances. It is usually considered as the heir of the antiquated sedia gestatoria. The Popemobile was designed to allow the pope to be more visible when greeting large crowds. There have been many different designs for popemobiles since Pope Paul VI first used a modified Toyota Land Cruiser to greet crowds in Saint Peter's Square, in 1976.

Some popemobiles are open air, while others have bulletproof glass to enclose the pope (these were deemed necessary after the Ali Agca assassination attempt). Some allow the pope to sit, while others are designed to accommodate the pope standing. The variety of popemobiles allows the Vatican to select a popemobile appropriate for each usage depending upon the level of security needed, distance and speed of travel. The vehicle registration plate of the popemobile reads "SCV 1". "SCV" abbreviates both "Stato della Città del Vaticano" and "Status Civitatis Vaticanae", the Italian and Latin names for Vatican City. In the past, however, popemobiles had also other registration plates, from SCV 2 to SCV 9. The vehicle is only ever driven by an experienced and trusted member of the state where the pope is visiting.

The conservation of the Shroud of Turin refers to the conservation-restoration and enduring preservation of the Shroud of Turin to avoid further damage and contamination. Since 1578 the Shroud is kept in the Royal Chapel of Turin Cathedral (in 1694—1993 the Shroud rested in the Royal Chapel's Bertola altar), under the laminated bulletproof glass of the airtight case. The temperature and humidity controlled-case is filled with argon (99.5%) and oxygen (0.5%) to prevent chemical changes, the Shroud itself is kept on an aluminum support sliding on runners and stored flat within the case.

When the Shroud is not on public display, the case is closed, during the public display the case can be moved, raised and opened. During the last centuries, the Shroud has been publicly exhibited a limited number of times, often on very special occasions.

Glass
Carbonate ester

A carbonate ester (organic carbonate or organocarbonate) is an ester of carbonic acid. This functional group consists of a carbonyl group flanked by two alkoxy groups. The general structure of these carbonates is R1O(C=O)OR2 and they are related to esters R1O(C=O)R and ethers R1OR2 and also to the inorganic carbonates.

Monomers of polycarbonate (e.g. Lexan) are linked by carbonate groups. These polycarbonates are used in eyeglass lenses, compact discs, and bulletproof glass. Small carbonate esters like dimethyl carbonate, and ethylene and propylene carbonate are used as solvents. Dimethyl carbonate is a mild methylating agent as well.

The Donnell Library Center was a branch of the New York City Library at 20 West 53rd Street just across the street from the Museum of Modern Art. It closed as of August 30, 2008.

The library was famous for housing the collection of the original Winnie-the-Pooh dolls including Pooh's friends Kanga, Eeyore, Tigger and Piglet behind bulletproof glass in a display in the Children’s Reading Room.

An armoured bus or armored bus is a type of bus which provides increased protection for passengers, usually against small arms and improvised explosive devices. The bus can be a stock commercial bus with retro-fitted vehicle armour as well as bulletproof glass, or a specially built military armoured vehicle. Lighter armoured buses are also used for prisoner transport.

During World War I, civilian buses were pressed into service, especially by Great Britain and France, fulfilling several roles: to transport troops, supplies, and livestock, and as ambulances and mobile surgeries. Britain used several hundred Daimler and LGOC B-type buses as troop transports, but they were not armoured. It was found that the windows were frequently broken by troops' equipment, and the glass was eventually removed. Wooden planks were fixed over the apertures, offering protection from the weather but not from hostile fire.

Windows
Visual arts

The visual arts are art forms that create works that are primarily visual in nature, such as ceramics, drawing, painting, sculpture, printmaking, design, crafts, photography, video, filmmaking and architecture. These definitions should not be taken too strictly as many artistic disciplines (performing arts, conceptual art, textile arts) involve aspects of the visual arts as well as arts of other types. Also included within the visual arts are the applied arts such as industrial design, graphic design, fashion design, interior design and decorative art.

The current usage of the term "visual arts" includes fine art as well as the applied, decorative arts and crafts, but this was not always the case. Before the Arts and Crafts Movement in Britain and elsewhere at the turn of the 20th century, the term 'artist' was often restricted to a person working in the fine arts (such as painting, sculpture, or printmaking) and not the handicraft, craft, or applied art media. The distinction was emphasized by artists of the Arts and Crafts Movement who valued vernacular art forms as much as high forms. Art schools made a distinction between the fine arts and the crafts maintaining that a craftsperson could not be considered a practitioner of the arts. The increasing tendency to privilege painting, and to a lesser degree sculpture, above other arts has been a feature of Western art as well as East Asian art. In both regions painting has been seen as relying to the highest degree on the imagination of the artist, and the furthest removed from manual labour - in Chinese painting the most highly valued styles were those of "scholar-painting", at least in theory practiced by gentleman amateurs. The Western hierarchy of genres reflected similar attitudes.


Optical materials

Optical Materials is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that publishes original papers and review articles on the design, synthesis, characterisation and applications of materials, suitable for various optical devices. The journal also publishes papers about physical and chemical properties of such materials and their applications.

Optical Materials is abstracted and indexed in the following databases:

Armour
Architectural glass

Architectural glass is glass that is used as a building material. It is most typically used as transparent glazing material in the building envelope, including windows in the external walls. Glass is also used for internal partitions and as an architectural feature. When used in buildings, glass is often of a safety type, which include reinforced, toughened and laminated glasses.

Cast glass windows, albeit with poor optical qualities, began to appear in the most important buildings in Rome and the most luxurious villas of Herculaneum and Pompeii.

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