The George Washington Bridge (known informally as the GW Bridge, the GWB, the GW, or the George) is a double-decked suspension bridge spanning the Hudson River, connecting the Washington Heights neighborhood in the borough of Manhattan in New York City to Fort Lee, Bergen County, New Jersey, in the United States. Interstate 95 (I-95) and U.S. Route 1/9 (US 1/9) cross the river via the bridge. The New Jersey Turnpike (part of I-95) and US 46, which lie entirely within New Jersey, end halfway across the bridge at the state border with New York. At its eastern terminus in New York City, the bridge connects with the Trans-Manhattan Expressway.
The bridge, an integral conduit within the New York Metropolitan Area, has an upper level carrying four lanes in each direction and a lower level with three lanes in each direction, for a total of 14 lanes of travel. The speed limit on the bridge is 45 mph (72 km/h), though congestion often slows traffic, especially during the morning and evening rush hours. The bridge's upper level carries pedestrian and bicycle traffic. As of 2013[update], the George Washington Bridge carries approximately 102 million vehicles per year, making it the world's busiest motor vehicle bridge, according to the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, the bi-state government agency that owns and operates several area bridges, tunnels, and airports.
The Hudson River is a 315-mile (507 km) watercourse that flows from north to south through eastern New York State in the United States. The river begins at Henderson Lake in Newcomb, New York. The river flows southward past the state capital at Albany and then eventually forms the boundary between New York City and the U.S. state of New Jersey at its mouth before emptying into Upper New York Bay. Its lower half is a tidal estuary, which occupies the Hudson Fjord. This formed during the most recent North American glaciation over the latter part of the Wisconsin Stage of the Last Glacial Maximum, 26,000 to 13,300 years ago. Tidal waters influence the Hudson's flow as far north as Troy, New York.
The river is named after Henry Hudson, an Englishman sailing for the Dutch East India Company, who explored it in 1609. It had previously been observed by Italian explorer Giovanni da Verrazano sailing for King Francis I of France in 1524, as he became the first European known to have entered the Upper Bay, but he considered the river to be an estuary. The Dutch called the river the "North River" – with the Delaware River called the "South River" – and it formed the spine of the Dutch colony of New Netherland. Settlement of the colony clustered around the Hudson, and its strategic importance as the gateway to the American interior led to years of competition between the English and the Dutch over control of the river and colony.
Transportation in the United States is facilitated by road, air, rail, and water networks(Boats). The vast majority of passenger travel occurs by automobile for shorter distances, and airplane or railroad for some people, for longer distances. In descending order, most cargoes travel by railroad, truck, pipeline, or boat; air shipping is typically used only for perishables and premium express shipments.
New York is a state in the Northeastern region of the United States. New York is the 27th-most extensive, the third-most populous, and the seventh-most densely populated of the 50 United States. New York is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and by Connecticut, Massachusetts and Vermont to the east. The state has a maritime border with Rhode Island east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Ontario to the west and north, and Quebec to the north. The state of New York is often referred to as New York State, so as to distinguish it from New York City.
New York City, with a Census-estimated population of over 8.3 million in 2012, is the most populous city in the United States. Alone, it makes up over 40 percent of the population of New York State. It is known for its status as a center for finance and culture and for its status as the largest gateway for immigration to the United States. New York City attracts considerably more foreign visitors than any other US city. Both the state and city were named for the 17th century Duke of York, future King James II of England.
Washington Heights is a New York City neighborhood in the northern reaches of the borough of Manhattan. It is named for Fort Washington, a fortification constructed at the highest point on Manhattan island by Continental Army troops during the American Revolutionary War, to defend the area from the British forces. Washington Heights is bordered by Harlem to the south, along 155th street, Inwood to the north along Dyckman Street, the Hudson River to the west and Harlem River to the east.
