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An electronic cigarette (or e-cigarette), electronic vaping device, personal vaporizer (PV), or electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDS) is a battery-powered device which simulates tobacco smoking. It generally uses a heating element that vaporizes a liquid solution. Some solutions contain a mixture of nicotine and flavourings, while others release a flavoured vapor without nicotine. Many are designed to simulate smoking implements, such as cigarettes or cigars, in their use and/or appearance, while others are considerably different in appearance.
The benefits and risks of electronic cigarette use are uncertain. They may carry a risk of developing nicotine addiction, and their regulation is the subject of ongoing debate.
Health Medical Pharma
Nicotine poisoning describes the symptoms of the toxic effects of consuming nicotine, which can potentially be deadly. Historically, most cases of nicotine poisoning have been the result of use of nicotine as an insecticide. More recent cases of poisoning typically appear to be in the form of Green Tobacco Sickness or due to accidental ingestion of tobacco or tobacco products or ingestion of nicotine containing plants.
The probable lethal dose of nicotine has been reported as between 40 and 60 milligrams (the total amount in about 2 cigarettes if all of the nicotine was absorbed) in adults and about 1 mg/kg in children (less than 1 cigarette) . Children may become ill following ingestion of one cigarette, ingestion of more than this may cause a child to become severely ill. In some cases children have become poisoned by topical medicinal creams which contain nicotine.
Science of drugs including their origin, composition, pharmacokinetics,
pharmacodynamics, therapeutic use, and toxicology.
Pharmacology (from Greek φάρμακον, pharmakon, "poison" in classic Greek; "drug" in modern Greek; and -λογία, -logia "study of", "knowledge of") is the branch of medicine and biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (within the body) molecule which exerts a biochemical and/or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism. More specifically, it is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function. If substances have medicinal properties, they are considered pharmaceuticals.