Rugby union match officials are responsible for enforcing the rugby union laws of the game during a match and imposing sanctions on individuals who do not follow the rules. "Every match is under the control of match officials who consist of the referee and two touch judges or assistant referees." Further officials can be authorised depending on the level and form of the game.
When the game of rugby union was developed at Rugby school, there were no official rugby referees. It was not until many years later when the game begun to spread internationally that an official was included.
English football referees officiate matches in English football. The referees officiate matches that range from local football to Premier League matches. There are currently eleven different levels of referees that correspond to the ability, age and activity of the official. For a referee to move from one level to the next, both theoretical and physical assessments are taken.
The Laws of the Game are the codified rules that help define association football. These rules were first played by members of the Cambridge University Football Club on Parker's Piece, Cambridge in 1848, and adopted by the Football Association in October, 26, 1863. "They embrace the true principles of the game, with the greatest simplicity" (E. C. Morley, F.A. Hon. Sec. 1863) These laws are written and maintained by the International Football Association Board and published by the sport's governing body FIFA. The laws mention the number of players a team should have, the game length, the size of the field and ball, the type and nature of fouls that referees may penalize, the frequently misinterpreted offside law, and many other laws that define the sport.
The current Laws of the Game (LotG) consist of seventeen individual laws, each law containing several rules and directions:
In association football, an assistant referee is one of several officials who assist the referee in controlling a match. Two officials, traditionally known as linesmen (or lineswomen if they are female), stand on the touchlines, while a fourth official assists administrative or other match related tasks as directed by the referee.
All decisions by the assistant referee/linesman are only advisory to the referee; assistants do not actually make binding decisions. During the game one assistant referee oversees one touch-line and one end of the field utilising the diagonal system of control. The more senior of the two assistants will normally occupy the side of the field containing the technical areas, to help oversee substitutions. An assistant referee indicates matters to the referee usually initially by raising his flag, but nowadays also by wireless communication devices, which can include "buzzer flags" and in the most senior games, additionally a microphone and headset link, which the referee may then act upon.
In journalism, a human interest story is a feature story that discusses a person or people in an emotional way. It presents people and their problems, concerns, or achievements in a way that brings about interest, sympathy or motivation in the reader or viewer.
Human interest stories may be "the story behind the story" about an event, organization, or otherwise faceless historical happening, such as about the life of an individual soldier during wartime, an interview with a survivor of a natural disaster, a random act of kindness or profile of someone known for a career achievement.