U.S. Route 9 (US 9) is a north–south United States highway in the states of Delaware, New Jersey, and New York in the United States. It is one of only two U.S. Highways with a ferry connection (the Cape May – Lewes Ferry, between Lewes, Delaware, and Cape May, New Jersey); the other being US 10. US 9 is signed east–west in Delaware and north–south on the rest of its route. The southern terminus of the route is in Laurel, Delaware at an intersection with U.S. Route 13, while the highway's northern terminus is at a junction with Interstate 87 in Champlain, NY, where the roadway continues north as the unsigned NY 971B, which ends in a cul-de-sac just short of the Canadian border.
New York City is home to over 2,000 bridges and tunnels. Several agencies manage this network of crossings, including the New York City Department of Transportation, Metropolitan Transportation Authority, Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, New York State Department of Transportation and Amtrak.
Nearly all of the city's major bridges, and several of its tunnels, have broken or set records. The Holland Tunnel was the world's first vehicular tunnel when it opened in 1927. The Brooklyn Bridge, Williamsburg Bridge, George Washington Bridge, and Verrazano-Narrows Bridge were the world's longest suspension bridges when opened in 1883, 1903, 1931, and 1964 respectively.
Interstate 95 (I-95) is the main highway on the East Coast of the United States, running parallel to the Atlantic Ocean seaboard serving areas between Florida and New England inclusive. In general, I-95 serves major cities such as New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore and Washington D.C. in the north and beach areas like the Outer Banks and Miami Beach in the south. The route notably bypasses the major cities of Boston, Raleigh, Norfolk-Virginia Beach, and Charleston which require connections through other Interstate highways.
225 Park Avenue South
The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ) is a joint venture between the States of New York and New Jersey and authorized by the US Congress, established in 1921 (as the Port of New York Authority) through an interstate compact, that oversees much of the regional transportation infrastructure, including bridges, tunnels, airports, and seaports, within the Port of New York and New Jersey. This 1,500 square mile (3,900 km²) district is the region generally within 25 miles (40 km) of the Statue of Liberty in New York Harbor. The Port Authority is headquartered at 225 Park Avenue South in Manhattan.
The Columbia River Bridge at Wenatchee, Washington, also known as the Old Wenatchee Bridge, was built by the Washington Bridge Company in 1908, primarily as a means to carry irrigation water pipelines across the Columbia River. It was the first road bridge over the Columbia south of Canada. The bridge is a pin-connected cantilever truss, 1,600 feet (490 m) long, with one 200-foot (61 m) Pratt truss between two 160-foot (49 m) cantilever arms, with 240-foot (73 m) side arms and a 60 feet (18 m) girder span. The bridge was purchased by the Washington highway department for $182,000 for highway use. As originally built, the bridge carried a 20.5-foot (6.2 m) wide timber roadway, with additional ability to carry a street railway. However, the east approach to the bridge was built at a 6% grade, limiting its potential.
The bridge was replaced in 1950 by the Senator George Sellar Bridge. The next year the Wenatchee Reclamation District bought the bridge for $1.00, moving the pipes from outside the truss to within. The bridge was opened to foot traffic. In 2007 concerns were raised about the bridge's ability to sustain foot traffic. Repairs were made in 2010. The bridge was placed on the National Register of Historic Places on July 16, 1982.
David Bernard Steinman (June 11, 1886 – August 21, 1960) was an American structural engineer. He was the designer of the Mackinac Bridge and many other notable bridges, and a published author. He grew up in New York City's lower Manhattan, and lived with the ambition of making his mark on the Brooklyn Bridge that he lived under. In 1906 he earned a bachelor's degree from City College and in 1909, a Master of Arts from Columbia University and a Doctorate in 1911. He was awarded the Franklin Institute's Louis E. Levy Medal in 1957.
David Steinman built bridges in the United States, Thailand, England, Portugal, Italy, Brazil, Haiti, Puerto Rico, Canada, Korea, Iraq and Pakistan . He had a literary bent, and was a published author with several books, articles in advancement of his craft, and even had children's books and poetry to his credit.