The United Mexican States (Spanish: Estados Unidos Mexicanos (help·info)), commonly known as Mexico (pronounced /ˈmɛksɨkoʊ/; Spanish: México, IPA: [ˈmexiko] ( listen)), is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of Mexico. Covering almost two million square kilometres (over 760,000 sq mi), Mexico is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the thirteenth largest independent nation in the world. With an estimated population of over 112 million, it is the eleventh most populous country and the most populous Spanish-speaking country. Mexico is a federation comprising thirty-one states and a Federal District, the capital city. In Pre-Columbian Mesoamerica many cultures matured into advanced civilizations such as the Olmec, the Toltec, the Teotihuacan, the Zapotec, the Maya and the Aztec before the first contact with Europeans. In 1521, Spain conquered and colonized the territory from its base in México-Tenochtitlan, which was administered as the Viceroyalty of New Spain.
The peso (sign: $; code: MXN) is the currency of Mexico. Modern peso and dollar currencies have a common origin in the 15th–19th century Spanish dollar, most continuing to use its sign, "$". The Mexican peso is the 12th most traded currency in the world, the third most traded in the Americas, and by far the most traded currency in Latin America. The current ISO 4217 code for the peso is MXN; prior to the 1993 revaluation (see below), the code MXP was used. The peso is subdivided into 100 centavos, represented by "¢". The name was originally used in reference to pesos oro (gold weights) or pesos plata (silver weights). The literal English translation of the Spanish word peso is weight. As of December 6, 2011, the peso's exchange rate was 18.08 per Euro and 13.50 per U.S. dollar. The peso was originally the name of the eight-real coins issued in Mexico by Spain. These were the so-called Spanish dollars or pieces of eight in wide circulation in the Americas and Asia from the height of the Spanish Empire until the early 19th century. After Mexico gained its independence in 1821, the new government continued the Spanish monetary system of 16 silver reales = 1 gold escudo, with the peso
The peso (Filipino: piso) (sign: ₱; code: PHP) is the currency of the Philippines. It is subdivided into 100 centavos (Filipino: sentimo, Visayan: sentabo). Before 1967, the language used on the banknotes and coins was English and so "peso" was the name used. The language was then changed to Filipino, so that the name of the currency as written on the banknotes and coins is now Piso. The peso is usually denoted by the symbol "₱". This symbol was added to the Unicode standard in version 3.2 and is assigned U+20B1 (₱). The symbol can be accessed through some word processors by typing in "20b1" and then pressing the Alt and X buttons simultaneously. Other ways of writing the Philippine Peso sign are "PHP", "PhP", "P", or "P" (strike-through or double-strike-through uppercase P), which is still the most common method, however font support for the Unicode Peso sign has been around for sometime. The coins and banknotes are made at the Security Plant Complex of the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas. Trade among the early Filipinos and with traders from the neighboring islands was conducted through barter. The inconvenience of barter later led to the use of some objects as medium of exchange.
The United States of America (also called the United States, the U.S., the USA, America, and the States) is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district. The country is situated mostly in central North America, where its forty-eight contiguous states and Washington, D.C., the capital district, lie between the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, bordered by Canada to the north and Mexico to the south. The state of Alaska is in the northwest of the continent, with Canada to the east and Russia to the west across the Bering Strait. The state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific. The country also possesses several territories in the Pacific and Caribbean. At 3.79 million square miles (9.83 million km) and with over 312 million people, the United States is the third or fourth largest country by total area, and the third largest by both land area and population. It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many countries. The U.S. economy is the world's largest national economy, with an estimated 2011 GDP of $15.1 trillion (22% of nominal global GDP and over 19% of global GDP
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$), also referred to as the American dollar, is the official currency of the United States of America. It is divided into 100 smaller units called cents or pennies. The U.S. dollar is the currency most used in international transactions and is one of the world's reserve currencies. Several countries use it as their official currency and in many others it is the de facto currency,. It is also used as the sole currency in some British Overseas Territories (British Virgin Islands and Turks and Caicos). The Constitution of the United States of America provides that the United States Congress shall have the power "To coin Money". Laws implementing this power are currently codified in Section 5112 of Title 31 of the United States Code. Section 5112 prescribes the forms in which the United States dollars shall be issued. Those coins are both designated in Section 5112 as "legal tender" in payment of debts. The Sacagawea dollar is one example of the copper alloy dollar. The pure silver dollar is known as the American Silver Eagle. Section 5112 also provides for the minting and issuance of other coins, which have values