Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms. Study of structure includes using spectroscopy and other physical and chemical methods to determine the chemical composition and constitution of organic compounds and materials. Study of properties includes both physical properties and chemical properties, and uses similar methods as well as methods to evaluate chemical reactivity, with the aim to understand the behavior of the organic matter in its pure form (when possible), but also in solutions, mixtures, and fabricated forms. The study of organic reactions includes both their preparation—by synthesis or by other means—as well as their subsequent reactivities, both in the laboratory and via theoretical (in silico) study.
The range of chemicals studied in organic chemistry include hydrocarbons, compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen, as well as compositions based on carbon but containing other elements. Organic chemistry overlaps with many areas including medicinal chemistry, biochemistry, organometallic chemistry, and polymer chemistry, as well as many aspects of materials science.
Drug subcultures are examples of countercultures that are primarily defined by recreational drug use.
Drug subcultures are groups of people united by a common understanding of the meaning and value (good or otherwise) of the incorporation into one's life of the drug in question. Such unity can take many forms, from friends who take the drug together, possibly obeying certain rules of etiquette, groups banding together to help each other obtain drugs and avoid arrest to full-scale political movements for the reform of drug laws. The sum of these parts can be considered an individual drug's "culture".
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder management are the treatment options available to people with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
There are several effective and evidence-based options to treat people with ADHD. Multimodal treatment, that is, combined pharmacological and behavioral treatment, is the most effective ADHD management strategy, followed by medication alone, and then behavioral treatment. However, these results have been questioned because the study from the multimodal treatment group phased out the behavioral procedure 3 months prior to the last evaluation point but continued the medication group. Indeed, after 14 months the medication group lost its advantage to the long discontinued behavior modification group. By year eight socioeconomic status and family structure were the only predictive variables for ADHD treatment A separate study highlighted the influence that nonclinical factors such as family size may have in mediating the use of pharmacologic therapies for children with ADHD.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) controversies include concerns about its existence as a disease, its causes, the methods by which ADHD is diagnosed and treated including the use of stimulant medications in children, alleged hegemonic practices of the American Psychiatric Association and negative stereotypes of children diagnosed with ADHD. These controversies have surrounded the subject since at least the 1970s.:p.23
The best course of ADHD management is major topic of debate. Stimulants are the most commonly prescribed medication for ADHD, and, according to the National Institute of Mental Health, "under medical supervision, stimulant medications are considered safe". Safety concerns exist with concerns regarding the higher rates of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder as well as increased severity of these disorders in individuals with a history of stimulant use for ADHD in childhood. The use of stimulant medications for the treatment of ADHD has generated controversy because of undesirable side effects, uncertain long term effects, and social and ethical issues regarding their use and dispensation. Children comprise the majority of ADHD diagnoses, but because they are unable to give informed consent due to their age, treatment decisions are ultimately determined by their legal guardians on their behalf. Ethical and legal issues also arise from the promotion of stimulants to treat ADHD by groups and individuals who receive money from pharmaceutical companies.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, similar to hyperkinetic disorder in the ICD-10) is a psychiatric disorder of the neurodevelopmental type in which there are significant problems of attention and/or hyperactivity and acting impulsively that are not appropriate for a person's age. These symptoms must begin by age six to twelve and be present for more than six months for a diagnosis to be made. In school-aged individuals the lack of focus may result in poor school performance.
Despite being the most commonly studied and diagnosed psychiatric disorder in children and adolescents, the cause in the majority of cases is unknown. It affects about 6 to 7 percent of children when diagnosed via the DSM-IV criteria and 1 to 2 percent when diagnosed via the ICD-10 criteria. Rates are similar between countries and depend mostly on how it is diagnosed. ADHD is approximately three times more frequent in boys than in girls. About 30 to 50 percent of people diagnosed in childhood continue to have symptoms into adulthood and between 2 and 5 percent of adults have the condition. The condition can be difficult to tell apart from other disorders as well as that of high normal activity.
In journalism, a human interest story is a feature story that discusses a person or people in an emotional way. It presents people and their problems, concerns, or achievements in a way that brings about interest, sympathy or motivation in the reader or viewer.
Human interest stories may be "the story behind the story" about an event, organization, or otherwise faceless historical happening, such as about the life of an individual soldier during wartime, an interview with a survivor of a natural disaster, a random act of kindness or profile of someone known for a career achievement.